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Ibadat Khana

Ibadat Khana

The House of Worship or the Ibadat Khana was established by Mughal Emperor Akbar (1542-1605 CE) for conducting religious debates and discussions among theologians and professors of different religions. Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, famously known as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor (r. 1556-1605 CE), who extended the empire to encompass large areas of the Indian subcontinent. Contemporary chroniclers indicate that after his decisive victories and military expansion, the emperor increasingly indulged in intellectual pursuits and came in contact with ascetics and disciples of Sufi saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti.

Construction

Akbar seemed to have been inspired by the ruler of Bengal, Sultan Kirani, who would spend nights with 150 holy men listening to their commentaries. He also expected to receive Mirza Suleiman of Badakshan, a Sufi with a strong taste for theological discussions. Hence, he resolved to construct a debating hall that could accommodate a large number of Muslim theologians. The construction of the Ibadat Khana started in the early 1575 CE at Fatehpur Sikri (City of Victory), the then capital of the Mughal Empire. The building complex was completed in 1576 CE and the discussions were held every Thursday evening which sometimes continued through the night. Abu'l Fazl, the official Mughal chronicler writes:

A general proclamation was issued that on that night of illumination, all orders and sects of mankind-those who searched after spiritual and physical truth, and those of the common public who sought for an awakening, and the inquiries of every sect-should assemble in the precincts of the holy edifice, and bring forward their spiritual experiences, and their degrees of knowledge of the truth in various and contradictory forms in the bridal chamber of manifestation.

(Abu'l Fazl, 158.)

The discussions were discontinued within a year, however, they were resumed in 1578 CE. It is believed that from this time, theologians and intellectuals belonging to various religions and sects such as Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, and atheists were invited for the discussions at Ibadat-Khana. These discussions led the emperor to believe that there is no absolute truth and culminated in the creation of his new faith Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Religion).

Organization of the Ibadat Khana

The themes of discussions ranged from the nature of God in Catholicism & Islam, vegetarianism in Buddhism & Jainism, ancient philosophies of Hinduism to fire-worship in Zoroastrianism.

A general idea of the structure can be constructed based on the references in Muntakhabut Tawarikh (contemporary chronicle written by Badaoni). In the center of the hall was an octagonal platform, which was the emperor's seat. The four ministers Abdur Rahim, Birbal, Faizi, and Abu'l Fazl, each had their station on different corners. The architectural plan of the Ibadat Khana has not been described in detail by any contemporary chronicler but Nizamuddin Ahmad states that it had four wings and the initial participation in the discussions was restricted to a small group of invitees. To resolve the growing disputes over seating and precedence, the emperor assigned the seats himself: on the eastern side were the amirs (high ranking nobles), Sayyids (descendants of Prophet Muhammad) occupied the western wing; ulama (doctors learned in religious law) were in the south, and Shaikhs (men of Muslim ascetic order) were in the north.

Nature of Discussions & Their Impact

Akbar was exposed to Greek philosophy by Shaikh Mubarak and his sons, Abu'l Fazl and Faizi in the early 1570s CE and was deeply influenced by Sufism (the mystical and ascetic form of Islam). It was in consequence of Akbar's growing interest in philosophy, and his inquisitiveness about religion, that the process of re-examining the aspects of Islamic theology and jurisprudence started in the Ibadat Khana. It began as a Sunni (major branch of Islam) assembly, which later became a pan-Muslim assembly and was then opened to other religions. The themes of discussions in the Ibadat Khana ranged from the nature of God in Catholicism and Islam, vegetarianism, or treatment of animals in Buddhism and Jainism, monogamy, and ancient philosophies of Hinduism to fire-worship in Zoroastrianism.

In 1579 CE, the emperor invited the first Jesuit mission to the Mughal court. The leader of the mission was an Italian, Father Rudolf Aquaviva, son of the Duke of Atri and nephew of the Society's fifth Father General. He had two companions, Father Antonio de Monserrate, a Catalan who chronicled the activities of the mission in the Mughal court, and lastly, Francisco Henriques, a Persian convert from Ormuz, in the capacity of an interpreter. The Jesuits presented the emperor with the Polyglot Bible, commissioned by Philip II of Spain. Akbar thereafter commissioned the court artists to produce the portraits of Jesus and Mary and allowed the missionaries to preach and convert in the city. The emperor spent the night discussing the Christian faith and donned Portuguese clothes and hats as a symbol of his interest in incorporating the priests into his court. The emperor's inclination towards the priests and the religious-political nature of their work attracted the critique of the chronicler Badauni and other conservative clergies of the Mughal court. Describing the impact of the presence of Jesuit priests at the court, Badaoni writes:

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Learned monks also from Europe, who are called Padre, and have an infallible head, called Papa, who is able to change religious ordinances as he may deem advisable for the moment, and to whose authority kings must submit, brought the Gospel, and advanced proofs for the Trinity. His majesty firmly believed in the truth of the Christian religion, and wishing to spread the doctrines of Jesus, ordered Prince Murad to take a few lessons in Christianity under good auspices, and charged Abu'l Fazl to translate the Gospel. (Badaoni, 267)

Akbar had a keen interest in Zoroastrianism, the religion of the Parsees as well. His family's connections to Persia and his preference for Iranian rather than Mogul (Uzbeg and Chagatai) officers may have been the factors for his interest in the religious philosophy of Iran. In the latter part of 1578 CE, he invited Dastur Meherji Rana, the religious head of the Zoroastrians from Nausari, Gujarat. The Dastur taught Akbar about the rituals, ceremonies, and practices of the Parsees. Under the Parsee rules, a sacred fire was started in the palace which was not supposed to be extinguished. The Zoroastrian influence on the emperor can be seen in the practices of sun worship and fire worship. He further adopted Persian names for the calendar days and months and celebrated Persian festivals. Moreover, he gave a public appearance donning Hindu sectarian mark on the forehead.

In 1582 CE, the emperor invited Hirvijaya Suri, a Jain philosopher. He persuaded the emperor to prohibit the killing of animals on certain days. Influenced by the principles of Jainism, Akbar decreed to stop the slaughter of animals in certain periods and was personally inclined towards vegetarianism. The Suri was granted the title of 'world teacher' or 'Jagad guru'.

Some historians argue the above-mentioned measures undertaken by the emperor, including the abolition of jizya (tax on non-Muslims), could have been introduced to gain legitimacy amongst the non-Muslim subjects. Moreover, the discussions brought much discredit to the Muslim orthodoxy in the Mughal court.

Result of the Discussions

The discussions in the Ibadat Khana convinced Akbar that all religions had elements of truth, & they all led to the same Supreme Reality.

The discussions in the Ibadat Khana convinced Akbar that all religions had elements of truth, and they all led to the same Supreme Reality. This was an important phase in the development of his religious policies, which culminated in the development of the concept of sulh-i-kul (universal peace). Some historians also argue that Akbar used the debates in the Ibadat Khana to expose the bigotry and narrowness of the Muslim theologians at his court. This gave him the legitimacy to transgress the confines of orthodox Islam in his court. In a decree issued in 1579 CE, he declared himself the Imam-i Adil (the just ruler), hence transferring the ecclesiastical authority from the hands of the ulama to himself. He was thereafter proclaimed as the supreme arbiter and the highest legal authority in the empire. However, according to Badauni, he never renounced Islam. By 1582 CE, the Ibadat Khana discussions seemed to have been discontinued.

Location

Various scholars at different points in time have identified seven to eight buildings as the Ibadat Khana. One of the buildings that have been identified is a square structure with the lotus pillar popularly known as the diwan-i-khas. The most prominent of these excavations conducted under the directorship of Professor R. C. Gaur brought to light the platforms, rooms, and walls, which resonate similarities with a structure depicted in a Mughal miniature painting of Ibadat Khana, now kept in the Chester Beatty Library. The miniature depicts Emperor Akbar seated on an elevated platform, holding a religious assembly with several scholars. Two Jesuit priests dressed in black robes identified as Rodolfo Acquaviva and Francisco Henriques can be seen participating in the religious assembly. Historian Rezavi's recent findings suggest that the structure called Daftarkhana may be identified as Ibadat Khana based on its proximity to Khwabgah (Akbar's residence), evidence from previously conducted excavations and references from contemporary historians. However, the exact location of Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri is still contentious and debatable.


Fatehpur Sikri: Symphony in Red

For just 15 years, Fatehpur Sikri was the capital of Emperor Akbar (r. 1556 – 1605), one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Empire. A beloved city of the Emperor, it was here that a Sufi saint told the king that his wish for a son and heir would be granted. When his prayers were answered, Akbar built a magnificent city in red sandstone on the ridge where the saint lived, fortified it with strong walls, and shifted his capital here from Agra, 36 km away.

Four centuries on, Fatehpur Sikri still exudes elegance and grandeur and is one of the most-visited sites in India today. Part of the Golden Triangle of Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur, it receives lakhs of tourists every year, who come to marvel at its exquisite Mughal architecture. Built-in 1571 and serving as Akbar’s capital till 1586, it was completely abandoned by 1610 but the historic township stands still in time, as a fine example of medieval town planning.

The history of the Fatehpur Sikri region is quite ancient. Historian Syed Ali Nadeem Rezavi, in his paper Sikri Before Akbar, writes of remains from the post-Mauryan Sunga dynasty (c 185 – 75 BCE) found here. He also believes that the town got its name ‘Sikri’ from the Sikarwar Rajputs, who ruled the region before the advent of the Delhi Sultanate in the 10th century.

The place came to Mughal attention in 1527 CE, when the famous Battle of Khanwa (between the army of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, and that of Rana Sanga of Mewar) was fought just a few miles from Sikri village. At the time, Babur was residing at Badalgarh Fort, the site on which the Agra Fort was later built, and to commemorate his victory, he is said to have renamed the place ‘Shukri’ or ‘thanks’ and built a garden there.

After his death in 1530, Babur was succeeded by his son Humayun, who ruled from Delhi. During this time, Sheikh Salim Chishti, a Sufi saint of the Chishitya Sufi order, moved to Sikri and began living on the hilltop. We do know that he was a Sufi saint of some political importance as there are references to Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri’s sons, Islam Shah and Adil Shah, visiting him here.

In 1568, Humayun’s son and successor Emperor Akbar besieged and captured the famous fort of Ranthambore from the Hada Rajputs. On the way back to his capital, Agra, he visited Sheikh Salim Chishti and prayed for a son. The saint blessed the Emperor, and the following year, a son was born to him. Not only did Akbar name his son ‘Salim’ (later Emperor Jahangir) after the saint, he even nicknamed him ‘Shekhu Baba’ after Sheikh Salim.

It was in 1571 that Akbar decided to establish a new city on top of the ridge, surrounded by 11 km of fortifications. He shifted his capital from Agra to Fatehpur Sikri, which became the new Mughal capital. It was from here, in 1572 that Akbar marched on his Gujarat campaign and returned victorious. To commemorate his victory, he renamed the place ‘Fatehpur’ or ‘City of Victory’. Over time, a number of splendid buildings such as courts, palaces, mosques and other structures were constructed here.

Emperor Akbar’s biographer Abul Fazl in the Akbarnama writes:

“Inasmuch as his exalted sons [Salim and Murad] had been born at Sikri, and the God-knowing spirit of Shaikh Salim had taken possession thereof, his holy heart desired to give outward splendour to this spot which possessed spiritual grandeur. Now that his standards had arrived at this place, his former design was pressed forward, and an order was issued that the superintendents of affairs should erect lofty buildings for the special use of the Shehenshah.’

The grandeur of Fatehpur Sikri can be gauged from the accounts of the English merchant, Ralph Fitch, who visited this grand city in 1585. Fitch writes:

Agra and Fatehpore Sikri are two very great cities, either of them much greater than London, and very populous. Between Agra and Fatehpore are 12 miles (kos) and all the way is a market of victuals and other things, as full as though a man were still in a town, and so many people as if a man were in a market.”

It was at Fatehpur Sikri that European influence began to be felt at the Mughal court. The earliest arrivals were Portuguese missionaries from Goa. A Jesuit mission composed of Eodolfi Aquaviva, Antonio Monserrat and Francis Henriquez, a Persian convert, arrived at Fatehpur Sikri in February 1580. They were received in the palace, where they built a small chapel, and were given full liberty to preach and convert. They also opened a hospital here, the first European-style hospital in North India. Emperor Akbar also tried to establish ‘Din-i-Illahi’, a syncretic religion, intending to merge some of the elements of the religions in his empire. He also established an ‘Ibadat Khana’ or ‘House of Worship’ for this new religion.

In 1586, Akbar set out for his campaigns in the Punjab and Kabul. For several years, he remained in Punjab, using Lahore as his headquarters till his return in 1598. When he returned, he took up residence at the Agra Fort, not at Fatehpur Sikri, which appears to have been completely abandoned by 1610 CE, apparently due to inadequate water supply.

Akbar’s son and successor Emperor Jahangir stayed at Fatehpur Sikri for three months in 1619, when the bubonic plague swept Agra. The buildings continued to deteriorate till the advent of the British East India Company here in 1803. In 1815, the then British Governor-General Francis Rawdon Hastings ordered the repair of the monuments at Fatehpur Sikri. They are now under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India.

Fatehpur Sikri is built in a style of architecture that blends Hindu and Islamic elements and is heavily ornamented. Here’s a tour of the iconic monuments at this UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Buland Darwaza

Buland Darwaza is one of the world’s tallest gateways. Standing tall at 52 meters, it is about the same height as a modern 15-storey building. It is constructed from red sandstone and white and black marble. On the façade are calligraphic inscriptions from the Quran in Naksh script. To the right of the central archway is an inscription by Akbar, dated 1601 CE, commemorating his victory over Khandesh in Central India.

The Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chishti

The tomb of Sheikh Salim Chishti was built between 1580 and 1581, during Akbar’s reign. It stands where the Sufi saint’s meditation chamber used to be. The structure has been built with black and yellow marble. Chhaparkhat surrounds a marble cenotaph, which is largely covered by a green-colored fabric. The door of the central chamber contains inscriptions from the Quran. Citizens come here to pray for blessings in order to get their wishes fulfilled.

Jama Masjid
Completed in 1571, the Jama Masjid is one of India’s largest mosques. It can be entered from Buland Darwaza. The mosque has a wide courtyard, where around 25,000 people can congregate and worship.

Ibadat Khana

In 1575, Akbar established the Ibadat Khana or the ‘House of Worship’ for philosophical discussion among different religions. It is here that he tried to establish a new religion called ‘Din-i-Illahi’, combining different beliefs.

Panch Mahal

Panch Mahal or the ‘Five Storied Palace’ is one of the most important buildings in Fatehpur Sikri. It was used as a summer residence during the hot summer months. Consisting of four stories of decreasing size, it is open on all sides, where khus curtains hang.

Pachisi Court

The pool in front of Panch Mahal is called the Anoop Talab. It was a setting for musical concerts and other entertainment. Next to it is a ‘Pachisi Court’, an ancient Indian board game similar to Ludo, where Emperor Akbar would play the game, with his servants acting as board pieces.

Birbal’s Palace

The so-called Birbal’s Palace stands in the middle of the Shahi Zanana Mahal and was the residence of Akbar’s queens. Over time, it became associated with the story of Raja Birbal, Emperor Akbar’s favourite minister, but there is no truth to this.

Jodha Bai Palace

Jodha Bai Palace was also known as Raniwas and Zenani Dyodhi. The palace is huge and double-storeyed. The Hindu motifs used here indicate that the palace was designed for a Hindu lady. Although it was called ‘Jodha Bai’s Palace’, Akbar had no queen by that name. Several motifs like swans, elephants, parrots etc are visible in the interiors. The palace contains a set of rooms that served as a temple.

Diwan-i-Aam & Diwan-i-Khas

The two halls in the complex are the Diwan-i-Aam, and Diwan-i-Khas. While the former was used to address the local population, to hear their grievances and pronounce judgements, the latter was where the Emperor met with royal officials, courtiers and guests. Next to the Diwan-i-Khas is the Khwabgah or the bedroom of Emperor Akbar.

Fatehpur Sikri may have been abandoned a long time ago but visit at sunset for a glimpse of its glory days. At sundown, the sandstone turns a fiery red, and the beautifully sculpted palaces, courtyards and ponds resonate to stories of yesteryear. According to some estimates, Akbar’s ‘City of Victory’ generates more revenue from tourists than Delhi’s Red Fort!


History

In ancient times it was known as Sikri village and was celebrated as the abode of Sheikh Salim Chishti, a Muhammadan Pir, or saint. It was captured by Emperor Akbar who named it Fatehpur Sikri which became the capital of the Mughal Empire. After conquering Chittor and Ranthambore, Akbar decided to shift his capital to a new place 37 km away, to honor the Sufi saint Salim Chishti. He planned to build a new city. It took a total of 15 years to plan and Akbar built a royal palace, harem, court, mosque, personal palace, and many buildings, he named the new city Fatehabad.

Fateh is an Arabic word meaning “to conquer” and later that city was named Fatehpur Sikri. A beautiful example of the Mughal art of India is Fatehpur Sikri. It is at Fatehpur Sikri that the legends of Akbar and his famed courtiers, the nine jewels or Navaratnas, were born.

According to ancient historians, Akbar was very interested in making Fatehpur Sikri and he has also decorated many places in the city with his favorite artifacts. Many of the buildings in Fatehpur Sikri were constructed with locally quarried red sandstone stones, known as ‘Sikri sandstone‘. He has included all the artworks and cultures of Arabian, Persian and Asian art in his palace. All the monuments of Fatehpur Sikri reflect the greatness and power of Emperor Akbar, such beautiful art is rarely seen anywhere else. All the pavilions of the imperial palace are geometrically arranged and the design was adopted from Arabian architecture.

This royal complex was abandoned in 1585, which is said to have been abandoned soon after its completion due to the growing north-south part of the Rajputs and due to differences. The failure of the water supply is believed to be the main reason for Akbar leaving the city. For this reason, Akbar’s capital was later shifted to Lahore.

In 1598, Akbar returned to Agra and started focusing on Deccan. Before 1601, he had never returned to that city again. It was later acquired by the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah (1719-1748) and his ally Saeed Hussain Ali Khan Barha but was assassinated in 1720. It was acquired by the Marathas after the Mughals moved to Delhi, and was later captured by the British Army, the British Army used to use the Mahlo as its headquarters. Later it was repaired by Lord Curzon.

People used to use the royal palace and the areas around the palace. But still, looking at the security, three walls of five miles long were built on the three sides of the palace. Near the palace, there used to be a Naubat food market and there was also a ‘drum house’ at the entrance of Agra road. The present city occupies the southern part of the complex, from 1865 to 1904 there was also a municipality and later the city was confined to a border area and in 1901 there was a population of about 7147.

For a long time, it was known only for the Rajagiri of Akbar and the stone sculptures made by him but the city was also known for ‘hair cloth’ and ‘silk cutting’. Even today Sikri village is located near Fatehpur.


Early life and education Edit

KK Muhammed was born in Calicut, Kerala in a middle-class family to Beeran Kutty Haji and Mariyam. Muhammed is second amongst five siblings. After completing his schooling from Government Higher secondary School, Koduvally, he obtained his master's degree in history (1973–75) from Aligarh Muslim University and his postgraduate diploma in archaeology (1976–77) from the School of Archaeology, Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, India.

Career Edit

Muhammed served as technical assistant and then as assistant archaeologist in the Department of History at Aligarh Muslim University, before being selected as deputy superintendent archaeologist for the Archaeological Survey of India.

Muhammed was initially posted at Madras in 1988 and then at Goa in 1991. He was promoted to superintendent archaeologist in 1997 and subsequently served in many states in India, including Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. During this period, he also served as a tour guide to for prominent foreign guests such as Barack Obama and Pervez Musharraf. [2] In 2012, Muhammed was made regional director (North) of the Archaeological Survey of India, and he retired in the same year.

