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Yu Yuen Steam Frigate
The Yu Yuen was a fully rigged steam frigate that was one of the largest warships built in China before the 1930s, but that was sunk by the French early in 1885.
The Yu Yuen was built at the Kiangnan dockyard, and was the sister ship of the Hai-an. The Hai-an was launched in 1872 and the Yu Yuen in 1873.
The two ships were three-masted fully rigged steam frigates, carrying their two main guns on the upper deck and their remaining guns on the broadside. They were both considered to be rather unseaworthy and quickly began to decay.
The Yu Yuen wasn't manned at first. When she did enter service it was as a guardship and storeship, based at Woosung. She had a very short combat career. In 1884 the French inflicted heavy losses on the Chinese fleet at Foochow and Formosa. A task force was created from the Nanyang fleet. This included three newer faster cruisers, a small sloop and the rearmed Yu-yuen. The squadron left Shanghai in December 1884. After a brief clash with the French in mid-February the faster cruisers escaped. The Yu-yuen managed to reach an anchorage at Shei-Poo (or Shipu), but on the night of 14-15 February 1885 she was sunk by two spar torpedo boats from the French cruiser Bayard.
Armament as built
Two 9in MLR guns
Armament when sunk
Two 8.2in guns
23 December 1873
15 February 1885
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Qu Yuan, Wade-Giles romanization Ch’ü Yüan, (born c. 339 bce , Quyi [now Zigui, Hubei province], China—died 278 bce , Hunan), one of the greatest poets of ancient China and the earliest known by name. His highly original and imaginative verse had an enormous influence over early Chinese poetry.
Qu Yuan was born a member of the ruling house of Chu, a large state in the central valley of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). While still in his 20s he was appointed a trusted, favoured counselor of his kinsman Huaiwang, the ruler of Chu. Qu Yuan advocated the unpopular policy of resistance to Qin, the most powerful of the Warring States, causing his rival courtiers to intrigue successfully against him. Estranged from the throne through the malice of his rivals, Qu Yuan was banished to the south of the Yangtze River by Huaiwang’s successor, Qingxiangwang.
In despair over his banishment, Qu Yuan wandered about southern Chu, writing poetry and observing the shamanistic folk rites and legends that greatly influenced his works. He eventually drowned himself in despair in the Miluo River, a tributary of the Yangtze. The famous Dragon Boat Festival, held on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese lunar year, originated as a search for the poet’s body.
The works of