Ibadat Khana Edit

Ibadat Khana was a complex established by Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1575 for hosting religious debates and discussions among theologians and professors of different religions. [3] [4] [5] It was also the structure where Akbar first proclaimed the formation of the composite religion known as Din-e Ilahi. [ citation needed ] [6]

In the 80s, Muhammed, was a member of a team from the Archaeological Survey of India and Aligarh Muslim University visiting Fatehpur Sikri. With the help of a painting from Akbarnama, he convinced the others to excavate the mound, and they found more proof, including paintings of Christian missionaries from Spain and Italy (Fathers Monserrate and Rudolf Acquaviva). [4]

For centuries, the location of the complex had been controversial among archaeologists and historians, although it is generally accepted to be the place Muhammad discovered. [4]

Excavations of the Ram Mandir Edit

KK Muhammed was a part of the 1976 excavation of the Babri Masjid, led by B. B. Lal. He stated in a rediff interview that they had found remains of a temple on the western side of the mosque. This temple was built between 10th and 11th century during the Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty. [7] However, his findings were suppressed by historian Irfan Habib, who he says were very powerful and influential towards the Indian Council of Historical Research and many leading newspapers. [8] [9] [10]

Muhammed also said they found 12 pillars in the excavations which were constructed with Hindu symbolism, including Ashtamangala signs. [11] They had also found terracotta figurines of humans and animals, which Muhammad uses to hypothesize that a temple existed before the mosque. [10] [8]

Dantewada temples Edit

KK Muhammed restored the Barsoor and Samlur Temples in Dantewada District near Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh. This area is known to be the seat of Naxal activities in the region. In 2003, KK Muhammed was able to convince Naxal activists and with their co-operation, conserved the Temples to its present-day state. [12] [13]

Bateshwar Complex restoration Edit

Bateshwar, Morena, a complex of 200 ancient Shiva & Vishnu temples situated 40 km away from Gwalior. These temples were built between 9th and 11th century during the Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, 200 years before Khajuraho. The area was under the control of Nirbhay Singh Gujjar and Gadariya Dacoits. KK Muhammed was successful in convincing the dacoits to let him do the restoration. He was able to restore 60 temples during his tenure. After the dacoits were eliminated by the police, the area has been under encroachment from illegal mining, as the tremors from the usage of explosives can damage the structure. [14] [15] [16]

In his autobiography, Muhammed alleged that a powerful mining lobby did not allow temple restoration work to on go and he himself made several attempts to get the mining work stopped. [17]

Facelifting of Delhi's monuments Edit

KK Muhammed was appointed as the Superintending Archaeologist of Delhi Circle, Archaeological Survey of India in 2008. His primary task was to carry out a major facelift and preservation activity at 46 monuments for the Commonwealth Games of 2010. [18] [19]

Other prominent tasks Edit

  • Discovered the first Christian Chapel of North India built by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri.
  • Excavated the Buddhist Stupa of Kesaria built by Emperor Ashoka. [20]
  • Discovered and excavated Buddhist Stupa in Rajgir.
  • Excavated the Buddhist archaeological site in Kolhua, Vaishali.
  • Located and Excavated a number of rock cut caves, Umbrella Stones, Cists and Dolmens in Calicut and Malapuram districts of Kerala.
  • Muhammed conceived and executed the idea of building a Museum that showcases replicas of Indian statues and stone-carved sculptures. The museum, called the Replica Museum, is situated outside the Siri Fort Sports Complex, behind Siri Fort Auditorium in Delhi. [21][22][23]

In 2016, KK Muhammad's Malayalam-language autobiography Njan Enna Bharatiyan ("I am Indian") was released. The book attracted controversy due to his claim that the Marxist historians sided with the extremist Muslim groups and derailed attempts to find an amicable solution to the Ayodhya dispute. According to him, archaeological excavations at Ayodhya clearly indicated the presence of a temple below the mosque, but the leftist historians dismissed these, and even tried to mislead the Allahabad High Court. [24] [25] [9] [26]


Lock

The nursery of Indian secularism*, the House of Worship, or the Ibadat Khana built by Akbar has been finally located in Fatehpur Sikri, without any doubt whatsoever. After 450 years, we know where that place actually stood.

The Ibadat Khana of Akbar has been excavated & found near the palace of Jodha Bai in Fatehpur Sikri. To be precise, it is excavated between palace of Jodha Bai & Jama Masjid in Fatehpur Sikri. Archaeologists have taken help from the description given in contemporary Persian texts of Akbar's era & a contemporary painting drawn 2 years before death of Akbar in 1603 by his painter Nar Singh. That painting was taken to Persia by Nadir Shah in 1739 when he attacked, ransacked and looted Delhi. At present, the painting is in Chester Beaty Library, Dublin, Ireland.

The man behind this discovery is Mr. Karingamannu Kuzhiyil Muhammad, renowned Indian archaeologist, who also served as the Regional Director (North) of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), and is currently serving as Project Archaeological Director in Aga Khan Trust for Culture.

The discovery is also important for the reason that it has unsettled some of the "most big names" among the historians of India. Some of these "topmost historians" who had been teaching otherwise about the location of Ibadat Khana took it "personally" & in no time it turned into an ego issue. For those interested in knowing about these historians, read this link : http://www.dailypioneer.com/nation/former-asi-official-cries-foul-over-akbars-ibadat-khana-facts.html

These excavations and attempts to establish the exact location of Ibadat Khana of Akbar were continuing since 1980s !! But lot of politics and ego battles were fought, before a stamp could be given to this discovery. The ones who did not like this new discovery or the change in the old theory about Ibadat Khana, wrote books, tried to prove Mr. KK Muhammed wrong. But they could not nullify the archaeological evidence backed by contemporary painting and descriptions which were strongly in favor of Mr. Muhammed's stand. Learned people, despite all their scholarship, get blinded by ego, refusing to accept anything new which is found on basis of new evidence, if it goes against their point of view. In his autobiography, published in Malayalam, Mr. KK Muhammed has leveled some huge allegations on these established historians, including their attempts to create hindrance in careers of those young researchers who did not toe to their established version of history. This has to change and hounding of folks who attempt to "deviate from the line", has to stop.

Let us come back. Mughal Emperor Akbar, despite any of few of his shortcomings is remembered as someone who talked of tolerance in times of utter intolerance. For the reasons, now known to all of us & need not be repeated here, we all hold him in great regard. It has been almost 4 years now and all of us know much more about him than we had known before 2013.

We all have heard about Ibadat Khana. Many have visited Fatehpur Sikri also. But none knew where this place was ? It was lost. But now archaeologists have excavated and found it. This video made me little emotional. I can not explain in words what i went through in my mind, when i was watching this. I watched and re watched. I have read the proceedings of the religious debates given in a contemporary Mughal chronicle & seen all those paintings too. But it is an entirely differently feeling when you see that place, where these debates took place in reality, 450 years ago.

The editor has made this video so beautifully. There are animations in this video which show how the real Ibadat Khana looked like. Then, there is side by side comparison of original Ibadat Khana with its Mughal painting in one half of the screen & the archaeological remains in the other half. Such was their hard work and dedication, that they have even excavated the three platforms on which the priests used to sit. 2 platforms were used by the priests and on the top platform Akbar used to sit.

This is the painting, Mr. KK Muhammed made use of. I also posted this in some of my blogs. This shows Christian missionaries interacting with Akbar. Azu'l Fazl and his brother Faizi are sitting near Akbar. The scene is from Ibadat Khana.

I would like to pay tributes to the painter Nar Singh also for creating this painting so finely. When you see the video below, try to compare the detailing of actual Ibadat Khana with this painting. :)

This 10 minutes video is also a tribute to Akbar.

Such was Akbar's ways that Muslims thought he was an apostate from Islam, and for the Hindus he was a Muslim. None can describe these thoughts more beautifully than the following lines of Akbar Allahabadi -

Almost similar argument i also made last year, in my detailed blogs (a 3 part series) on death of Akbar. Here is the link to that IF thread : Rise of Orthodoxy, Jesuit obitua ry, Reaction of People on Akbar's death Part3 .

I found this video appealing to me, as i like doing this kind of comparison, by trying to find similarities between onscreen and real life events. Check out this video. I have said everything from my end. :)


Akbar’s Religious Policy with Special Reference to Sule Kul

Akbar’s religious policy of harmony, reconciliation, and synthesis among all the religions did not develop all of a sudden.

Between 1556 and 1562, Akbar remained a staunch Sunni Muslim. He practiced the tenets of Islam as a devout Muslim—prayed five times a day, kept fast in the holy month of Ramazan and honored the Ulemas of Islam.

He never hesitated to punish the opponents of Islam. However, gradually his views changed after 1562.

image source: islamicvoice.com/islamicvoice/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Jalaluddin-Akbar.jpg

According to Dr. Tara Chand, his religion was the product of the synthetic effect of the Vedanta and Sufism of the age. Akbar was deeply interested in religion and philosophy and listened very carefully not only to the arguments of the Sufi and Shia divines but also the scholars of other religions also.

He watched the good men professing different creeds and ‘Sule Kul’ i.e. reconciliation seemed to him the only solution of developing harmony and friendship among followers of different faiths. In fact some scholars equate ‘Din-i-Ilahi’ with ‘Sule-Kul’.

Akbar’s ‘Sule-Kul’ or his policy of reconciliation and liberalism in religious matters was greatly influenced by his Hindu mother, his guardian and tutor Bairam Khan and Abdul Latif respectively, his contact with philosophers and scholars like Sheikh Mubark and his sons Faizi and Abdul Fazal, his contact with Rajputs, his contact with other religions and his political ambition to expand and strengthen his empire with the cooperation of all religions.

Ibadat Khana (House of Worship):

With the help of Shaikh Mubark and his sons Faizi and Abdul Fazal, Akbar collected a big library of books on history, religion, philosophy and sciences. These were read out and explained to him by Faizi. The result was that Akbar’s views on religion became very liberal and he wanted to go deep in religious matters. For this he thought of providing a meeting ground.

In 1575, Akbar established Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri for the purpose of conducting religious discussions and debates for a better understanding of deep truth in religion. Akbar himself took part in these discussions. In the beginning, Mullahs only participated.

Akbar addressed the following words to those assembled for discussion: “My sole object, O. Mullahs is to ascertain truth, to find out and disclose the principles of genuine religion and to trace it to the divine origin.”

In due course, exponents of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christianity began to be invited. All the scholars were given due respect. However with the passage of time, Akbar found that the debates in the Ibadat Khana were not helpful in leading to better understanding between different religions, rather they created bitterness. Hence in 1582, he discontinued the debates.

Development of Akbar’s religious views and measures taken (in the chronological order):

Akbar stopped the practice of converting the prisoners of war to Islam (1562)

He abolished the pilgrimage tax (1563)

He abolished Jizya — a tax levied on Hindus (1564) He established the Ibadat Khana or House of Worship (1575)

He issued Infallibility Decree (1579)

He founded a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi (1581)

He forbade the killing of animals on certain days (1583)

Infallibility Decree (1579):

Akbar was in favour of weakening the powers of the Ulemas/Mullahs. He wanted to combine in himself both political and spiritual powers. According to the Decree, Akbar became the supreme arbiter in civil and religious affairs. This declaration was signed by leading divines. Akbar himself began to read the Khutba (earlier read by the Imam of the Mosque) from the pulpit of a Fatehpuri Mosque.

After acquainted himself thoroughly with the principles and practises of different religions through listening to the debates and discussions of religious philosophers and scholars and watching their lives, Akbar founded a new religion in 1581 which included the virtues of other religions and he named it Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar tried to emphasise the ‘Sule Kul’ i.e. peace and harmony among religions.

Important principles of Din-i-Ilahi:

Some of the important principles of Din-i-Ilahi were:

2. Akbar is His apostle or representative.

3. Every adherent of this faith should be willing to give away property, life, religion and honour to the emperor.

4. Every member should take an oath of doing good to everybody.

5. No member should have blind faith.

6. The followers of this faith should not approve of child marriage as well as old marriage.

7. All should show respect to all religions.

8. Whenever the followers of this faith meet, one should say: Allah- hu-Akbar (God is great) and in reply the other should say Jalla-Jallah – hu (God is beautiful and merciful).

9. As far as possible, the followers of this religion should not eat meat.

10. The followers should not sleep with minor girls.

11. Every member should arrange a feast at his birth day and give charity.

Membership of the Din-i-Ilahi:

The number of the followers of the Din-i-Ilahi was not large. Probably it was a few thousands only. Among the nobles, only eighteen are said to have accepted this faith. Shaikh Mubark, his two sons Faizi and Abul Fazl and Raja Birbal embraced the new faith. Akbar did not force anyone to accept Din-i-Ilahi. It was sad and unfortunate that the new faith died with Akbar’s death.

Evaluation of Din-i-Ilahi:

Critics of Din-i-Ilahi: Monuments of Akbar’s folly. Budauni regards the founding of Din-i-Ilahi as an un-Islamic act. Dr. Smith writes, “The whole scheme was the outcome of ridiculous vanity, monstrous growth of unrestrained autocracy – a monument of Akbar’s folly, not of his wisdom.” He further calls it “a silly invention”.

Admirers of Din-i-Ilahi:

According to S R. Sharma, Din-i-Ilahi was the crowning expression of Akbar’s nationalism. Dr. Ishwari Prasad regards it very rational containing good points of all religions. Havell thinks that with the new faith Akbar won an imperishable name in Indian history.

Lane-poole has justly observed, “The broad minded sympathy which inspired such a vision of catholicity left a lasting impression upon a land of warring creeds and tribes and for a brief while created a nation where before there had been only factions”.

According to S.M. Zaffar, “The wisdom of Akbar’s assumption of the prophetic role may be called in question but the noble ideal that prompted it deserves high praise and not condemnation. To achieve the aim of unification of India and consolidation of Mughal Empire, it was necessary first to conquer and then to command sincere devotion from all and sundry by granting them the freedom of worship and the liberty of conscience. Therefore, Akbar gave up such a religious code-in essence a political document—as would commend itself to the whole population”.

The Divine Faith had far-reaching consequences. It totally changed the character of Muslim rule in India. Malleson has also felt, “Akbar’s foremost aim was the union of Hindustan under one head which was difficult to achieve had he persecuted all non-Islamic religions. To accomplish such a union it was necessary, first to conquer, Secondly, to respect all consciences, and all methods of worshipping Almighty”.


Policy of Indian Society Religion during Mughal Period

A unique feature of Indian society since ages is the prevalence of multiple religious faiths and rituals and the absence of a single religion dominating the behavioural pattern of the people of India as a whole.

As a result of the multiplicity, we notice the emergence of a composite cultural ethos.

By the time the Mughal power structure emerged in the 16th century, the religious scenario of India was reflected in the religious faiths, beliefs and practices, followed by the Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists and Jains.

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All these religious denominations have been living side by side being mutually influenced in varying degrees by one another. The most accepted principle was ‘God is one’. No doubt, there were those who were intensely devoted to their particular faith and practices, there were those who disbelieved the existence of God, and there were those who were skeptical about the existence of God. Most of the people were those who peacefully lived and offered their personal prayers to their personal God of their choice and who viewed religion as purely belonging to personal domain rather than public domain of concern.

Only the religious preachers who belonged to a minuscule minority exercise some influence in their denominations. By the time the Mughal rule started, the Indian society was in the state of fusion of different cultural strands of Hinduism and Islam through the concept of Bhakti ideology and Sufism advocated by Sufis.

Suspicion and hatred towards the other faith was not very deep as reflected in the emergence of Hindustani cultural ethos. In this backdrop of attempts of peaceful fusion, an attempt should be made to understand and appreciate the religious attitude or policy of the Mughals in general and in particular of Akbar, the so-called tolerant and liberal, and Aurangzeb, the so-called staunch believer of the Sunni faith of Islam, who was credited to have tried to convert India into a land of Islam from that of infidels.

Before we take up the actual religious policy of Akbar and Aurangzeb, we have to remember that there was a perception that as the rulers were of Islamic faith, the state religion was Islam. On the basis of this perception, we know that medieval India is perceived as Islamic India and the time as Muslim period.

A critical examination of the contemporary scenario disapproves this perception as an erroneous one and no ruler at any time equated personal faith with state religion and decided the state policy and administration under religious consideration. What each ruler did was only to extend his patronage to the extent that was not harmful to his tenure as a ruler and never to discriminate on religious consideration.

It should not be forgotten that during this period most of the people had a firm faith in their religion, and the rulers sometimes used religions for their personal and political ends and the religious preachers like Ulemas and Pithadhipats were held in high esteem.

Yet, what is to be remembered is that religious consideration was not the only criteria that decided the policy of a ruler towards non-believers either Hindus or Muslims but the other factors like economic or political, made the rulers to adopt a different attitude towards the recalcitrant ones irrespective of the same religious denomination.

What we have to ultimately remember is that religion of the ruler and the ruled was not the sole criteria in deciding the religious policy, but other factors influenced the religious policy or attitude of the ruler concerned, to a great extent. Babur, the founder of the Mughal lineage in India and his son, Humayun were by faith Sunnis of Islam and most of their time was spent in wars in their attempts to consolidate their rule. Nothing is known about their religious attitude except that Babur married a Shia princess and Humayun also married a Shia princess and in distress Humayun sought asylum in the Raj put court.

This clearly indicates them to be tolerant of other sects, if not of liberal disposition. Akbar ascended the Mughal throne in very precarious conditions in 1556 and ruled till 1605. The early bringing up and tutor Abdul Latif and his friends Faizi and Abul Fazl appear to have exercised great influence on the development of the personality of Akbar.

Akbar is said to be a firm advocate of sulh-t-kul or peace for all. Akbar was a devout Muslim of Sunni sect. As he had a great desire of establishing an empire of long duration in India, he did not give much impor­tance to the observation of the Islamic way of rule but throughout his life, he remained to be a seeker of truth in all religions which ultimately reflected in his spiritual quest and political segacity which made him to be considered as the first national monarch of India in its long history.

The measures taken by Akbar between 1560-65 – his matrimonial relations with Rajput’s, abolition of the Pilgrims tax, abolition of Jiziya and non-imposition of force to convert Hindus into Islam, providing space for Hindus in bureaucratic set-up, establishment of translation department to reduce the distance between the Hindus and the Muslims and provision of liberty of worship made Akbar to be considered as one of a different mould. But the works like Gulzar-i-Abrar and Nafais-ul-Massir testify to his respect towards the Ulemas and their patronage by him.

Now, the current opinion is that these measures motivated political concessions given to non-Muslims to win their support and it is also suggested that Akbar was influenced to take this decision by the lack of dependable Muslim support. After 1565, we notice a change in the attitude of Akbar towards his liberal outlook.

We have a documentary proof of the reimposition of Jiziya tax in the year 1566, in the vicinity of Agra. There is another Fatahnama of Chittor, which states that he declared a war against the Rajput’s as Jihad and took pride in destroying temples and in killing of the Kaffirs. Badauni states that in 1575, Akbar ordered the reimposition of Jiziya which did not work. What we notice during this period 1566-1579 was that most of the Rajput chieftains became collaborators of Akbar, in spite of the change in his religious outlook.

Another development that deserves our attention was the establishment of Ibadat Khana in 1575 at Fatehpur Sikri and this indicates an advanced step in the evolution of his religious policy. The original aim of the establishment of Ibadat Khana was to have free discussion on different aspects of Islamic theology. In the beginning, it was opened to Sunnis only but from 1578, the gates of Ibadat Khana were opened to Sufis, Shias, Brahmins, Jains, Christians, Jews and Parsis. This decision was taken by Akbar after the disillusionment with the quarrels of the Muslim theologians. The discussions made Akbar realize that the essence of faith was internal conviction based on reason.

In 1579, Akbar proclaimed the ‘Infallibility Decree’ by which he became the Mujtahid and declared himself as Imam Adil. This declaration had given him the right to interpret legal aspects of Shariat and there is a view that Akbar became the king and the Pope by this declaration. This declaration of Mahzar was opposed by the orthodox Muslim community with a belief that he rejected Islam and its tenets. By this measure, Akbar successfully curbed the predominance of the orthodox elements of Islam.

The next significant development in the religious views of Akbar was the promulgation of the Din-i-Itahi or Tauhid-i-Ilahi. A lot of debate took place about the reasons why Akbar founded Din-i-Ilahi and what were the motives behind his decision. V. A. Smith, Iswari Prasad, S.R. Sharma and R.P. Tripathi and some of the learned scholars expressed different opinions about Akbar’s decision to establish the Din-i-Ilahi. V.A. Smith is of the view that “it was the outcome of his ridiculous vanity, a monstrous growth of unrestrained autocracy”.

Iswari Prasad holds the view that “it was an eclectic pantheism containing the good points of all religions”. S.R. Sharma is of the view that “it was the crowning expression of the idealism of Akbar”. R.P. Tripathi observes “Shrewd as Akbar was, he must have felt that it was neither possible to melt all religions down into one, nor to launch a new religion which would have added one more to others. But he felt himself called upon to propagate his ideas among those who cared to listen to them.

The sect had no scared book or scripture, no priestly hierarchy, no sacred place of worship and no rituals or ceremonies except that of initiation … a member had to give a written promise of having … accepted the four grades of entire devotion, viz., sacrifice of property, life, honour and religion … [it] was not a religion and Akbar never intended to establish a church … neither force nor money was employed to enlist disciples…. It was entirely a personal matter not between the emperor and the subjects, but between Akbar and those who chose to regard him as their peer guru”.

We may conclude that the Din-i-Ilahi or Tauhid-i-Uahi had nothing to do with his religious or political policy except that he wanted to have a band of people around him who were willing to sacrifice their religion, honour, life and property for his sake and who were willing to be guided by him as their philosopher, friend and guide. Finally, it may be said that Akbar never showed discrimination on religious ground to any group but did not hesitate to suppress individuals who opposed his way.

Akbar’s son and successor Jahangir on the whole made no deviation from the liberal policy of Akbar, Jahangir suspected the hand of jains and Sikhs in the revolt of Prince Khussru and took action against Guru Aijun by ordering his execution and also drove the Jains from his kingdom.

These actions were not the result of his religious persuasion but the result of intolerance of his son’s revolt and suspicion. But by the time Shahjahan became the ruler, a change in the climate of tolerance and liberalism seemed to have set in. Shahjahan abolished Sifda or prostration before the emperor as it was a practice to be shown in the presence of almighty only. We come to know from Amal Sahib that 76 temples in the region of Benaras were demolished by the order of the emperor. But for this Shahjahan did not reverse the tolerant policy introduced by Akbar.

The reign of Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughals was considered to be the most intolerant and fanatical period of the Mughal age. In personal life, Aurangzeb was very simple, pious, and puritanical and led a very austere life. But his desire to convert India into Dar-ul-Islam and to treat non-Muslims according to the injunctions of Quran and Shariat made scholars hold conflicting opinions.

Jadunath Sarkar, S.R. Sharma and A.L. Srivastava condemn Aurangzeb for his religious bigotry and persecution. Shibhi Nomani, Zahiruddin Faruki and Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi considered most of his actions political expedients. Satish Chandra and N. Aktar Ali tried to analyse his actions from the perspective of neutrality without subscribing to the perception of for and against policy” followed by other historians.

All the actions or ordinances of Aurangzeb can be divided into minor inconsequential orders and major policy initiatives of the state. The forbidding of the Kalima being stamped on coins, abolition of the celebration of Nauroz, repairing of old mosques and appointment of Imans and Muezzins on regular basis, appointment of censors of morals or Muhtasib, stopping of Tuladana ceremony, banning of Holi and Diwali celebrations, and discontinuing the practice of zaroka darshan after the 11th year of his reign and forbidding musicians from his court are the measures that made him to be regarded as intolerant and anti-Hindu.

All these measures cannot be considered as anti-Hindu except forbidding the celebration of Holi and Diwali. The orders for the demolition of the newly constructed temples of Hindus in the Benaras region and not allowing the old temples to be repaired are definitely indicators of the anti-Hindu policy of Aurangzeb. As a conse­quence of this order, the temples of Viswanath at Benaras and the Keshav Rai temple of Mathura were put into disuse. Mathura was renamed as Islamabad. Another anti-Hindu measure was the imposition of Jiziya in 1679.


Akbar the Great or Akbar the Controversial?

Akbar’s Ibadat Khana of 1605

The Mughal Empire’s history is a highly politicised one to tell, some brand it is an Islamic Empire which brought wrath onto the majority Hindu and Sikh populaces, others look to it as an iconic Muslim empire with a vast wealth of culture. With the current political ties between India and Pakistan, and the religious tensions between Muslims and Hindus in the region, this history has been used on both sides to justify abhorrent acts of demolition of places of worship and persecution of religious minorities.

Amongst this array of negativity there was an attempt at religious cohesion, through the reign of Akbar. To preface this, the Mughal Empire covered the lands that we know as India, Pakistan and some parts of Bangladesh, in total it was a majority Hindu population, with a clear minority of Sikhs, being ruled by an elite minority of Muslims. To manage such a power balance effectively, there needed to be an effort by the Muslim rulers to inspire religious and cultural tolerance, and Akbar did this.

Akbar is fascinating for a number of reasons, and his attempts at religious harmony play a big role in this. Among non-Muslims he is probably one of few Mughal emperors who is remembered fondly, whilst Muslims have a very mixed perception of him. From a young age, whilst being groomed for ruling he took a liking towards understanding all of the religions of the Empire, learning Hindu, Sikh, Jain and Buddhist customs alongside practicing his Islamic faith. When it became time for him to rule however, this really came into action.

In historical Islamic polities there was a tax called Jizya, payable only by non-Muslims of the state, whilst it sounds perhaps unfair, Muslims had to pay a charitable taxation called Zakat, which non-Muslims were not liable for. However, Jizya was often used and abused by prior Mughal emperors, hiking up the rates when they wanted. Akbar scrapped the historical tax, one of his landmark policy changes under his attempts at religious harmony.

Akbar also married a Hindu Rajput princess under the name Maryam-u-Zamani, colloquially referred to as Jodha Bai. There is intense speculation among historians about the actual significance of this marriage, but in terms of a legacy, this marriage has been one that has lasted through Indian culture, through poems, films and television shows. It is perhaps testimony to the high regard that Akbar has among Indians, as he married a “Hindu” princess. Some claim she converted to Islam others do not, however, we have proof that Akbar did take part in Hindu religious ceremonies whilst married to his wife, which did help with his image amongst the Hindu populations.

Lastly, and perhaps most controversially, Akbar created a new divine religion whilst he was head of the Empire. Akbar held regular meetings called the Ibadat Khana, where he would gather religious leaders from all the communities in his Empire, to talk through policies and theology. This reignited Akbars fascination with religion from his youth, and he began reading scriptures of all religions present in his Empire. Combined with his desire to promote tolerance, the Ibadat Khana and his marriage, he founded a syncretic religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which was to be a combination of Islamic, Buddhist, Sikh and Hindu theology. Many state this as the most controversial element of Akbar’s rule, as he removed the status of Islam as the official religion, replacing it with one he created. However, this controversy tends to fail to recognise that this religion was not practiced by any outside of himself and members of his bureaucracy. As a project to unite all faiths it failed miserably, but it did show that he was willing to go extremely far in order to solve the issues of religious tolerance in the Mughal Empire.

Akbar’s attempts at religious harmony were quickly reverted under Aurangzeb, who promoted a strong literalist interpretation of Islam back into the Empire, with little to no room for the recognition or tolerance of minorities. Religious tensions become a poisoned chalice, as it was a leading cause to the fragmentation of the Empire in its latter stages, propping up various small states in the Indian subcontinent, which were very easily dominated by the East India Company, completely ending Mughal rule.

We can take a lot from Akbar’s policy and mindset towards religious minorities, but this does beg the question, is promoting religious harmony an impossible task in a minority-ruling country, and did Akbar take it too far creating a new religion, perhaps resulting in an extreme pushback by future emperors and the eventual fall of the Mughal dynasty?


Ibadat Khana: Dewan Perbincangan Teologi Zaman Mughal

Rumah Ibadah atau Ibadat Khana ditubuhkan oleh Maharaja Akbar dari Mughal (1541-1605 Masihi) bagi tujuan mengadakan debat-debat dan perbincangan agama dalam kalangan ahli teologi dan cendekia pelbagai agama berbeza.

Abu al-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, atau masyhur dikenali sebagai Akbar Agung, merupakan maharaja Mughal ketiga (memerintah 1556-1605 Masihi), yang bertanggungjawab memperluaskan empayar dan memayungi sub-benua India.

Penghikayat-penghikayat kontemporer menggambarkan bahawa selepas mencapai kemenangan muktamad dan perluasan pengaruh dengan jaya, beliau melibatkan diri dalam usaha intelektual dan berinteraksi dengan para ulama’ dan pelajar kepada seorang wali Sufi yang bernama Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti.

PEMBINAAN

Akbar sepertinya meraih inspirasi daripada pemerintah Bengal, Sultan Kirani, yang lazim meluangkan waktu malamnya bersama 150 orang ahli agama bagi mendengarkan syarahan mereka.

Beliau juga menerima kunjungan Mirza Suleiman dari Badakshan, seorang ahli Sufi yang mempunyai nyala rasa yang tinggi dalam perbincangan teologi. Justeru, Akbar bertekad mahu membina sebuah dewan perbincangan yang boleh memuatkan ramai ahli teologi Muslim.

Pembinaan Ibadat Khana dimulakan pada awal tahun 1575 Masihi di Fatehpur Sikri (Kota Kemenangan), ibu kota Empayar Mughal pada waktu itu. Kompleks bangunan ini disiapkan pada tahun 1576 Masihi, dan perbincangan diadakan pada setiap malam Jumaat (hari Khamis, waktu malamnya) yang kadangkala berlangsung sepanjang malam. Abu al-Fazl, penghikayat rasmi Empayar Mughal mencatatkan:

Terdapat sebuah pengisytiharan umum dikeluarkan bahawa pada malam tersebut, kesemua aliran dan sekte manusia – yang mencari kebenaran spiritual dan fizikal, dan mereka dari kalangan orang awam yang mencari kesedaran dan mempunyai pertanyaan tentang setiap sekte – boleh berhimpun di perkarangan bangunan suci dan mengedepankan pengalaman rohani mereka, serta keilmuan mereka yang pelbagai dan berkontradik di kamar penzahiran ini. (Abu al-Fazl, 158).

Perbincangan-perbincangan ini tergendala selama setahun, namun kemudiannya, ia diteruskan pada tahun 1578 Masihi. Dipercayai bahawa semenjak itu, ahli-ahli teologi dan intelek dari pelbagai agama dan sekte seperti Hinduisme, Islam, Kristian, Buddhisme, Jainisme, Zoroastrianisme, dan ateis dijemput untuk berdiskusi di Ibadat Khana.

Perbincangan-perbincangan ini seterusnya mendorong Akbar untuk meyakini bahawa tiada kebenaran yang mutlak sekaligus memuncakkan kepada penciptaan agama barunya, iaitu Din-i-Ilahi (Agama Ketuhanan).

PENYUSUNAN IBADAT KHANA

Gambaran umum tentang struktur Ibadat Khana ini boleh dibina berdasarkan rujukan-rujukan yang terdapat di dalam Muntakhabut Tawarikh (hikayat kontemporer karangan Badaoni). Di tengah-tengah dewan ini terdapat sebuah platform berbentuk oktagon yang merupakan tempat duduk maharaja. Empat orang menterinya, iaitu Abdur Rahim, Birbal, Faizi dan Abu al-Fazl, masing-masing mempunyai tempat duduk yang tersendiri di keempat-empat sudut.

Pelan seni bina Ibadat Khana tidak diperincikan secara teliti oleh mana-mana penghikayat kontemporer. Namun, Nizamuddin Ahmad menyatakan bahawa ia mempunyai empat sayap dan penglibatan awal dalam diskusi yang dilangsungkan dihadkan hanya kepada sekumpulan kecil hadirin.

Bagi merungkai perbalahan berkenaan tempat duduk yang mencerminkan keutamaan seseorang, maharaja sendiri menetapkan peletakannya: di sisi timur adalah tempat para amir (bangsawan berkedudukan tinggi), para Sayyid (keturunan baginda Nabi Muhammad) menempati sayap barat ulama’ (ilmuwan dalam perundangan Islam) di sebelah selatan dan para Shaikh (cendekia dari aliran tasawuf Muslim) pula di sebelah utara.

BENTUK PERBINCANGAN & KESANNYA

Akbar didedahkan kepada falsafah Yunani oleh Shaikh Mubarak dan anak-anaknya, iaitu Abu al-Fazl dan Faizi pada awal 1570an dan dipengaruhi secara mendalam oleh Sufisme. Susulan daripada peningkatan minat Akbar terhadap falsafah dan persoalannya tentang ajaran agama inilah makanya proses penyemakan-semula aspek-aspek teologi dan hukum-hakam Islam dimulakan di Ibadat Khana.

Ia bermula sebagai sebuah perhimpunan Sunni (aliran utama Islam), yang kemudiannya menjadi perhimpunan pan-Muslim dan seterusnya dibuka kepada agama-agama lain. Antara tema perbincangan di Ibadat Khanah merangkumi sifat Tuhan dalam Katolik dan Islam, vegetarianisme atau layanan terhadap haiwan dalam ajaran Buddhisme dan Jainisme, monogami, falsafah-falsafah Hindu purba hinggalah kepada penyembahan api dalam ajaran Zoroastrianisme.

Pada tahun 1579 Masihi, maharaja buat pertama kalinya menjemput mubaligh Jesuit ke istana Mughal. Ketua mubaligh ini adalah seorang warga Itali yang bernama Father Rudolf Aquaviva, anak kepada Duke of Atri dan anak saudara kepada Father General kelima bagi Society.

Beliau mempunyai dua orang teman, iaitu Father Antonio de Monserrate, seorang warga Catalan yang mencatatkan aktiviti-aktiviti para mubaligh di istana Mughal, dan Francisco Henriques, seorang warga Parsi dari Ormuz yang mahir dalam menterjemah. Mubaligh-mubaligh Jesuit ini menghadiahkan Bible Polyglot yang ditaja oleh Philip II dari Sepanyol kepada maharaja Akbar.

Akbar kemudiannya memerintahkan agar pelukis-pelukis istana menghasilkan potret Isa dan Mariam serta membenarkan para mubaligh ini menyebarkan agamanya di kota. Maharaja juga meluangkan waktu malamnya bagi berbincang tentang agama Kristian dan memakai pakaian serta topi Portugis sebagai simbol terhadap minatnya untuk menggabungkan penglibatan para paderi ke dalam istananya.

Kecenderungan beliau terhadap para paderi dan sifat agama-politik mereka itu menimbulkan kritikan dari penghikayat Badaoni dan ulama-ulama konservatif yang lain di istana Mughal. Memerincikan kesan kehadiran paderi-paderi Jesuit di istana, Badaoni menulis:

“Pendeta-pendeta terpelajar dari Eropah, yang dipanggil sebagai Padre, dan memiliki ketua yang tidak boleh disangkal, iaitu Papa, yang mampu mengubah ketetapan agama sekehendaknya pada masa-masa yang dikiranya perlu, dan yang autoritinya perlu dipatuhi oleh para raja, datang membawa Gospel, dan bukti-bukti lanjut tentang Triniti. Tuanku percaya dengan teguh terhadap kebenaran agama Kristian, dan berhajat untuk menyebarkan doktrin Jesus, memerintahkan Putera Murad agar mempelajari serba-sedikit tentang agama Kristian dan mengarahkan Abu al-Fazl untuk menterjemahkan Gospel. (Badaoni, 267)

Akbar juga mempunyai minat terhadap Zoroastrianisme, agama orang Parsi. Kaitan antara keluarganya dengan Parsi serta kecenderungannya terhadap para pegawai Iran berbanding pegawai Mogul (Uzbeg dan Chagatai) mungkin menjadi faktor yang mendorong kepada minatnya terhadap falsafah agama masyarakat Iran. Pada penghujung tahun 1578 Masihi, beliau menjemput Dastur Meherji Rana, ketua agama Zoroastrian dari Nausari, Gujarat, ke istananya. Dastur mengajarkan Akbar tentang ritual, upacara dan amalan keagamaan Parsi.

Di bawah undang-undang Parsi, sebuah api keramat mula dinyalakan di istana di mana api ini tidak seharusnya dipadam. Pengaruh Zoroastrian pada diri maharaja boleh dilihat menerusi amalan penyembahan matahari dan api. Beliau bahkan menggunakan nama-nama Parsi bagi kalendar hari dan bulan serta meraikan pesta-pesta Parsi. Tambahan, beliau juga pernah menghadap khalayak umum dengan mengenakan tanda aliran Hindu di dahinya.

Pada tahun 1582 Masihi, maharaja menjemput Hirvijaya Suri, seorang ahli falsafah Jain untuk ke istananya. Ahli falsafah itu memujuk maharaja agar mengharamkan pembunuhan haiwan pada hari-hari tertentu. Lantaran terpengaruh dengan prinsip- prinsip ajaran Jainisme, Akbar pun memerintahkan agar penyembelihan pada tempoh tertentu dihentikan dan beliau secara peribadi cenderung terhadap vegetarianisme. Suri dikurniakan gelaran ‘guru alam’ atau ‘Jagad guru’.

Sebilangan sejarahwan berpendapat bahawa pendekatan-pendekatan yang diambil oleh maharaja ini, termasuklah penghapuskan jizyah (cukai ke atas bukan-Muslim) berkemungkinan adalah untuk meraih penerimaan dalam kalangan rakyat bukan-Muslim. Tambahan, perbincangan-perbincangan yang dilakukannya di Ibadat Khana memberikan banyak kesan pertentangan terhadap ortodoksiti Muslim dalam istana Mughal.

KESAN DARIPADA DISKUSI-DISKUSI AGAMA INI

Perbincangan-perbincangan yang dilakukan di Ibadat Khana ini menimbulkan keyakinan dalam diri Akbar bahawa segala agama mempunyai elemen kebenaran dan kesemuanya membawa kepada Hakikat Tertinggi yang sama.

Keyakinan ini merupakan fasa penting dalam pembangunan dasar-dasar keagamaannya, yang memuncak kepada perkembangan konsep sulh-i-kul (keamanan sejagat). Sebahagian sejarahwan juga berpendapat bahawa Akbar memanfaatkan perdebatan-perdebatan di Ibadat Khana ini untuk mendedahkan ketaksuban dan kesempitan pandangan golongan teologi Muslim di istananya.

Hal ini seterusnya memberikan beliau keabsahan untuk melanggari tatanan otodoks Islam di istananya. Dalam sebuah titah yang dikeluarkan pada tahun 1579 Masihi, beliau mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai Imam-I Adil (pemerintah saksama, sekaligus memindahkan autoriti keagamaan dari tangan ulama’ ke tangannya sendiri.

Dalam erti kata lain, beliau diisytiharkan sebagai pemberi kata putus yang muktamad serta menjadi autoriti perundangan yang tertinggi dalam empayar. Namun, menurut Badaoni, beliau tidak pernah meninggalkan agama Islam. Menjelang tahun 1582 Masihi, perbincangan-perbincangan di Ibadat Khana dihentikan.

LOKASI

Ramai ilmuwan dari pelbagai zaman telah menamakan tujuh hingga lapan buah bangunan berbeza sebagai Ibadat Khana. Salah satu bangunan tersebut ialah sebuah struktur empat segi dengan tiang teratau yang masyhur dikenali sebagai diwan-i-khas. Ekskavasi-ekskavasi paling masyhur yang dijalankan ke atas struktur ini dilakukan di bawah kendalian Profesor R.C. Gaur dan ianya membawa kepada penemuan sejumlah platform, bilik dan dinding yang mempunyai ciri yang sama dengan struktur yang digambarkan dalam lukisan miniatur Mughal berkenaan Ibadat Khana yang kini disimpan di Perpustakaan Chester Beatty.

Lukisan miniatur ini menggambarkan Maharaja Akbar yang sedang duduk di atas sebuah platform tinggi, sambil mengadakan perhimpunan keagamaan bersama beberapa orang ilmuwan. Dua orang paderi Jesuit yang berpakaian jubah hitam, dikenali sebagai Rodolfo Acquaviva dan Francisco Henriques turut dilihat menyertai perhimpunan agama tersebut.

Penemuan-penemuan terkini oleh sejarahwan Rezavi pula mengemukakan bahawa struktur bernama Daftarkhana adalah Ibadat Khana, berdasarkan lokasinya yang hampir dengan Khwabgah (kediaman Akbar), bukti dari ekskavasi-ekskavasi yang pernah dijalankan sebelum ini serta rujukan-rujukan dari sejarahwan kontemporari. Walau bagaimanapun, lokasi tepat Ibadat Khana di Fatehpur Sikri masih lagi diperdebatkan sehingga kini.


Delhi Sultanates -1206-1526

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who were the first among the muslims to invade India?
Answer:
Arabs were the first among the Muslims to invade India. Mohammad – bin – Quasim, the Governor of Basra invaded India in 712 C.E.

Question 2.
Which was the famous book of Alberuni? (or) Name the famous book of Alberuni.
Answer:
Alberuni, a Persian scholar wrote the famous book Kitab – ul – Hind.

Question 3.
Who was the founder of the Slave (Mamuluck) dynasty?
Answer:
Qutub- ud-din-Aibak was the founder of the Slave dynasty.

Question 4.
Who founded the Khilji dynasty?
Answer:
Jalaluddin Khilji was the founder of the Khilji dynasty.

Question 5.
Who was the commander of Allauddin Khilji who led the southern expedition?
Answer:
Malik Kafur was the commader (General) of Allauddin Khilji.

Question 6.
Who was called‘The Parrot of India’?
Answer:
Amir Khusrau, a great poet and singer was called as the “Parrot of India”.

Question 7.
Who was the founder of the Tbghalak dynasty?
Answer:
Ghiyasuddin Tughalak founded theTughalak dynasty in 1320C.E.

Question 8.
Who was the famous Sultan of (he Ibghalak dynasty?
Answer:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was the famous Sultan.

Question 9.
Who shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri?
Answer:
Mohammad-bin-Tughalak shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in 1326 C.E.

Question 10.
Who introduced token currency?
Answer:
Mohammad – bin – Tughalak introduced token currency.

Question 11.
Who commenced the construction of Qutub Minar at Delhi?
Answer:
Qutub-ud-din-Aibak commenced the construction of Qutub Minar.

Question 12.
Who was the famous Sultan from the Khilji dynasty?
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji was the famous Sultan of the Khilji dynasty.

Question 13.
Who was the IToysala King, when Malik Kafur invaded Deccan?
Answer:
ViraBallala – III was the HoysalaKing, when Malik Kafur invaded Deccan in 1310 C.E.

Question 14.
Who introduced the Market reforms?
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji introduced the Market reforms.

Question 15.
Who was the first Sultan of Delhi to introduce Land survey and settlement?
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji was the first to introduce land survey and settlement.

Question 16.
Which types of currencies were introduced by Mohammad – bin – Tughalak?
Answer:
Token currency (Copper and Brass token currency) in 1329 to 1332 C.E.

Question 17.
What was the name given to Devagiri?
Answer:
Devagiri was renamed as Daulatabad.

Question 18.
Which place was called a monument of misdirected energy?
Answer:
Lane Poole remarked, that Daulatabad remained a monument of misdirected energy.

Question 19.
Name the two capitals of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak.
Answer:
Delhi and Devagiri (Daulatabad) were the two capitals of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
In which year did the second battle of Tarain take place? Between whom was it
fought?
Answer:
The second battle of Tarain was fought between Prithviraj Chouhan and Shahabuddin Mohammad Ghori in 1192 C.E.

Question 2.
How many Sultan dynasties ruled Delhi? Which are those?
Answer:
Five Sultan dynasties ruled Delhi. They were

  1. The Slave dynasty
  2. The Khilji dynasty
  3. The Tughalak dynasty
  4. The Sayyid Dynasty
  5. The Lodhi dynasty.

Question 3.
Name any two important monuments constructed by Alla-ud*din Khilji
Answer:
Palace of HazarSitum, Fort of Siri,Jamait Khan Masjid and Alai Darwaza.

Question 4.
Why did Allauddin Khilji called himself as ‘Sikandar – II’?
Answer:
Allauddin had become the master of India by 1312 C.E. His ambition was to conquer the whole world, but had to be satisfied with conquering only India. Even then, he issued coins with the title Sikandar (Alexander – II).

Question 5.
Name any two famous generals of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
Ulugh Khan, Nazarath Khan and Malik Kafur were Allauddin Khilji’s famous generals.

Question 6.
Name any two reasons for the transfer of capital by Mohammad – bin – Tughalak.
Answer:

  1. Devagiri occupied a central location in India, and it was nearly equidistant from Delhi and other important cities in his Empire.
  2. He wanted his capital to be secure from the mongol invasions.

Question 7.
Name two historians from the Tlighalak period.
Answer:
Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were the great historians of that time.

Question 8.
Who started the writing of Tarik -i- Firozshahi? Who completed it?
Answer:
Barani started writingTarik – i – Firozshahi and Shams – i – Si raj Afif completed the work.

Question 9.
Who was Amir Khusrau? Name his famous works.
Answer:
Amir Khusrau the great poet and singer, who was in the court of Allauddin was also called as the “Parrot of India”. He wroteTughalak Namah, Khazyan – ul-Futuh and Tarkish – i- Alai.

Question 10.
Who built Qutub Minar? Where?
Answer:
Qutub-ud-din-Aibak started construction on the Qutub Minar at Delhi.

Question 11.
Mention the two officers appointed by Allauddin to control the markets?
Answer:
Divan – e – Riyasat and Shahan – e – Mandi were the two officers appointed by Allauddin to control the market prices.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Write a note on the South Indian expedition of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
South Indian expedition of Allauddin: Allauddin Khilji was the first muslim ruler to attempt to the conquest of south India. He deputed his able general Malik Kafur to conquer south India. His ambition was to conquer the enormous wealth of south India and that was the reason for his southern campaign.

1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 C.E.): Ramachandradeva was the King of Devagiri, who had given shelter to King Kamadeva – II of Gujarat and his daughter Devaladevi. He had also not paid the annual tribute to the Sultan for three years. For these reasons, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri, defeated Ramachandradeva, captured Devaladevi and collected immense booty in 1307 C.E. Devaladevi was married to Khizer Khan, son-of Allauddin.

2. Conquest of Warangal (1309 C.E): In 1309 C.E., Malik Kafur marched through (via) Devagiri, secured the help of Ramachandradeva and attacked Warangal. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and had to surrender a lot ofwealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur. The Ruler of Warangal had to accept Delhi Sultan’s sovereignty.

3. Expedition to Iloysalas in 1310 C.E : Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra (Halebeedu) when Veera Ballala – III was away from the capital and was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and plundered the rich temples in the surrounding areas and looted gold, silver, pearls, diamonds and jewels. Ballala – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin Khilji.

4. Conquest of Madhurai (1311 C.E.) The forces of Delhi under Malik Kafur attacked the capital of the Pandya Kings (Madhurai) and plundered the city. Civil war arose between Sundarapandya and Veerapandya. Malik Kafur razed down the famous temple at Ramcshwara. All the wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a large herd of elephants.

Question 2.
Explain the reforms (political and economic) of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
Administratibr reforms:
1. Kingship (Sultan): Allauddin followed an independent policy regarding political matters. He was a strong and efficient ruler. He set up a strong central administration. He was the supreme authority in the state and combined civil and military talents in remarkable measures. He did not permit the interference of religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine origin of Kingship and cherished the ideas that the King was the representative of God (Shadow of God). He once said “I issue orders as I conceive to be, for the good of the state and benefit of the people”.

2. Espionage: He established a spy network, to get information regarding the activities of all the nobles of his court. He also tried to prevent outbreak of rebellions within the Empire and formation of any conspiracy against him. He deprived the Nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the Nobles, even in their houses.

3. Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs in Delhi and drastic punishment was meted out to those who were guilty of violation. He knew that gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.

4. Military reforms: The standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal order and prevent the invasion of the Mongols. He personally supervised the activities of the soldiers and paid them salaries regularly. The state maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system. Ariz – i – Mumalik was the incharge for the appointment of soldiers.

  • Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land, for the assessment of land revenue.
  • He imposed heavy taxes on the Sardars, Jagirdars and Ulemas.
  • ITe imposed Jazia, pilgrim, octroi and other taxes on non – muslims.
  • He appointed a special officer called “Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants.
  • In order to check bribery and corruption among revenue officials and to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials, their salaries were increased.

6. Market regulation: The most remarkable of all these, was an attempt to control the market, by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all articles of common use were fixed. A separate department and officers were appointed to regulate the market prices of commodities on a daily basis.

Evaluation of Allauddin: He is renowned not only for his conquests but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. He established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, and capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.

Question 3.
Why is Mohammad-bin-Tbghalak called as a “Mixture of opposites”?
Answer:
Administrative experiments of Mohammad -bin-Thghalak:

1. Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the Ganga and Yamuna (Doab) rivers being a very fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state, Mohammad – bin – Tughalak decided to increase the taxes there. But he en forced the tax raise at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of additional taxation. Revenue collection was also strict, which the farmers were unable to pay. This measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

2. Transfer of capital in 1327 C.E.: Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objective was to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. Also, Devagiri occupied a central position in India and it was equidistant to Delhi and the other important cities of his Kingdom. He desired to shift the entire Delhi population along with his court. Barani says that “Not a cat ora dog was left”. Causes for the shifting of the capital were very practical, but the method was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.

The tiresome journey passing through the dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by dacoits, hunger, mental agony etc., resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan having, at last, realised his folly, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire incident made him unpopular. According to Leen P( ol, operation – Daulatabad of was a “Monument of misdirected energy”.*This scheme also failed on account of the Sultan’s unplanned method of forcing it on his people.

3. Circulation of token currency in 1329 C.E.: Mohammad – bin – Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency, because maintaining a large army, relief to the Doab people famine, transfer of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of Silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency in circulation, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass. Tanka was the token currency and its value was made equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as a monopoly of the Government.

Thornes described him as the ‘Prince of Moneycrs’ and a currency expert. The Sultan did not take precautionary measures to minting of the coins. People started minting their own coins. Hence, the Empire was flooded with thousands of counterfeit copper coins. People paid their taxes with these counterfeit coins. Copper coins lost their value as a medium of exchange. Trade was seriously affected and Sultan realized his error in judgment and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 C.E. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. When everybody was there to exchange their copper coins with silver and gold coins, the treasury became empty.

Mohamnad – bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. Pie lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice, without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was a ‘mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari Prasad remarks that “Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradictions”. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Allauddin Khilji.
Answer:
Allauddin Khilji (1296-1316 C.E.) Allauddin Khilji’s early name was Aligurshap. He lost his father in his boyhood and was brought up in the care of Jalaluddin. Allauddin married Jalaluddin’s daughter and was appointed as the Governor of Khara province. He was highly ambitiousandaspircdtobccometherulerofDelhi.In 1294,he set his eyes on Devagiri. It’s ruler Ramachandradeva was defeated by him. Allauddin returned to Khara with a heavy amount of booty. Jalaluddin was unaware of the evil intentions of Allauddin. He went to receiveAliauddin with only a few unarmed guards and was murdered by the supporters of Allauddin. Thus, Allauddin became the Sultan of Delhi in 1296C.E.

Military Achievements of Allauddin:

A) The conquests of North India :

1. Conquest of Gujarat in 1297 C.E.: Allauddin sent Ulugh Khan and Nazarath Khan, his generals to conquer Gujarat in 1297 C.E. Raja Kamadeva – II was defeated and he fled to Devagiri along with his daughter Devaladevi. The generals captured Kamaladevi (Queen of Kamadeva) and she was taken to Delhi and Allauddin married her. The Delhi troops plundered the rich ports of Gujarat.

2. Conquest of Ranathanihore in 1301 C.E.: Allauddin turned his attention towards Ranathambore. Hamira Deva, the ruler of Ranathambore, had given shelter to a few muslims (Neo muslims) who were enemies of Allauddin. So, Allauddin invaded and took over Ranathambore.

3. Expedition onMevvar (Chiltor) in 1303 C.E.: Allauddin led an expedition against Rana Ratan Singh of Chittoor (Mewar). I Ie desired to possess Rani Padmini of Mewar, Queen of Ratan Singh, renowned for her beauty and talent. The fort of Chittor was captured with great hardship. Padmini and other rajput women committed ‘Jauhar’. Chittor was captured and Khizer Khan (son of Allauddin) was made the Governor of Chittor.

4. Other conquests: Allauddin took an expedition to Mai wa in 1305 C.E. Mahakaladeva, the ruler of Malwa was defeated by him. The territories of Ujjain, Mandu, Dhara, Chanderi and Jolur were subjugated to Allauddin. He became the master of the whole of north India.

B) The Mongol Invasion (Raids): In 1299 C.E., Mongols attacked Delhi under Qualugh Khwaji. Frequent raids by the Mongols were a constant threat to the Empire. Allauddin and his general Malik Kafur successfully drove back the Mongols. He defeated them and imprisoned many of them.

C) South Indian compaign: Allauddin turned his attention towards south India. He sent an expedition under his eminent general, Malik Kafur to conquer the south. He coveted the enormous wealth of south India and its temples. The four main southern rulers were defeated.

1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 CE): Ramachandradeva, the ruler of Devagiri, had not paid tribute for nearly three years and he had given shelter to Kamadeva-II of Gujarat. For that reason, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri and defeated Ramachandradeva and collected a lot of booty.

2. Conquest of Warangal (1309 CE): The Delhi forces marched via Devagiri and attacked Telangana. Pratapa Rudradeva, the tuler of Warangal, put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and he had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur.

3. Expedition to Iloysalas in 1310 C.E: Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra, when Veera Ballala-III was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and Ballaia – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin.

4. Conquests of Madhurai in 1311 C.E.: Acivil war was raging between Sundrapandya and Vecrapandya when Malk Kafur attacked the capital of Pandyas (Madhurai) and plundered the city. The wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a herd of elephants.

1. Sultanship: Allauddin followed an independent policy towards political matters. He set up a strong central administration. He did not permit the interference by religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine rights of Kingship (Shadow of God).

2. Espionage: He established an elaborate spy network, to get the information regarding all the activities of his nobles. He also tried to prevent the outbreak of rebellions within the Empire. He deprived his nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the nobles, even in their houses.

3. Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs at Delhi. He knew that, gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.

4. Military reforms: The Standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal law and order and to prevent the invasions of the Mongols. Ariz-i- Mumali k was the incharge for the appointment of soldier’s. The state maintained a record of the Iluliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system.

5. Revenue reforms: Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land for the assessment of land revenue. He appointed a special officer called ‘Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants. To check bribery and corruption among the revenue officials, their salaries were increased. Steps were taken to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials.

6. Market regulation : The most remarkable of all these was an attempt to control the market prices by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all the articles of common use were fixed. Separate officers were appointed to regulate the market prices on a daily basis amount of booty. Jalaluddin was unaware of the evil intentions of Allauddin. He went to receive Allauddin with only a few unarmed guards and was murdered by the supporters of Allauddin. Thus, Allauddin became the Sultan of Delhi in 1296C.E.

Military Achievements of Allauddin:

A) The conquests of North India :

1. Conquest of Gujarat in 1297 C.E.: Allauddin sent Ulugh Khan andNazarath Khan, his generals to conquer Gujarat in 1297 C.E. Raja Kamadeva- II was defeated and he fled to Devagiri along with his daughter Devaladevi. The generals captured Kamaladevi (Queen of Kamadeva) and she was taken to Delhi and Allauddin married her. The Delhi troops plundered the rich ports of Gujarat.

2. Conquest of Ranathambore in 1301 C.E.: Allauddin turned his attention towards Ranathambore. Hamira Deva, the ruler of Ranathambore, had gi ven shelter to a few muslims (Neo muslims) who were enemies of Allauddin. So, Allauddin invaded and took over Ranathambore.

3. Expedition on Mevvar (Chittor) in 1303 C.E.: Allauddin led an expedition against Rana Ratan Singh of Chittoor (Mevvar). lie desired to possess Rani Padmini of Mewar, Queen of Ratan Singh, renowned for her beauty and talent. The fort of Chittor was captured with great hardship. Padmini and other rajput women committed ‘Jauhar’. Chittor was captured and Khizer Khan (son of Allauddin) was made the Governor of Chittor.

4. Olherconquests: Allauddin took an expedition to Mai wa in 1305 C.E. Mahakaladeva, the ruler of Mai wa was defeated by him. The territories of Ujjain, Mandu, Dhara, Chanderi and Jolur were subjugated to Allauddin. He became the master of the whole of north India.

B) The Mongol Invasion (Raids): In 1299C.E., Mongols attacked Delhi under Qualugh Khwaji. Frequent raids by the Mongols were a constant threat to the Empire. Allauddin and his general Malik Kafur successfully drove back the Mongols. He defeated them and imprisoned many of them.

C) South Indian compaign: Allauddin turned his attention towards south India. He sent an expedition under his eminent general, Malik Kafur to conquer the south. He coveted the enormous wealth of south India and its temples. The four main southern rulers were defeated.

1. Expedition to Devagiri (1306-1307 CE): Ramachandradeva, the ruler of Devagiri, had not paid tribute for nearly three years and he had given shelter to Kamadeva-II of Gujarat. For that reason, Malik Kafur raided Devagiri and defeated Ramachandradeva and collected a lot of booty.

2. Conquest of VVarangal (1309 CE): The Delhi forces marched via Devagiri and attacked Telangana. Pratapa Rudradeva, the ruler of Warangal, put up a stiff resistance. However, he was defeated and he had to surrender a lot of wealth which was carried away to Delhi by Malik Kafur.

3. Expedition to Ifoysalas in 1310 C.E: Malik Kafur attacked Dwarasamudra, when Veera Ballala-III was busy interfering in the Chola politics. Malik Kafur occupied Dwarasamudra and Ballala – III was forced to plead for peace and he also accepted the sovereignty of Allauddin.

4. Conquests of Madhurai in 1311 C.E.: A civil war was raging between Sundrapandya and Vecrapandya,- when Malk Kafur attacked the capital of Pandyas (Madhurai) and plundered the city. The wealth looted in south India was transported to Delhi on a herd of elephants.

Administrative achievements of Allauddin:

1. Sultanship: Allauddin followed an independent policy towards political matters. He set up a strong central administration. He did not permit the interference by religious leaders in administrative matters. He believed in the divine rights of Kingship (Shadow of God).

2. Espionage: He established an elaborate spy network, to get the information regarding all the activites of his nobles. He also tried to prevent the outbreak of rebellions within the Empire. Pie deprived his nobles of all pensions and endowments. He forbade social parties and secret meetings of the nobles, even in their houses.

3. Prohibition of drinking: He banned the sale and the use of intoxicating drinks and drugs at Delhi. He knew that, gambling dens and drinking bouts were the breeding grounds of sedition.

4. Military reforms: The Standing army: Allauddin maintained a large standing army for maintaining internal law and order and to prevent the invasions of the Mongols. Ariz-i- Mumajik was the incharge for the appointment of soldiers. The slate maintained a record of the Huliya or register of each soldier and his mount in the royal service. He also introduced the branding of horses or Dagh system.

5. Revenue reforms: Allauddin introduced scientific methods of measurement of land for the assessment of land revenue. He appointed a special officer called ‘Mustakhraj’ to collect land revenue from the peasants. To check bribery and corruption among the revenue officials, their salaries were increased. Steps were taken to safeguard the peasants from the demands of corrupt revenue officials.

6. Market regulation: The most remarkable of all these was an attempt to control the market prices by determining the cost of most of the essential commodities. Prices of all the articles of common use were fixed. Separate officers were appointed to regulate the market prices on a daily basis.

Personality of Allauddin: He is renowned not only for his conquests but also for his administrative and economic reforms. He was vigorous, efficient, bold and original as a reformer. lie established an absolute state, free from the control of religion. His resourcefulness, energy, capacity for work, his unbounded courage tempered with calculation and penetrating common sense stand out.

Question 2.
Critically examine the administrative experiments of Mohammad-bin-TUghalak. (or) How did the policies of Mohammad end in failure?
Answer:
Administrative reforms (experiments) of Mohammad-bin-Tughalak: In 1325 CE Prince Jaunakhan, son of Ghiyasuddin (founder) ascended the throne with the title Mohammed- bin-Tughalak. He was an outstanding ruler of the Tughalak dynasty. He is known for his military, economic and administrative experiments.

1. Register of the land revenue: Main objective of this experiment was to introduce the universal land taxation throughout the Empire. He created an agricultural department to regularise the land revenue registers.

2. Tax increase in Doab area: The area between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna (doab) was the most fertile land of the Empire and capable of yielding a large revenue to the state. Mohammad-bin-Tughalak decided to increase the taxes for that area only. But, he enforced the new tax at the time of a famine. People were hard hit by the burden of taxation. Revenue collection was also very strict. When the farmers were unable to pay, this measure made him extremely unpopular. He tried to make amends later, but it was too late. The scheme failed through mismanagement and corruption.

3. Transfer of the capital in 1327 CE: Mahammad-bin-Tughalak decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad). His main objectives were:

(1) (Devagiri) occupied a central location in India and it was nearly equidistant (700 miles) from Delhi, Gujarath, Telangana and other places of his Empire.

(2) He wanted to safeguard his capital from the Mongol invasions. He beautified Devagiri and made arrangements to provide all basic amenities, but he blundered while implementing his ideas. He transported the whole population of Delhi to his new capital. Ibn Batuta says that even a blind man and a cripple who were unwilling to move, were dragged to the new capital. Reasons for the shifting of the capital were veiy practical, but the method . was impractical. The entire population of Delhi was made to march to Daulatabad.

The tiresome journey passing through dense forest, heavy rains, diseases, attacks by decoits, hunger, mental agony etc resulted in death and sufferings of many. The Sultan finally realising the folly of this plan, reshifted the court back to Delhi and ordered a return march of the people. The entire episode made him unpopular. According to Leen Pool – Daulatabad was a ‘Monument of misdirected energy’. This scheme failed on account of the Sultan’s faulty method of implementing it.

4. Token currency circulation in 1329 CE : Mohammed-bin-Tughalak carried out experiments on coinage and currency because maintaining a large army, relief given to farmers due to the Doab famine, transfer exercise of the capital, his unsuccessful expeditions, scarcity of silver etc., caused much loss to the treasury. Hence, to increase the amount of currency, the Sultan issued token coins of copper and brass tanka whose value was equivalent to gold and silver coins. Minting of the copper coins was not retained as the monopoly of the Government. Thornes described him as ‘The Prince of Moncyers’ and a currency expert.

The currency experiment was a miserable failure and the causes for its failure were:

  • People could not grasp its real significance
  • Sultan did not take the precautionary measure of minting of coins to be the monopoly of the state. Almost every household turned into a mint and he failed to take precaution against the glut of counterfeit coins.
  • Foreign merchants refused to accept the copper coins, because gold coins were used as
    a standard unit of exchange.
  • People paid their taxes in their own copper coins and hoarded gold and silver and as a result, treasury was filled with counterfeit coins.

Due to the above causes, trade was seriously affected and Sultan realised his folly and withdrew the new copper coins in 1333-34 CE. He announced that the copper coins would be redeemed with gold and silver coins. People exchanged their copper coins with gold and silver coins and the treasury became completely depleted.

Mohammad-bin-Tughalak was an extraordinary personality and it is difficult to understand his character and determine his place in history. He lacked practical judgement and common sense. He evolved an idealistic approach by trying to put his theoretical experiments into practice without any forethought about the consequences. According to scholars, he was ‘a mixture of opposites’. Dr. Eshwari prasad remarks that ‘Mohammad appears to be an amazing compound of contradiction’. He possessed sound knowledge, but his policies though well-meant, were ill-planned and badly executed.

Question 3.
Give an account of the contributions of the Sultanates of Delhi.
Answer:
Contributions of the Delhi Sultanates:
1. Administration: The Kingdom of Delhi Sultanate was a theocratic state, (religion was Islam). ‘Shariat’ (Islamic law) were the rules of the state. The ‘Ulema (Islamic scholars) controlled the state and administration. The Sultans called themselves ‘Naib’ (deputy) of Kalifa.

2. Central Government: Sultan was the head of administration. lie exercised the legislative, executive and judicial powers. He was guided by the Ulemas. Allauddin kept the Ulemas away from the state affairs. The Sultan earned the administration with the help of a number of ministers. They were the Wazir (the Prime minister incharge of revenue and finance), Ariz-i-Mamlik who was incharge of the military, Amir-i-Mazlis who was incharge of royal forts and conferences, Barid-i-Mumalik – head of the state news agency, Dahir-i-mumalik – incharge of the royal correspondences, Sadar-us-Sadur who handled religious matters and Kazi-ul-Qazat- the Chief Justice.

3. Revenue: Land revenue was the main source of the state income. The war booty, tributes, house, water, religious and Jaziya taxes etc were the other sources of income to the state. Land tax could be paid either in cash or kind.

4. Judicial: The Sultans administered justice with the help of Kazi-ul-Qazat (The chief • Justice). The chief Kazi was helped by a Mufti (interpreter of Islamic law). The towns and cities had courts headed by Kazis and assisted by Muftis. Kotwal was the Police office in charge of law and order.

Army: The Sultan maintained a strong army. It consisted of cavalry, intantry and elephant forces. The Sultanate was primarily a military state. The Sultan was the supreme commander. All ministers and officers except the chief Justice and the Khazis were to render both ci vil and military duties. Diwan-i-Ariz was incharge of army administration. The pay of the soldiers varied according to their service.

Provincial administration: The Sultanate (Kingdom) was divided into a number of provinces called Togas’. The head of a province was called ‘Naib Sultan’. They enjoyed absolute power in their provinces. The main duties were collection of revenue and maintenance of law and order within the province. The maintained an army of their own. Some Sultans transferred the Govemers and punished them severely, if they revolted against the state.

Each province was divided into ‘Shiqs and Paraganas’. They were looked after by Shiqdars and Amils respectively. Village was the primary unit of administration. It had traditional officers such as the Chaudhari, the Patwari, the Chaukidar etc.

Literature: This period witnessed the growth of Persian and regional language literatures. Persian poets of central Asia took shelter in the courts of the Sultans of Delhi. Amir Khusru was the most outstanding writer and he was called the ‘Parrot of India’. He wrote Khazyan- ul-Futuh and Tarkish-i-Alai. Amir Hasan Dehalvi wrote sonnets. Badruddin, Maulana Moinuddin, Umrani and Hassan Nizami were some of the great Persian writers. Mohammad- bin-Tughalak and Firoz Shah Tughalak were great scholars. Ziauddin Barani and Ibn Batuta were great historians of theTughalak period. Barani started the Tarik-i-Firoz Shahi and it was completed by Shams-i-Siraj Afif. Chand Bardai wrote Prithiviraja Raso, Malik Mohammad Jayasi wrote Padmavati. There was an encouragement for translating works from Sanskrit to Persian.

Art and Architecture: The Sultanate of Delhi introduced the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. It represents a synthesis of the two religious ideals like Hinduism and Islam.

The important features of the Indo-Islamic movements are minarates, arches, domes, hazaras, large gateways etc., Quwat-ul-Islam, Mosque at Delhi and Adai-Dinka-Jhampara Mosque at Ajmer were the earlist creations. The Qutub minar was started by Qutubuddin Aibak and completed by Iltumash. Hauz-i-Shamsi, Jami Masjid and Shamsi Idgah were built by Utumash. The Jami masjid is one of the largest and most beautiful buildings. Allauddin built the palace of Hazar situm (Palace of 1000 pillars), the fort of Siri, Jamait Khan Masjid and the Alai Darwaza at Delhi. Firoz Shah was the greatest of the builders. He laid out the cities of Firozabad, Fatehbad and Janpur.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
When did the first battle of Panipat take place?
Answer:
In 1526 C.E. the first battle of Panipat was fought between Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi.

Question 2.
Who was the founder of the Mughal dynasty.
Answer:
Babur was the founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Question 3.
Who was the Queen of Gondwana?
Answer:
Rani Durgavati was the ruler of Gondwana.

Question 4.
When did the battle of Ilaldighat take place?
Answer:
In 1576, the battle of Ilaldighat took place between Akbar and Rana Pratap Singh (Ruler of Me war).

Question 5.
What was the new religion introduced by Akbar?
Answer:
Din-e-Ilahi was the religion introduced by Akbar in 1581 C.E.

Question 6.
Who was the famous revenue minister of Akbar?
Ans. RajaTodarmal was the famous revenue minister of Akbar.

Question 7.
Who wrote the book ‘IIumayunNama’?
Answer:
Gulbadan Begum wrote the book Humayun Nama.

Question 8.
Who wrote the book Akbar Nama?
Ans. Abul Fazal wrote the book Akbar Nama.

Question 9.
Who wrote the book Ain-i-Akbari?
Answer:
Abul Fazal wrote the book Ain-i-Akbari.

Question 10.
Who was the famous musician in the court of Akbar?
Ans. Tansen (Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas) was the most famous musician in the court of
Akbar.

Question 11.
Who was the Master Architect of Taj Mahal?
Answer:
Ustad Isa Khan was the Master Architect of Taj Mahal.

Question 12.
Whom did Babur defeat in the first battle of Panipat?
Answer:
Ibrahim Lodhi was defeated by Babur.

Question 13.
Who was the famous ruler of the Mughal dynasty?
Answer:
Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar.

Question 14.
Who was the guardian of Akbar? ‘
Answer:
Bairam Khan was the guardian of Akbar.

Question 15.
What is mansabdari system?
Answer:
Mansab means an official rank or power of dignity and such a system was called mansabdari.

Question 16.
Where did Akbarbuild a Red Fort?
Answer:
Akbar built a Red Fort at Agra.

Question 17.
Which new capital was built by Akbar?
Answer:
Fathepur Sikri was the new capital built by Akbar.

Question 18.
What was the name of Todarmal’s revenue system?
Answer:
Aine-i-DahsalaorTodaramaPsBandobust.

Question 19.
Which monument was built by Shah Jahan?
Answer:
Taj Mahal at Agra was built by Shah Jahan.

Question 20.
Who built the Red Fort at Delhi?
Answer:
Shah Jahan built the Red Fort at Delhi.

Question 21.
Who built the Ibadat Khana?
Answer:
Akbar built the Ibadat Khana (Prayer I Tall).

Question 22.
Which humiliating tax on Hindus was abolished by Akbar?
Answer:
In 1564 C.E., Akbar abolished the Jeziya tax on Hindus.

Question 23.
What was Jeziya?
Answer:
Jeziya was the poll tax which was imposed on

non-muslims by the Muslim Rulers of Delhi.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1
When was the second battle of Panipat fought and between whom?
Answer:
The second battle of Panipat was fought between Akbar and Hemu (Chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal) in 1556 C.E. at Panipat.

Question 2.
Where and when was Akbar born?
Answer:
Akbar was born at Amarkot in 1542 C.E. in the house of Ranasala.

Question 3.
Name any two famous historians of Akbar’s period.
Answer:
Abul Fazal and Badauni were the famous historians of Akbar’s period.

Question 4.
Which were the capitals of Akbar? (or) Name the capitals of Akbar.
Answer:
Delhi, Fathepur Sikri, and Udaypur were the capitals of Akbar at different periods.

Question 5.
Name any two types of lands classified by Todarmal.
Answer:
Polaj,Parauti,Chachar,Banjar.

Question 6.
Name the two works of Abul Fazal.
Answer:
AkbarNama,Ain-i-Akbari.

Question 7.
Who built Taj-Mahal? Where is it built?
Answer:
Shah Jahan built it at Agra.

Question 8.
Name any two famous musicians of the Mughal period.
Answer:
Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the famous musicians.

Question 9.
Name some famous Mughal monuments at Delhi.
Answer:
Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Diwan-i-Khas, and Diwan-i-Am.

Question 10.
Who were the parents of Akbar?
Answer:
Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum.

Question 11.
What is IbadatKhana? Where was it built?
Answer:
Ibadat Khana or Prayer hall was a building built by Akbar, at Fatehpur Sikri, where he held religious discussions with the religious leaders.

Question 12.
Name the famous Mahals built by Akbar.
Answer:
The palace of Jodha Bai, Sonhala Makan, Panch Mahal, and Mariyavar Mahal were built by Akbar. .

Question 13.
Who was Raja Todarmal? Why was he famous?
Answer:
Raj a Todarmal was the famous revenue minister of Akbar. lie was famous for implementing the revenue system called Bandobust.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the Religious and Rajput policies of Akbar.
Answer:
Akbar’s policy towards the Rajputs: Rajputs were the powerful enemies of the Mughals. Akbar was a farsighted statesman and the realised the value of Rajput alliances in his task of building an Empire in India for setting up his dynasty. He adopted a very liberal policy towards the Rajputs. As he was bom in the house of a rajput, he had a sense of gratitude and feeling of affection towards them. He tried to win their support by adapting measures like friendly relations, co-operation, matrimonial alliances and appointing many Rajputs as Mansabdars.

At the same time he did not show any weakness towards the Rajputs and never hesitated from taking armed action against them. Akbar settled for friendly alliances, with the Rajput states of Amber, Bikaner, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer as those rulers accepted unconditional submission to the Emperor. He married Jodha Bai, daughter of Biharimal of Amber (Jaipur). Raja Surjan Rai of Ranathambore voluntarily accepted the overlordship of Akbar. Ramachandra, the ruler of Kalinjar surrendered to Akbar in 1569C.E.

Some of the Rajputs were not willing to accept the sovereignty of Akbar. lie attacked Chittor (Mewar) and defeated its ruler Uday Singh in 1568. Uday Singh and his son Rana Pratap Singh continued to fight the Mughals till their death. The important battle fought between the Mughals and Rana Pratap Singh was the battle of Haldighat in 1576. Mewar was completely occupied by Akbar after the death of Rana Pratap Singh.

Akbar freely admitted Rajputs in the royal service. Some of the important persons who held positions of trust and responsibility were RajaTodarmal, Raja Bhagwan Das, Raja Mansingh and others. Akbar’s Rajput policy drew.the Rajputs closer to the muslims and helped in the growth of an Indo-muslim culture which represented the best elements of both.

Religious Policy of Akbar: Akbar was the most enlightened ruler among the Mughals. He was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart, and bring about unity amongst them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration (Sulah-i-Kul) and tried to eliminate the deep lDoted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus.

He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. Akbar abolished the Pilgrimage tax in 1563 and the Jeziya in 1564, a tax imposed on non-muslims. He appointed Plindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. For example, RajaTodarmal was appointed as the revenue minister and several other Hindus were appointed as Governors and mansabdars. He disestablished Islam as the state religion. He respected the sentiments of Hindus and banned cow slaughter. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.

Akbar established the Ibadat Khana (Prayer Hall) at Fatehpur Sikri and held religious discussions. In 1582 C.E., he invited the different religious leaders for discussions, to understand ‘ the essence of their religions, like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam, and Zorastrian. He tried to minimize the influence of the Ulemas.

Akbar issued the infallibility decree in 1579 C.E. (Mehazar). According to it, Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi (Tauhid-i-Ilahi) in 1581 C.E. It was an eclectic creed containing the good points of many of the religions. This religion was based on divine monotheism. It was an honest attempt to unite people of different faiths into a brotherhood based on generally accepted concepts. The Din- i-Ilahi was not a religion in the real sense, it was a socio-religious order.

Akbar’s concept of monotheism and divine religion can be described as ‘There is no God but Allah and Akbar is his Khalifa”. Its followers were awarded four grades, determined by the sacrifice of property, life, honour and being religious, in the service of the Emperor. Din-i-IIahi was a national religion, but it did not become popular, because Akbar never forced anybody to join it. He encouraged intercaste marriages,’ he acted as a national ruler and not as the King of the Muslims. The followers of Ilahi were very small in numbers and after the death of Akbar, it vanished completely.

Question 2.
Briefly write about the administration of Akbar.
Answer:
Administrative system of Akbar: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He established the heritage of Mughal administration and looked after the welfare of the people through a strong central government, It was a benevolent ruler having the welfare of the people, always in his mind and took personal interest in the affairs of the state and looked after every detail of the administration. He provided strength, stability and imperial rule. The . Mughal Emperor was called ‘Padishah or Badshah’. He was considered ‘Shadow of God’ and ruled in accordance with Islamic principles.

1. Central administration: The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. The absolute authority of the King was never clearly defined, and there was practically no check on the Emperor’s powers. He was the supreme lawmaker and generally worked hard to safeguard the interests of the people. Emperor was assisted by a Council of Ministers. They were called the ‘Pillars of the State’. The important ministers were, the Vakil (Prime minister), Diwan-i-Ali (Finance), Mir Bakshi (Military), Sadar-us-Sadar (incharge of charities) Khan-i-Saman (Home), Dewan (Revenue), and Qazi (Chief Justice). The government was divided into a number of departments, each headed by an officer under a minister.

2. Provincial Administration: Akbar’s Empire consisted of 16 provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a Governor called ‘Subedar’, who was responsible for the collection of revenue and maintaining law and order within the province. Some of the important officers of the provinces were Dewan. Bakshi, Sadar, Faujdar, Kdtwal, Qazi etc., Each Suba was divided into a number of Sarkars. Faujdar was the head of a Sarkar and each Sarkar was further divided into a number of Paraganas. Kotwals were incharge of city administration and village was the last unit of administration.

3. Military administration or mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari system’. He evolved this with the help of Mir Bakshi ShahbazKhanin 1571 C.E. The term ‘Mansab’ means rank, dignity or office or position. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place on the basis of his horses, soldiers, his status and salary etc.

This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. The army was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. There were 33 grades of Mansabdars (from controlling 10 to those controlling 10,000 soldiers which was later extended to 50,000). The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will.

The mansabdari system consisted of Zat and Sawar. Zat indicated the number of soldiers a Mansabdar was expected to maintain, while the word Sawar indicated the actual number of horses that he maintained. The salaries of Mansabdars were high. They were generally not paid in cash but were allotted Jagirs, yielding their respective salaries. Mansabdars were directly under the control of the Emperor.

Hence, most of them obeyed the Emperor implicitly. However, the system was not without defects. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers because the loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar who recruited them and paid their salaries and not to the Emperor.

4. Revenue system of Raja Todarmal: Akbar followed the land revenue policy of Allauddin Khilji and Sher Shah. Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581, Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system and introduced what-was known as ‘Zabti system or Ain-dech-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs (Bamboo sticks joined with iron studs). Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soi I. Land was classified as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar Bhoomi. lie collected the aggregate rate of taxation for ten years. It was called ‘ Ain-deeh-Sala’. It was 1/3 of the average of the previous ten year’s produce, The revenue could be paid in cash or kind.

The Emperor was conscious of the welfare of the peasantry. During the days of famine or fall in the yield, fanners were exempted from tax. RajaTodarmal’s revenue policy had provision to provide loans (Taccavi loans) to the culti vatiors. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual installments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobusf’. The state maintained the documents Patta and Qabuliyat, which recorded information regarding the land ownership and land revenue details.

Question 3.
Describe the contributions of Mughals to Literature, Art and Architecture. Literature: The Mughal period witnessed a growth in literature. Many literary works were written in Persian, Hindi, Turkish and Arabic languages. Babar had written his memoirs or ‘Tuzuk – i – Baburi in Turkish. It was translated into Persian by Abdul Rahim. Humayun’s sisterGulbadan Begum wrote TIumayunNama’. Abdul Fazal wrote ‘Ain-i-Akbari’and ‘Akbar Nama’. His style was grand and he was the most remowned Persian writer.

The Tabakat-i-Akbari was written by Nizamuddin. Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Atharva veda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persian. Prince Dara (son of Shahjahan), translated the Upanishads into Persian. Jahangir wrote a book ‘Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri ’. Shahjahan patronized the scholars like Abdul Hamid Lahori who wrote Padshah Nama and Inayat Khan who was the author of Shahjahan Nama.

Hindi Literature: The well known Hindi poets of Akbar’s time were Abdul Rahim, Bhagwandas, Mansingh, Birbal, Tulasidas and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Tulasidas wrote ‘Ramcharitmanas’. Surdas wrote the famous work ‘Sur Sagar’, Ras Khan who was a muslim devotee of Lord Krishna, wrote ‘Prem Vatika’, Malik Mohammad Jaisy wrote the famous epic called ‘Padmavali’. Sundarof Gwalior composed the work ‘Sundar Sringar’. The great Sanskrit scholar Jagannath Pandit wrote ‘Ganga Lahari’. In Bengali, Marathi, Urdu and Gujarathi also, literature progressed during the Mughal rule. Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan were great patrons of literature in their courts.

Art and Architecture: The mughals were great builders and lovers of art and architecture. Their style of architecture was partly foreign and partly indigenous. The important features of the mughal architecture were domes, tall pillars, gateways with domes, arches, minars etc., The mughals built a large variety of secular and religious buildings. Babar built the mosques at Kabulibagh in Panipat and Jami Masjidat Sambal in Rohilkhand. Humayun built mosques at Agra and Fathepur. He built a palace at Delhi called Din-i-Panah.

Sher Shah built his tomb at Sasaram and the Purana Qila at Delhi. Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the Humayun Torpb at Delhi which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai palace and Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikhri. The massive 176 ft Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the tallest Gateway in India. Agra Red Fort. Jamma-Masjid, white marble tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i- Khas, house of Birbal, and Sonhal Makan are some of the most beautiful architectural pieces at Fathepur Sikhri built by Akbar.

The architecture of mughals reached its highest watermark during the reign of Shahjahan. He got built many buildings at Agra, Delhi, Lahore, Kabul, Kashmir, Kandhar, Ajmer and other places. The important buildings of Shahjahan were the Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas. Red Fort and Jamma Masjid in Delhi. Moti Masjid and Taj Mahal in Agra.

Taj Mahal (1632-1653): Taj Mahal at Agra is symbolic of the royal love. Shahjahan built it on the banks of river Yamuna in the memory of his beloved wifeArjumandBanu Begum, who was given the title ‘Mumtaz Mahal’. Taj was construced under the guidance of Ustad – isa -Khan. It took nearly 22 years for the construction to be completed and nearly Rs 3 crores was spent for the purpose. The height of the mahal is 187 ft. It was built of white marble. The Taj is certainly the “finest monument of conjugal love and fidelity”. It is considered as ‘one of the wonders of the modem world”.

Paintings of the Mughal Age: Babur, Akbar and Jahangir were the most important mughal rulers who patronized painting. Babur was a lover of beauty and art. The mughal painting is a mixture of Indian and Persian styles. Indian artists under Akbar, caused the growth of this mughal style. Akbar created a separate department of paintings under the control of Khwaja Abdul Samad. lie gained the title’ Shirim Khaim or Sweet Pen’.

They painted court scenes, historical events and natural scenes. Portraits and miniature paintings were a Mughal speciality. Govardhan, Jagannath, Tarachand, Abdul Sammad, Mir Sayyid Ali, Basawan, Manohar, Bishen Das, Aqa Riza, Abul Hasan, and Ustad Mansur were some of the great artists of this time. Jahangir was an expert judge and critic of paintings.

Music: Mughal Emperors patronized music and musicians. Tansen, Ramdas, Briju Bavara and Surdas were the great musicians in the court of Akbar. Babar, Jahangir and Shahjahan were themselves good singers and composed many lyrics.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Akbar.
Answer:
1. Military achievements of Akbar:
(i) The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Del hi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.

(ii) Conquest of Mai wa: He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior and JaunpurefFortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.

(iii) Conquest of Gondwana : In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.

(iv) Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567: Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. ButUdaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were ki lied in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh ss(Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.

(v) Conquest of Gujarat in 1572: The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.

(vi) Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir: Ranathambore from Roy Suijenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.

(vii) Extent of the Kingdom: The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.

(viii) Conquest of Deccan : Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.

2. Religious policy of Akbar: Akbar was liberal minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus. He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.

Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions. Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.

3. Administration: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.

The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Aii, Mir Bakshi. Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister. Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.

4. Mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status and salary etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar incharge of 10, to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.

The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.

5. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System): Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganized the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. RajaTodarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators.

Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’. The state maintained the documents, Palta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regarding the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.

6. Literature, Art and Architecture : Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Alharvaveda andLeelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion.

Some popular Hindi scholars wereTulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were – (1) Abdul Rahim (2) Abul Fazal, (3) Birbal, (4) Faizi (5) Hamid Human (6) Raja Mansingh (7) Shaikh Mubarak (8)Tansen (9)RajaTodarmal.

Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘HufnayunTomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri. The massive 176 ft.Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.

Question 2.
Evaluate the greatness of Akbar / Estimate the personality of Akbar as a Nation builder / flow did Akbar bring about the unification of north India under him?
Answer:
1. Military achievements of Akbar:
(i) The second battle of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Del hi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.

(ii) Conquest of Mai wa: He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior and JaunpurefFortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.

(iii) Conquest of Gondwana : In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empine.

(iv) Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567: Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. ButUdaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were ki lied in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh ss(Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. Me was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.

(v) Conquest of Gujarat in 1572: The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.

(vi) Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir: Ranathambore from Roy Suijenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.

(vii) Extent of the Kingdom: The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.

(viii) Conquest of Deccan : Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.

2. Religious policy of Akbar: Akbar was liberal-minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep-rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus. He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.

Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions. Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.

3. Administration: Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.

The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Aii, Mir Bakshi. Sadar – us – Sadar, Khan-i-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister. Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.

4. Mansabdari system: Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status and salary etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another.

He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar incharge of 10, to a mansabdar controlling 10,000. The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.

5. Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System): Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganised the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Ain-deeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. RajaTodarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators. Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’. The state maintained the documents, Palta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regaring the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.

6. Literature, Art and Architecture : Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Alharvaveda andLeelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion. Some popular Hindi scholars wereTulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others.

Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were – (1) Abdul Rahim (2) Abul Fazal, (3) Birbal, (4) Faizi (5) Hamid Human (6) Raja Mansingh (7) Shaikh Mubarak (8)Tansen (9)RajaTodarmal.

Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘HufnayunTomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri. The massive 176 ft.Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.

Rise of Marathas – Shivaji

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom?
Answer:
Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom.

Question 2.
Name the treaty signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh.
Answer:
Treaty of Purandhar in 1665 C.E.

Question 3.
What, was the title of Shivaji?
Answer:
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja.

Question 4.
In which year did the coronation ceremony of Shivaji take place?
Answer:
In June 1674 C.E. atRaigadh.

Question 5.
What is meant by‘Chauth’?
Answer:
The neighbouring areas of Shivaji’s Kingdom which were not under the direct rule of Shivaji
were to give 1/4 of their Land revenue collection to him. This was known as Chauth.

Question 6.
Who was Shivaji’s teacher?
Answer:
Dadaji Kondadeva was the teacher of Shivaji.

Question 7.
What was the designation of the prime minister of Shivaji?
Answer:
Shivaji’s prime minister was called as Peshwa. ,

Question 8.
What was the name of the council of eight ministers of Shivaji called as?
Answer:
The counci 1 of eight ministers was called as Ashtapradhanas.

Question 9.
In whose service was Shivaji’s father working?
Answer:
Shivaji’s father was in the military services of the Sultan of Bijapur.

Question 10.
Which was the capital of Shivaji?
Answer:
Raigadh was the capital of Shivaji.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Where and when was Shivaji born?
Answer:
Shivaji was bom at the hill Fort of Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E.

Question 2.
Who were the parents of Shivaji?
Answer:
Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai were the parents of Shivaji.

Question 3.
Who were the two personalities who inspired Shivaji?
Answer:
Dadaji Kondadeva and Jijabai were the two personalities who inspired Shivaji.

Question 4.
Name some important Forts of Shivaji?
Answer:
Shivaneridurga, Raigadh, Purandhar, Chakana, Kondana etc.,

Question 5.
Which were the two important taxes collected by Shivaji?
Answer:
Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the two taxes collected by Shivaji.

Question 6.
Where did Shivaji’s coronation take place? When?
Answer:
Shivaji’s coronation took place at Raigadh, in June 1674 C.E.

Question 7.
Who was the Mughal general defeated by Shivaji at Poona? When?
Answer:
Saista Khan, the Mughal general was defeated by Shivaji at Poona in 1663 C.E.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the life and conquests of Shivaji.
Answer:
Introduction: The decline of Mughals led to the rise of independent states in different parts of India. Among them, the Marathas were prominent. The main objective was protecting the Hindu religion and culture. The disunited people of Marathas were welded together and made a great political power opposing the Mughals. Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom. The hilly tracts of the western edge of the Deccan plateau was the home of the Marathas. Geographical conditions had taught them the spirit of hard work, self reliance and independence. Early life of Shivaji: Shivaji was bom at Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E. His parents were Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai. Shahaji was serving under the Sultan of Bijapur, and he had left Shivaji and Jijabai at Poona.

Jijabai showered all her motherly love and affection on Shivaji. He was greatly influenced by his mother. She narrated stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha (Hindu epics), which made him courageous. His tutor and guide Dadaji Kondadeva also shaped his personality. He trained Shivaji in the art of administration, state craft and military activities. Shivaji was also influenced by Guru Ramdas andTukaram, By their teachings, he developed love towards his motherland. Shivaji mastered the art of guerilla . warfare and the geographical feature of the western deccan also influenced Shivaji.

Political career of Shivaji: Shivaji captured the Fort of Torana from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1646 C.E. He constructed a new Fort at Raigadh. He gained control over his father’s Jahagir. He occupied the Forts of Baramathi, Indapura, Purandar and Kondana. His fame began to grow on account of these achievements.

Shivaji and Afzal Khan (Bijapur) 1659-1663 C.E: The growing strength and popularity of Shi vaji was a threat to the Sultan of Bijapur. Sultan decided to take action against Shivaji, and sent Afzal Khan against him. Shivaji very tactfully killed Afzal Khan in 1659 C.E. near Pratapagada and looted his camp. In 1661, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and recognised his conquests.

Shivaji and the Mughals (Aurangazeb) (1663 C.E.): Shivaji had occupied many territories belonging to Aurangazeb. To check his expansion, Aurangazeb despatched Shaista Khan. Khan succeeded in occupying a vast maratha territory including Poona. UnFortunately, Khan stayed at Poona in the house where Shivaji had spent his childhood. On the 15th April 1663, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan in his bedroom at midnight. In the confusion, Khan lost his finger and his son Abul Fathe and a few khans from the Deccan. This incident increased the popularity of Shivaji.

Attack on Surat (1664 C.E.): In 1664, Shivaji attacked and plundered Surat. Aurangazeb deputed Raja Jai Singh of Amber against Shivaji. He led an expedition and surrounded Shivaji on all sides and captured many of his Forts like Purandhar, Raigadh etc. Shivaji was defeated and was made to sign the treaty of Purandar on 24th June 1665 C.E. According to the treaty of Purandar, (1) Shivaji surrendered 23 Forts to the Mughals and agreed to pay tribute to Aurangazeb. (2) His son, Sambhaji had to serve the Mughal government as a Mansabdar.

Visit to Agra in 1666 C.E.: Due to the compulsion of Jai Singh, Shivaji visited the Mughal court at Agra in 1666 C.E. But Aurangazab did not show him any respect. Shivaji spoke to Aurangazeb in a bold manner and he was imprisoned. Shivaji, using his usual tact and intelligence, pretended to be ill and started sending baskets of sweets for distribution among the Brahmins and poor people.

When the watchmen were, a little relaxed and not alert, Shivaji took advantage of it and escaped from the prison in a sweet basket and reached his Kingdom in the guise of a sanyasi. This incident compelled Aurangazeb to recognise Shivaji as a King. Shivaji reconquered all the Forts that were surrendered earlier to the Mughals as per the treaty of Purandar.

Shivaji’s coronation in June 1674 C.E.: Shivaji was crowned as the Maratha King in 1674 C.E. His coronation took place at Raigadh with great pomp and as per vedic rites. He assumed the title ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja’. After that, a new and strong Hindu Kingdom came up in Deccan. Shivaji died in April 1680 C.E.

Question 2.
Give an account of the administrative system of Shivaji.
Answer:
Administration under Shivaji: Shivaji was not only a conqueror and founder of a Kingdom but also a good administrator. He employed people of all castes and tribes, to maintain a balance. In his administration, he was the sole authority of the government, and he assigned separate responsibilites to ministers and also ensured that no official post turned out to be hereditary. He gave special attention towards administation. He carried on his administration with the help of his ministers called “The Ashtapradhans’. There were 18 departments in Shivaji’s administration.

Shivaji was assisted by Ashtapradhans, the eight ministers. They were:

  1. Peshwa -The Prime minister, who attended to all types of Government activities.
  2. Amatya- Finance Minister.
  3. Mantri – Minister dealing with information, diplomacy, war etc.
  4. Sumant-In charge of foreign affairs of the state.
  5. Sachiva – Home minister who took care of the correspondence of the King.
  6. Pandit Rao – dealt with religious matters and ceremonies (Chief priest)
  7. Senapati or Sar-i-Navbat- Commander in Chief of the Army.
  8. Nyayadhisha – (Chief Justice) who dealt with both civil and criminal Justice.

1. Divisions of the Kingdom: (Provincial Government): Shivaji divided his Kingdom into four Provinces which were called ‘Swarajya’. Each province was controlled by a Viceroy called ‘Sardeshmukh’.EachSwarajyawasdividedintoDeshas whose head waS ‘Deshmukh’. Deshas were further divided into ‘Paraganas’. Desai was the head of aParagana. Village was the last unit of administration. The village administration was looked after by the village assembly (panchayat). Patel was the executive officer of the village. Shivaji abolished the practice of granting Jagirs.

2. Military Administration : Shivaji’s Kingdom was a military state. The army consisted of infantry, cavalary and navy. He maintained a well equipped, disciplined army. Senapathi was the incharge of the army. The foot soldiers were specially trained in guerilla and mountain warfare. The soldiers were paid regular fixed salary. 25 soldiers were placed under a Havaldar, 5 Havaldars were under the control of a Jamladar, 10 Jamladars were under a Hazari, and 5 Hazaris were commanded by a Panjhazari. Shivaji had a fleet, which was stationed at Kolaba. He checked and limited the power of Jinijras the militant tribals. His troops were armed with swords, spears, bows, arrows, daggers, muskets, etc. Hindus and Muslims were recruited in to the maratha army without any discrimination.

3. Judicial System: The King was the highest court of appeal. The civil causes were decided by the village panchayat and criminal cases were decided by Governors. The Judgements of the village court had royal recognition. The King and Nyayadhisha heard over the appeals. Nyayadhisha was responsible for civil and military justices.

4. Revenue System: Shivaji established an excellent revenue system. The assessment was made after a survey and classification of the land according to its fertility and yield. The state demand was fixed at 30% of the total produce. The revenue was to be paid either in cash or kind. In the time of famine, the land revenue was exempted. Landowners were given, a ‘Patta’ and the Jahagir system was abdishod. Regular payment of salary was introduced. Shivaji arranged loans for peasants to encourage cultivation. He levied taxes called ‘Chauth and Sardeshmukhi’.

Assessment: Shivaji occupies an important place in the Indian history. He was brave, adventurous and a bom leader of men. He founded the Maratha Kingdom, and gave to it a very fine rule of administration. He was a good judge of men and tolerant of other religions. He restored Hindu religion and culture. According to K.M. Panicker, “Shivaji was one of the greatest nation builders of the world”.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following question :

Question 1.
Estimate the role of Shivaji as a great conqueror and Empire builder.
Answer:
Introduction: The decline of Mughals led to the rise of independent states in different parts of India. Among them, the marathas were prominent. The main objective was protecting the Hindu religion and culture. The disunited people of Marathas were welded together and made a great political power opposing the Mughals. Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom. The hilly tracts of the western edge of the Deccan plateau was the home of the Marathas. Geographical conditions had taught them the spirit of hard work, self-reliance and independence. Early life of Shivaji: Shivaji was born at Shivaneridurga in 1627 C.E.

His parents were Shahaji Bhonsle and Jijabai. Shahaji was serving under the Sultan of Bijapur, and he had left Shivaji and Jijabai at Poona. Jijabai showered all her motherly love and affection on Shivaji. He was greatly influenced by his mother. She narrated stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha (Hindu epics), which made him courageous. His tutor and guide Dadaji Kondadeva also shaped his personality.

He trained Shivaji in the art of administration, state craft and military activities. Shivaji was also influenced by Guru Ramdas and Tukaram, By their teachings, he developed love towards his motherland. Shivaji mastered the art of guerilla. warfare and the geographical feature of the western deccan also influenced Shivaji.

Political career of Shivaji: Shivaji captured the Fort of Torana from the Sultan of Bijapur in 1646 C.E. He constructed a new Fort at Raigadh. He gained control over his father’s Jahagir. He occupied the Forts of Baramathi, Indapura, Purandar and Kondana. His fame began to grow on account of these achievements.

Shivaji and Afzal Khan (Bijapur) 1659-1663 C.E: The growing strength and popularity of Shi vaji was a threat to the Sultan of Bijapur. Sultan decided to take action against Shivaji, and sent Afzal Khan against him. Shivaji very tactfully killed Afzal Khan in 1659 C.E. near Pratapagada and looted his camp. In 1661, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and recognised his conquests.

Shivaji and the Mughals (Aurangazeb) (1663 C.E.): Shivaji had occupied many territories belonging to Aurangazeb. To check his expansion, Aurangazeb despatched Shaista Khan. Khan succeeded in occupying a vast maratha territory including Poona. Unfortunately, Khan stayed at Poona in the house where Shivaji had spent his childhood. On the 15th April 1663, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan in his bedroom at midnight. In the confusion, Khan lost his finger and his son Abul Fathe and a few khans from the Deccan. This incident increased the popularity of Shivaji.

Attack on Surat (1664 C.E.): In 1664, Shivaji attacked and plundered Surat. Aurangazeb deputed Raja Jai Singh of Amber against Shivaji. He led an expedition and surrounded Shivaji on all sides and captured many of his Forts like Purandhar, Raigadh etc. Shivaji was defeated and was made to sign the treaty of Purandar on 24th June 1665 C.E. According to the treaty of Purandar, (1) Shivaji surrendered 23 Forts to the Mughals and agreed to pay tribute to Aurangazeb. (2) His son, Sambhaji had to serve the Mughal government as a Mansabdar.

Visit to Agra in 1666 C.E.: Due to the compulsion of Jai Singh, Shivaji visited the Mughal court at Agra in 1666 C.E. But Aurangazab did not show him any respect. Shivaji spoke to Aurangazeb in a bold manner and he was imprisoned. Shivaji, using his usual tact and intelligence, pretended to be ill and started sending baskets of sweets for distribution among the Brahmins and poor people.

When the watchmen were, a little relaxed and not alert, Shivaji took advantage of it and escaped from the prison in a sweet basket and reached his Kingdom in the guise of a sanyasi. This incident compelled Aurangazeb to recognise Shivaji as a King. Shivaji reconquered all the Forts that were surrendered earlier to the Mughals as per the treaty of Purandar.

Shivaji’s coronation in June 1674 C.E.: Shivaji was crowned as the Maratha King in 1674 C.E. His coronation took place at Raigadh with great pomp and as per vedic rites. He assumed the title ‘Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaja’. After that, a new and strong Hindu Kingdom came up in Deccan. Shivaji died in April 1680 C.E.

Administration under Shivaji: Shivaji was not only a conqueror and founder of a Kingdom but also a good administrator. He employed people of all castes and tribes, to maintain a balance. In his administration, he was the sole authority of the government, and he assigned separate responsibilities to ministers and also ensured that no official post turned out to be hereditary. He gave special attention towards administration. He carried on his administration with the help of his ministers called “The Ashtapradhans’. There were 18 departments in Shivaji’s administration.

Shivaji was assisted by Ashtapradhans, the eight ministers. They were:

  1. Peshwa -The Prime minister, who attended to all types of Government activities.
  2. Amatya- Finance Minister.
  3. Mantri – Minister dealing with information, diplomacy, war etc.
  4. Sumant-In charge of foreign affairs of the state.
  5. Sachi va – Home minister who took care of the correspondence of the King.
  6. Pandit Rao – dealt with religious matters and ceremonies (Chief priest)
  7. Senapati or Sar-i-Navbat- Commander in Chief of the Army.
  8. Nyayadhisha – (Chief Justice) who dealt with both civil and criminal Justice.

1. Divisions of the Kingdom: (Provincial Government): Shivaji divided his Kingdom into four Provinces which were called ‘Swarajya’. Each province was controlled by a Viceroy called ‘Sardeshmukh’.EachSwarajyawasdividedintoDeshas whose head was ‘Deshmukh’. Deshas were further divided into ‘Paraganas’. Desai was the head of aParagana. Village was the last unit of administration. The village administration was looked after by the village assembly (panchayat). Patel was the executive officer of the village. Shivaji abolished the practice of granting Jagirs.

2. Military Administration : Shivaji’s Kingdom was a military state. The army consisted of infantry, cavalary and navy. He maintained a well equipped, disciplined army. Senapathi was the incharge of the army. The foot soldiers were specially trained in guerilla and mountain warfare. The soldiers were paid regular fixed salary. 25 soldiers were placed under a Havaldar, 5 Havaldars were under the control of a Jamladar, 10 Jamladars were under a Hazari, and 5 v Hazaris were commanded by a Panjhazari. Shivaji had a fleet, which was stationed at Kolaba.

He checked and limited the power of Jinijras the militant tribals. His troops were armed with swords, spears, bows, arrows, daggers, muskets, etc. Hindus and Muslims were recruited in to the maratha army without any discrimination.

3. Judicial System: The King was the highest court of appeal. The civil causes were decided by the village panchayat and criminal cases were decided by Governors. The Judgements of the village court had royal recognition. The King and Nyayadhisha heard over the appeals. Nyayadhisha was responsible for civil and military justices.

4. Revenue System: Shivaji established an excellent revenue system. The assessment was made after a survey and classification of the land according to its fertility and yield. The state demand was fixed at 30% of the total produce. The revenue was to be paid either in cash or kind. In the time of famine, the land revenue was exempted. Landowners were given, a ‘Patta’ and the Jahagir system was abdishod. Regular payment of salary was introduced. Shivaji arranged loans for peasants to encourage cultivation. He levied taxes called ‘Chauth and Sardeshmukhi’.

Assessment: Shivaji occupies an important place in the Indian history. He was brave, adventurous and a bom leader of men. He founded the Maratha Kingdom, and gave to it a very fine rule of administration. He was a good judge of men and tolerant of other religions. He restored Hindu religion and culture. According to K.M. Panicker, “Shivaji was one of the greatest nation builders of the world”.

Vijayanagara Empire

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which was the Capital of the Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
First capital was Anegondi, near Hampi. Later Hampi was made the capital.

Question 2.
Who was the first Ruler of Vijayanagara?
Answer:
Ilarihara was the first Ruler of Vijayanagara.

Question 3.
To which dynasty did Krishnadevaraya belong?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya belonged to Tuluva dynasty.

Question 4.
Who was the greatest Ruler of Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya was the greatest Ruler of Vijayanagara Empire.

Question 5.
Who had the title ‘Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya’?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya assumed the title Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya.

Question 6.
Name the Persian Ambassador who visited the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
The Persian Ambassador Abdul Razzak visited the court of Devaraya-II.

Question 7.
Who was the author of ‘Madhura Vijayam’?
Answer:
Gangambika wrote Madhura Vijayam (or) Veerakanparaya Charitam.

Question 8.
Which battle led to the downfall of Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
Battle of Talikote or Rakkasa-Tangadi in 1565 C.E.

Question 9.
Who was the founder of Bengaluru?
Answer:
Kenpegowda-1 was the founder of Bengaluru in 1537 C.E.

Question 10.
Who is called as’Navakoti Narayana’?
Answer:
Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704 C.E.)

Question 11.
What was Shivappa Nayaka’s’Shistu’?
Answer:
Shivappa Nayaka introduced the Land Revenue reforms which are called Shivappa Nayaka’s Shistu.

Question 12.
Who built the Fort of Chitradurga?
Answer:
Madakari Nayaka- V (1754-1779 C.E.) built the Chitradurga Fort.

Question 13.
Name the Lady who defended the Chitradurga fort?
Answer:
Obavva, heroically protected Chitradurga fort from Hyder Ali.

Question 14.
Name the Ruler who started the Mysore Dasara.
Answer:
Raja Wodeyar in 1610 C.E.

Question 15.
On the banks of which river was the city of Vijayanagara founded?
Answer:
On the banks of river Tungabhadra.

Question 16.
Which was the emblem of the Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
Varaha (pig) was the royal emblem of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Question 17.
In whose court did the ‘Ashtadiggajas’ flourish?
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya patronised the Ashtadiggajas in his court.

Question 18.
Who was called ‘Andhra Kavi Pitamaha’?
Answer:
Allasani Peddanna was called as ‘Andhra Kavi Pitamaha’.

Question 19.
Which was the capital of Vijayanagara after the Battle ofTalikote?
Answer:
Penugonda became the capital of Vijayanagara after the Talikote Battle under the Aravidu dynasty.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were the founders of Vijayanagara Empire? When was it founded?
Answer:
HariharaandBukkaraya-14thApril 1336C.E.

Question 2.
Mention the literary works of Krishnadevaraya.
Answer:
Krishandevaraya wrote ‘Amuktamalyada’ in Telugu,Jambavathi Kalyana, Madalasacharithe, Rasamanjari and Ushaparinayam in Sanskrit.

Question 3.
Mention any four titles of Krishnadevaraya.
Answer:
Kannadarajyaramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakandhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharyaetc.,

Question 4.
Who worte’Manucharitamu’and what was his title?
Answer:
Allasani Peddanna-Andhra Kavita Pitamaha.

Question 5.
Mention any four titles of Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.
Answer:
Apratimavecra, Navakoti Narayana, Maharashtrabhupala Jalaripu, Karnataka Chakravarti, Tenkanaraja, Dharma Prabhu etc., were the titles assumed by Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.

Question 6.
Which was the first Kannada drama? Who wrote it?
Answer:
The first drama in Kannada was ‘Mitravinda Govinda’ written by Singararaya, the court poet of Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.

Question 7.
Who wrote Hadibadeya Dharma and which King encouraged her?
Answer:
Sanchi Honnamma – Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar.

Question 8.
Who was Shivappa Nayaka and why was he famous?
Answer:
Shivappa Nayaka was a famous Ruler of the Keladi dynasty. He was famous for his Land Revenue settlement system called’Shistu’.

Question 9.
Which were the four dynasties that ruled the Vijayanagara Empire?
Answer:
1) Sangama dynasty 2) Saluva dynasty 3) Tuluva dynasty and 4) Aravidu Dynasty, ruled the Vijayanagara Empire.

Question 10.
Who was the brave Lady who protected the Fort of Chitradurga and how she did it?
Answer:
Obavva was the brave Lady, who protected the Fort of Chitradurga by killing the soldiers of HyderAli.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What were the causes and results of the Battle of Talikote? (or) How was Aliya Ramaraya responsible for the Battle of Talikote.
Answer:
The decisive battle ofTalikote was fought in 1565 C.E. between the Vijayanagara (Aliya Ramaraya) Rulers and the combined forces of Shahi Kingdoms on the Banks of river Krishna.

1. Supremacy over the Doab region: The fertile doab area between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra became a bone of contention between the two powers and hence responsible for that battle.

2. Religious difference: The religious and cultural differences between the Hindu Vijayanagara and the Muslim Shahi Kingdoms was one of the causes for the battle.

3. Foreign policy of Aliya Ramaraya: Aliya Ramraya interfered in the internal disputes of the Shahis. He followed the policy of divide and rule with the Shahis of Bijapura and Ahmadnagar. The Shahis forgot their enmity and united through various alliances.
The Sultans of the Deccan (Bijapura, Ahmadhagar, Golkonda, Bidar) realized that Ramaraya’s power had increased immensely due to the lack of unity among themselves. They decided to sink their differences and unite in the name of the religion against the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara.

4. Immediate Cause: Ali Adil Shah of Bijapura demanded the return of Raichur. But Ramaraya refused and asked the Sultan to fight and win it in the battle field. This was the immediate cause for the battle. Course of the battle: Bahamani Sultans set aside their differences and organized a confederacy against Vijayanagara. The combined forces of Bidar. Bijapura, Ahamadnagar and Golkonda marched and crossed the river Krishna and camped at a place between the villages Rakkasagi andTangadagi. Aliya Ramaraya decided to meet this challenge with all his might. Ramaraya personally led the army with his two brothers.

The battle took place on 23rd January 1565 C.E. In the beginning Vijayanagara forces gained upper hand. But during the course of the battle, Ramaraya was captured by the Shahi soldiers and beheaded and his head was paraded in the battle field. This created panic among the Vijayanagara soldiers. They ran away from the battle field. The Shahis won the battle. Venkatadri and Tirumala hurriedly went back to Vijayanagara, took as much wealth as they can carry and fled to Penugonda. This debacle led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.

  1. Vijayanagara Empire lost its glory. The successful Shahi army looted the city of Vijayanagara.
  2. Aravidu dynasty continued under the name of Vijayanagara with its new capital at Penugonda in Andhra Pradesh.
  3. The Golkonda and Bijapur Sultans captured the northen territories. The feudatories of Vijayanagara like Nayakas and Palegars proclaimed themselves independent. This led to the disintegration of the Vijayanagara Empire.
  4. The destruction of the capital city and decline of the Vijayanagara Empire adversely affected the Portuguese trade in India.

Question 2.
Describe the Art and Architecture of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
Art and Architecture: The Vijayanagara Rulers were great patrons of Art and Architecuture. They used the Dravidian style of Architecture and later added some unique features to it and it came to be called ‘Vijayanagara Style’ of architecture. Hampi was a great centre of Ait and Architecture. Percy brown remarks that “Vijayanagara Art as the supremely passionate flowering of the Dravidian Art”.

The main features of Vijayanagara Art and Architecture:

  1. The Vijayanagara Rulers built high (Huge) towers called ‘Raya Gopuras’ above the gateways of the temples.
  2. The Kalyana Mantapa at the temple stands on a rectangular platform of 5ft height. The roof of the mantapa is supported by stone pillars and it has no walls around it.
  3. The temples consist of Garbhagriha, Sukhanasi, Mahamantapa and Ardhamantapa. An additional Garbhagriha (Sanctum) for the female deity.
  4. The remarkable feature of the Vijayanagara temples is the intricate carving on the pillers. A number of pillers were carved each in a unique style.
  5. The walls of the temples contain sculptures of Folklore, Gods, Goddesses, Elephants, Horses etc.,

The earliest creation of the Vijayanagara Empire is the most beautiful. Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri which clearly marks the transition from Hoysala to Vijayanagara Style. Temples of this period are found chiefly in Tirupathi, Kanchi, Srirangam, Hampi, Lepakshi, Sringeri, Srisailam, Nandi, Madurai, Chidambaram. Tadapatri etc., The monuments of Vijayanagara are scattered throughout South Indi a.

Important temples in Hampi: The best specimens of the Vijayanagara Architecture are found in the city of Hampi. The temples of Virupaksha, Hajara Ramaswamy, Vijaya Vittalaswamy, Krishnaswamy, Achyutaraya, Mahanavami Dibba and the stone Chariot are noteworthy. The walls and pillers of the Ramaswamy temple are decorated with the scenes from Ramayana. The Lotus (Kamala) Mahal is an excellent example of Islamic style of Architecture. The Ganesha and Narasimha images, the elephant stables, the Queen’s Bath, the Watchtower, The Royal Mint and the market place are also in Hampi.

Sculpture: Religion was the main theme for the sculptures of Vijayanagara. Kadalekalu, Sasivekalu Ganesha and Laxmi Narasimha statues at Hampi are notable. Irugappa Dandanayaka at Tiruparuttikunram was the earliest example of this period. The copper Images of Krishnadevaraya and his two Queens,Tirumaladevi and Chinnadevi at Tirumala are in a devotional mode. Astone statue of Krishnadevaraya is found at Chidambaram.

Paintings: Hampi, Anegondi and Lepakshi were centres of Vijayanagara paintings. Virupaksha temple at Hampi has beautiful paintings depicting Girija Kalyana, Madana Vijaya and Tripura Samhara. The Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi has on its ceilings paintings representing stories from Shivapurana and is called the ‘Ajantha of the Saivas’.

Fine Art: Dancing and Music were encouraged during Vijayanagara period. Vadiraja, Vyasathirtha, Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa belonged to this tradition. They composed devotional songs called ‘Keerthans’. Purandaradasa is called the ‘Father of Kamatic Music’. There were a good number of dancing halls at Vijayanagara. Bandham Laxminarayana was a dance master in the court of Krishnadevaraya.

Question 3.
Explain the foreign accounts regarding Vijayanagara
(or)
Write a note on Vijayanagara in the view of foreign travellers.
Answer:
Foreign Accounts: Many visitors and travellers visited Vijayanagara from time to time and they have left their observations in writing vividly and these observations are very good sources for reconstructing history.

1. Nicolo Conti: This Italian traveller visited Vijayanagara (Hampi) during Devaraya-I’s reign in 1421C. E. He says “Vijayanagara is surrounded by mountains. Its circumference is 60 miles. The fort walls have been extended almost right up to the foot of the hillocks and there are nearly 90,000 soldiers. Vijayanagara is the most prosperous and grand city. The King is very powerful”.

2. Abdul Razzak : He was the Persion Ambassador to the court of Devaraya – II in 1443 C. E. He says about Vijayanagara (Hampi) that ‘The world had never seen such a glorious Kingdom. The city is surrounded by seven fortification walls, the King is powerful. People loved roses and they were sold everywhere. Precious stones like rubies, diamonds and jewels were sold in the open market without any fear of risk”. He also explained about the celebration of Mahanavami festival with great splendour.

3. Niketin: He was a Russian traveller, who visited the Bahamani Kingdom in 1470 C.E. He wrote about the army, natural defense of the city and its wealth, the social life and splendour of the King etc., in the neighbouring Vijayanagara Empire.

4. Durate Barbosa : He was a Portuguese traveller who visited the court of Krishnadevaraya in 1514 C.E. He gives information about the trade and commerce of Vijayanagara and the fact that the King used to hold discussions with his ministers in the conference hall.

5. Domingo Paes: He was a Portuguese traveller who visited the court of Krishnadevaraya in 1520 C.E. He wrote about the daily life of the people, the city, about the temples, Emperor, festivals etc. He has also referred to Krishnadevaraya’s enormous wealth and about his treasury.

6. Fernao Nuniz: He was a Portugal traveller who reached Vijayanagara in 1535 during the period ofAchyutaraya. His accounts throw light on the political and cultural activities of the Vijayanagara Empire. He says that Vijayanagara was a city with the best basic amenities in the world.

7. Ceasar Fredericci: He was an Italian traveller who visited Vijayanagara in 1567 C.E. According to his accounts, Vijayanagara was a ruined city after the Talikote battle. He also says that the people did not live there and only wild animals were living.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Ten Marks Questions and Answers

IV. Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 sentences each.

Question 1.
Write a note on the achievements of Krishnadevaraya.
Answer:
Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529 C.E.) Krishnadevaraya of theTuluva dynasty was the greatest Ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the son of TuluvaNarasanayaka and Nagaladevi He came to the throne in 1509 C.E. The glory and prestige of the Kingdom reached its zenith during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. He got a good training under his Prime minister’Timmarasa whom he called as Appaji.

Military achievements of Krishnadevaraya :

1. The war of 1510 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya had to fight a war against Mohammed Shah of Bidar and Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur whose combined army attacked Vijayanagara. A battle took place in 1510 C.E. near Doni, in which the Muslim army was routed and it ran away from the battle field. Krishnadevaraya pursued the enemy forces upto Govilkonda and once again defeated them. He then occupied the Fort of Raichur and the Krishna-Tungabhadra doab area.

2. Siege of Unimatturu-1513 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya marched against the rebellious chief, Gangaraja of Ummatturu. Gangaraja was defeated and the forts of Shivanasainudra and Srirangapattana were captured. Krishnadevaraya created a new province with its head quarters at Srirangapattana.

3. Kalinga (Orissa) expedition -1513-1518 C.E.: Krishnadevaraya took an expedition to Kalinga to defeat the Gajapalhi Ruler, Prataparudra, which was achieved in stages. Udayagiri Fort was captured first. Next, he signed the Fort of Kondavidu and del bated the Reddies. The administration of the Krishna region of Andhra was entrusted to Salva Thimma. Then he captured the Forts of Vijayawada and Kondapalli. Later, the rest of the Telangana region came under his rule. When the Vijayanagara army reached Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapathis, King Prataparudradcva capitulated and settled for peace in 1518 C.E.

4. Battle or Raichur-1520 C. E.: When Krishnadevaraya was busily engage.! in his Orissa campaign, Sultan Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur recaptured the fort of Raichur. In 1520, Krishnadevaraya marched against the Sultan, defeated him and took back the Fort of Raichur. In this battle, the Portuguese musketeers helped the Vijayanagara army.

5. Captured the Fort of Gulbarga -1523: Krishnadevaraya went as far as Bijapura, From here, he went to Gulbarga and defeated Amir Barid. Then he went upto Bidar and released the Bahamani Sultan, who had been imprisoned by his own subordinates and placed him on the throne of Gulbarga and took the title ‘Yavanarajya Pralishtapanacharya’.

6. Relation with the Portuguese: Krishnadevaraya maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese at Goa. He did not give help to Albuquerque to conquer Goa from the Bijapur Sultan in 1510 C.E. lie gave permission to the Portuguese to build Fort at Bhatkal. Durate Barbosa (1514-1515 C.E.) and Domingo Paes (1520 C.E.) vis and the court of Krishnadevaraya. They have given information about the Vijayanaga i trade and the personality of Krishnadevaraya.

7. Peace in Ceylon: There was political instability in Ceylon (Srilanka) There wen revolts against King Vijayabahu. Krishnadevaraya intervened in its political affairs and peace was established. Bhuvanaikyabahu, the son of Vijayabahu was brought to power.

8. Extend of his Empirer The Empire extended from river Krishna and Godavari in the North, to Kanyakumari in the South and from the Arabian Sea in the West to the way of Bengal in the East.

Patronage to Literature : Krishnadevaraya was not only a great Ruler but also a agreat scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’ in Telugu, Jambavathi Kalyanam Ushaparinayam, Madalasa Charithe and Rasamanjari in Sanskrit. He patronized eights Telugu poets popularly called as the ‘Ashtadiggajas’. He honoured the great scholar vyasateertha and Allasani Peddanna was conferred with the title ‘AndraKaviPitamaha’. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

He abolished the marriage tax. In memory of his mother Nagaladevi, he built a new city called Nagalapura and he built Purandara Mantapa at Hampi. He built many tanks and canals for both drinking water and irrigation purposes. He was a devotee of Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati. He had many titles like Kannadarajya Ramaramana, Kavipungava, Karnatakandhrabhoja, Yavanarajya Pratishthapanacharya etc., The last days of Krishnadevaraya were unhappy. Due to his only son Tirumala’s death under mysterious circumstances in 1524 C. E., Krishnadevaraya was much grieved and died in 1529 C.E.

Question 2.
Describe the Cultural contributions of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Answer:
Administration : Vijayanagara Rulers provided internal peace to the Empire and protection from external threats. They introduced a strong central Government along with decentralization of power.
Central Administration: Monarchy was the existing system. The King was the supreme authority of the state. He enjoyed enormous powers but he always worked for the welfare of the people. The King was the highest court of appeal. Law was based on customs and traditions punishments were very severe like death sentences, trampling to death etc.,

Kingship was hereditary. The King was assisted by a ‘Council of Ministers’ headed by the Prime Minister called ‘Maha Pradhani’. The council of ministers played an important role in the administration. They supervised over many departments and advised the King in taking proper decisions. Important officers were Upa Pradhani (Deputy P.M), Danda Nayaka, Mahasamantadipati (Minister of Feudatories), Raya Bhandari (Treasurer), Sabhanayaka (Leader of the council), Mahasandivigrahi (Foreign Affairs). Yuvaraja was associated with the administration.

Provincial Administration: There were two types of provinces in the Vijayanagara Empire. They were:

1. Provinces which were under the direct rule by the King’s representatives.
2. The provincial rule by the feudatories (Nayakas), which VMS called the Nayankara system.

The Nayankara system gave more autonomy to the feudatories. The King had the power to transfer or remove the provincial officers. Nayakas were to pay annual tributes to the King and had to maintain military troops for wars. These Nayakas maintained Military and Civil representatives in the court of the King. Rajya was further divided into Vishaya and Nadu. Village administration: The village was the last unit of the administration. Village had its own assemblies (Gramapanchyat). The social, administrative and judicial matters in the village were taken care of by the local assemblies. The head of the village administration was ‘Gouda’. Collection of revenue was his main duty and accounts were looked after by the Karanika. Talawara discharged the duties of a policeman.

Revenue System: Land Revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was nearly 1/6 of the gross produce. Property tax, commercial tax, tax on industries, war booty, judicial fines, and taxs of all professions including prostitution, customs and toll were the other sources of income. Taxes were collected either in cash or in kind.

Military Administration: Vijayanagara Empire had a strong military to safeguard the vast area from its enemies. The army administration was looked after by the ‘Dandanayaka’. The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, elephants and artillery. Forts played an important role in the defensive warfare.

2. Social conditions:
1. Caste System: The Vijayanagara society was divided into four castes namely Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. Brahmans had a high position in the society. Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, weavers, farmers and traders played very important role in the social activities. Social harmony existed in the Empire.

2. Position of Woman : Woman enjoyed a respectable position in the society. They participated in activities like dancing and singing. Few women received education, but they were confined to household work. Social evils like dowry, sati, devadasi, prostitution child marriage and polygamy existed in that society.

3. Social Harmony: Muslims settled in the Empire and they were given security by the Kings. Mosques were built for prayers and Quran was placed in a respectable place. The members of the Royal family worshipped Hindu, Buddha and Jain deities and followed the common tenets of these religions. Hence it is clear that social harmony prevailed in the Vijayanagara Empire. Dasara, Holi and Deepavali were the national festivals. People observed these festivals with great pomp and splendour.

3. Economic Condition: .
1. Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Land revenue was fixed on the basis of the quality of soil. Land was divided into wet, dry and horticultural land. Rice, wheat, cotton, pulses, spices, arecanuts, ginger, fruits, turmeric etc., were the main products of agriculture.

2. Irrigation: They gave much attention for irrigation. Large number of wells, tanks, lakes, canals and dams were constructed. A huge tank was constructed by Krishnadc varaya near Nagalapura. ADam and a Raya canal were also built by him at Korrangal.

3. Trade and commerce: Internal and external trade flourished under the Vijayanagara Rulers. Vijrakurur mines in Andhra Pradesh supplied the most valuable diamonds. Main exports of the time were cloth, rice, suger, spices, iron etc., The important imports were elephants, horses, pearls, coral, mercury, silks etc., Udayagiri, Tanjore, Madurai, Calicut , Mangalore, Barakur and Bhatkal were the main centers of trade. There were about two hundred ports in the eastern and western coasts. The standard currency was the gold (Varaha) pon. Visa, Kasu and Pagods were the other coins.

Religion: Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged and ensured religious tolerance among the Hindus, Jains and Muslims. The Sangama Rulers encouraged Shaivism and the later Rulers gave importance to Vaishnavism. Devaraya – II built a Jain basadi in the Empire-during his reign. Shravanabelgola inscription of Bukka -1 refers to the peace treaty between the Srivaishnavas and Jains. The Vachana Movement was popular during this time.

The Varkari Movement of 1 .ord Vittala of Pandrapura and the Dasakuta tradition were encouraged. Hampi, Sringeri, Shravanabclagola, Shrishaila, Srikalahashti, Ahobilam, Madurai, Srirangam were the important religious centres. Temples and Mathas were the notable religious institutions. The temples were places of worship and Mathas stood for the spread of religious principles. They encouraged Educatioreand Culture.

Education and Literature: Mathas, Agraharas and Temples played an important role in imparting education. ‘Dhulakshara’ was a system of education, which is referred to in Mohanatarangini’ of Kanakadasa. It was a system of learning to write on sand. Primary education was called ‘Balabodha’. 1 lampi, Kodimatha, Sringeri, Ycdiyur, Kunigal etc., were notable centers of education of that time.

Iiterature: The Vijayanagara Rulers encouraged Sanskrit, Kannada and Telugu literature. I larihara, Bukkaraya, Devaraya – II and Krishnadevaraya extended liberal patronage to scholars and poets. Some important literary works of the period are:

Sanskrit Works: Vidyaranya was a prolific writer in Sanskrit, he wrote more than 60 works. Madhava – Sayana wrote Parasara Madhaviya, Gangadevi, Queen of Veerakampan wrote Maduravijayam (Veerakamparaya Charitam), Tirumalamba wrote Varadambikaprinayam. Gum Vidyaranya wrote Raja Kalanimaya. Krishanadevaraya wrote Madalasacharite, Rasamanjari, Jambavali Kalyanam, Usha Parinayam etc.,

Kannada Works: Tontada Siddalingeshwara wrote Vachanas, Kumaravyasa – Karnataka Kathamanjari (Gadugina Bharala), Nanjunda Kavi – Kumara Ramanakathe, Siddalinga Yathi wrote Shunyasampadane, Ratnakarvami – Bharatesha Vaibhava, Bhimakavi – Basavapurana, Chamarasa – Prabhulingaleeie, Kanakadasa – MohanaTarangini, Nala Charita, Haribhakti Sara etc., Purandaradasa – Keertans, Virupakshapandita – Channabasapurana Narahari – Toravc Ramayana, Nijaguna Shivayogi – Viveka Chintamani.

Telugu : Krishnadevaraya was a great scholar in Telugu. He wrote Amukta Malyada in Telugu. I le patronized eight great Telugu poets in his court who were called ‘Ashtadiggajas’. Allasani Peddanna revered as the father of Telugu was conferred with the title of’Andhrakavi Pitamaha’. Srinatha wrote Kashikhanda Nachaha, Somanatha wrote Harivamsha, Allasani Peddanna wrote Manucharitamu, Vemana wrote poems. Krishnadevaraya is often described as ‘Andhra Bhoja’.

Bahamani and Adil Shahi Sultans

2nd PUC History Medieval Period One Mark Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following questions in one word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Bahamani dynasty?
Answer:
Allaud-din-Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah.

Question 2.
Who was the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty?
Answer:
Yusuf Adil Khan was the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty.

Question 3.
Who built the Ibrahim Roza?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adi 1 Shah-II built the Roza at Bijapur. .

Question 4.
Who built the Madarasa at Bidar?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan builtthe Madarasa at Bidar.

Question 5.
Which is the biggest Mosque in south India?
Answer:
Jami Masjid at Gulbarga is the biggest Mosque in south India.

Question 6.
Who was called ‘Jagadguru Badshah’?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil Shah-II was called Jagadguru Badshah.

Question 7.
Who wrote the book ‘Kitab-i-Navaras?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil-Shah-II.

Question 8.
Which city was the first capital of the Bahamani Kingdom?
Answer:
Gulbarga (Kalburgi) was the first capital of Bahamani Sultans.

Question 9.
What was the former name of Allud-din-IIasan Gangu Bahaman Shah?
Answer:
Zafar Khan was the former name of Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah.

Question 10.
Who was Mahmud Gawan?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan was the Prime Minister of Mohammad Shah-III.

Question 11.
Which was the birth place of Mahmud Gawan?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan was bom in 1411 C.E., at Gawan in Persia.

Question 12.
Which was the earliest Mosque built by the Bahamani Sultans?
Answer:
Jama Masjid at Gulbarga (Ahsanabad) was the earliest Mosque built by (Mohammad Shah I) the Bahamani Sultans, in 1367 C.E.

Question 13.
Which was the second capital of the Bahamani Kingdom?
Answer:
Bidar was made the second capital of the Bahamani Kingdom, in 1422 C.E.

Question 14.
Whose capital was Bijapur?
Answer:
Bijapur was the capital of the AdilShahis.

Question 15.
Who was the famous Sultan in the Adil Shahi dynasty?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil Shah-II (1 580-1625 C.E.) was the famous Sultan.

Question 16.
Who was the architect of Gol Gumbaz?
Answer:
Malik Sandal was the architect of Gol Gumbaz (1626-1650 C.E.).

Question 17.
What is the main point of attraction in Gol Gumbaz?
Answer:
The main attraction of this Gumbaz is its ‘Whispering gallery’.

Question 18.
Which place is called as the ‘Queen of Deccan’?
Answer:
Bijapur is called as the ‘Queen of Deccan’.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Two Marks Questions and Answers

II. Answer the following questions in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Mention the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.
Answer:
Gulbarga and Bidar were the capitals of the Bahamani dynasty.

Question 2.
Who was Mahmud Gawan and where did he build the Madarasa?
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan was the Prime Minister of Mohammad Shah – III. He built the Madarasa at Bidar in 1472 C.E.

Question 3.
Who was Hajarat Kwaja Bande Nawaj and where is his Darga?
Answer:
Hajarat Kwaja Bande Nawaj was the famous sufi saint of Guibarga. His Darga is in Guibarga.

Question 4.
Where is Gol Gumbaz and who built it?
Answer:
Gol-Gumbaz is in Bijapur. It was built by Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah.

Question 5.
Mention the important monuments of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur.
Answer:
Jami Masjid, Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Muhatas Mahal, Ganga Mahal, Sangeet Mahal, Anand Mahal, Mehtar Mahal, Bara Kaman etc are the important monuments of the Adil Shaihis.

Question 6.
Name two historians from the Adil Shahi period.
Answer:
Mulla Nusrati and Feristha were two famous historians of the Adil Shahi period.

Question 7.
Who founded the Bahamani Kingdom? When?
Answer:
Allaud-din-Hasan Gangu Bahaman Shah – on 3rd August 1347 C.E.

Question 8.
Who shifted the Bahamani capital from Gulbarga to Bidar? When?
Answer:
Ahamad Shah -1 shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1422 C.E.

Question 9.
Name the Five Shahi Kingdoms.
Answer:

  1. TheAdil Shahis of Bijapur.
  2. The Nizam Shahis of Ahmad Nagar.
  3. The Imad Shahis of Berar.
  4. The Barid Shahis of Bidar.
  5. The Qutub Shahis of Golkonda.

Question 10.
Which monument is known as the ‘Taj Mahal of Deccan’? Where is it?
Answer:
Ibrahim Roza is known as the ‘Taj Mahal of Deccan’ and it is in Bijapur.

Question 11.
Who wrote the book Kitab – i- Navaras? What was his title?
Answer:
Ibrahim Adil Shahi – II wrote the book ‘Kitab-i-Navaras. He earned the title ‘Jagadguru’.

Question 12.
What is Saracenic style or Deccan Style?
Answer:
A mixture of hindu and muslim styles of architecture is known as the Saracenic or Deccan style of architecture.

Question 13.
Name the works of Mahmud Gawan.
Answer:
Gawan wrote Manazir – ul – Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.

2nd PUC History Medieval Period Five Marks Questions and Answers

III. Answer the following questions in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the achievements of Mahmud Gawan.
Answer:
Mahmud Gawan 1463 -1481 B.C.: He was the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah- III. He was a fascinating personality. He was born in Persia in 1411 C.E. He was well educated and came to India with the intention of carrying on trade. He visited the court of Allauddin Ahmad Shah – II. The Sultan offered Gawan an administrative post. Gawan entered into Sultan’s service and by his sincerity and honesty, rose to the position of the Prime minister (Wazir) in 1463 C.E. He carried on the administration of the state and saved it from all dangers.

Achievements: As Prime minister (Wazir), he undertook many conquests and implemented reforms in the Kingdom.

  • Mahmud Gawan first paid attention for the establishment of unity and integrity of the Kingdom.
  • Mohammad Khilji of Malwa tried to enter the Deccan Region. Gawan expelled (he Sultan of Malwa beyond Bidar, made a treaty with the Sultan and established political stability.
  • Gawan conquered Rajamahendri and Kondaveedu. In the west, he extended the territory to the coast, by annexing Konkan. Gajapathi Kapilendra of Orissa invaded the Kingdom. Gawan successfully repelled his attack.
  • He subdued many chieftains in the western coastal belt and conquered Hubli, Belagavi (Belgaum) and Goa regions from the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • The number of provinces was increased from 4 to 8 for the convenience of administration. They were called ‘Tarafs’. The Jahagir system was abolished. The administration was highly centralised.
  • Gawan classified all the land of the Kingdom on the basis of fertility and irrigation facility. Land was surveyed and the revenue was fixed. The collection of revenue was only in cash.
  • Gawan established a Madarasa, a College for higher education, at Bidar in 1472 C.E. He built a library and collected over 3000 manuscripts from all over the world. I fe was a scholar. He wrote books on religion, mathematics, literature and medicine. His important works were Manazir – ul- Insha and Riyaz – ul – Insha.

Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by the native muslim leaders. They made false al legations against him. He was beheaded in 1481 C.E. After his death, the Bahamani Kingdom started declining.

Question 2.
Discuss the progress in literature, art and architecture during the Adil Shahi period
(or)
Describe the contribution of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, in the field of literature, art and architecture
Answer:
Literature: The Adil Shahis of Bijapur encouraged many scholars and poets in their courts. Arabic, Persian, and Deccani Urdu languages and literature developed. Ibrahim Adil Shah-II was an eminent scholar who wrote the ‘Kitab-i-Navaras’. Scholars like Syed Ahmed Harawi, Maulana Ghiyasuddin, Habibullah and Abdullah were famous. Shah Miranji of Bijapur wrote two poems ‘Khush-Nama and Khush-Naqhz’. The Sufi saints brought about unity among the Hindus and Muslims.

MullaNusrati who wrote the historical work called ‘Ali Nama’ and Ferishta who wrote Tarikh – i -Ferishta, a work on Muslim history, were famous historians during the Adil Shahi’s period. Urdu literature benefitted from the writtings of Abdul Mani, Mian Nusrati, Mirjan Marisa and others.

Art and Architecture: The monuments built by the Adil Shahis are in Indo-Islamic style. This is also called Deccani style. The early monuments of Adil Shahi period were simple and elegant. They built several Palaces, Mosques, Tombs and Gateways. Some of the noteworthy Palaces were Ganga Mahal, Sangeet Mahal, Mittar Mahal and Asar Mahal.

Ali Adil Sha (1558-1580) built the famous Jami Masjid at Bijapur. It is noted for seven arches, minarets, huge domes and the big prayer hall.

The Ibrahim Roza (1626 C.E.) consists of twin buildings constructed on a raised platform. One of the buildings’is a Mosque and the other is a tomb. It was built by Ibrahim Adi Shah -II. The interior parts of the tomb are profusely decorated, the wall and pillars have been covered by floral and geometric designs. Inside the Roza, a part of the ceiling hangs without any support. The Roza is renowned for its ‘Hanging Roof’. It is called the ‘Taj Mahal of South India’.

Gol Gumbaz (1629-1656 C.E.) at Bijapur is a world-famous monument. Mohammad Adil Shah built it. The huge central dome measures 144 ft in diameter. At the four corners, it hr.:- octagonal towers rising seven stories high The main attraction of this Gumbaz is its ‘Whispering gallery’. Any sound made in this dome, echoes seven times. It is one of the wonders of the world.

Another incomplecte noteworthy monument in Bijapur is Barakaman foundation which was started by Ali Adil Shah – II. It has a raised platform of 20 ft. It consists of eleven big arches. Bade Kaman, Anand Mahal, Taj Bawadi, Chand Bawadi etc are some of the other important monuments.

Question 3.
Explain the cultural contributions of the Bahamani Sultans.
Answer:
Cultural contributions: Education : Reciting Quran was a part of education. Poor muslim students were granted scholarships. There were separate schools for girls. Mahmud Gawan was a great patron of education. He spent his earnings for the spread of education. He built a Madarasa at Bidar in 1472 C.E. This building consisted of 4 blocks of 3 storeys each. It had a well equipped Library, Lecture halls and accommodation for Professors and students. Philosophy, religion, poetry, science and medicine were the subjects taught. It had free toarding and lodging facilites. Persian, Arabic and Urdu were the mediums of instruction.

Literature: The Bahamas encouraged scholars and writers. So, Persian, Arabic and Dcccani Urdu literatures made considerable progress. Sultan Firoz Shah was well versed in philosophy. He was an expert in natural science, geometry and the Quran. He gave patronage to scholars in his court.

Mahmud Gawan, the Prime minister of Mohammad Shah. – III was a scholar. I le wrote books on religion, literature, medicine and maths. His important works were Riyaz-ul-Insha and Manazir-ul-Insha. They give an account on the polity, poetry and other aspects. Calligraphy was used in writing the quotations of the Quran.

The great Persian scholars were Isami, Mulla Harvi, Hakim Tabriz, Ainuddin Bijapuri and others. The history of the Bahamani rulers was composed in verse by Sheikh Adhari as Bahaman – Name – i – Dhakini. A new dialect called ‘Deccani Urdu’ became popular. The famous sufi saint of Gulbarga, Hazarat Khwaja Bande Nawaz has enriched the Urdu language. The Darga of this saint was built at Gulbarga. The Bahamanis have contributed significantly to the growth of literature.

Art and Architecture: The Bahamani Sultans were generous patrons of art and architecture. In general, they followed the Delhi architecture. The architecture of palaces, forts, mosques, tombs etc., is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim (Indo-Islamic) style known as the Deccani style of architecture. The main features of this style are – 1) Tall Minarets 2) Strong arches 3) Huge domes 4) Spacious Hazaras (Big halls) 5. Crescent moon at the top of the buildings. The influence of persian style is also a predominant feature.

Buildings at Gulbarga: Jami Masjid was the earliest building of the Bahamanis. Some of the other notable structures at Gulbarga are the Fort, the Bande Nawaz tomb, Shah Bazaar Mosque, Hafta Gumbaz (Seven tomb complex) etc., The tomb of Bande Nawaz is a very important tomb of this period. Its walls have decorations with calligraphic designs and they are painted in rich colours.

Buildings at Bidar: The Bahamanis have built many buildings at Bidar. These have foreign influence, as they were constructed by craftsmen from Turkey, Persia and Arabia. Solha Khamba Mosque at Bidar resembles a Roman building with its pillars which are round. There are many multi-storied buildings at Bidar which include Rangeen Mahal Palace, Gagan Mahal, Tarkash Mahal, Chine Mahal, Nagina Mahal, Gawan’s Madarasa etc. At Astur (near Bidar), there are 12 tombs, which are larger than the tombs at Gulbarga. They have bigger domes and many more arches.


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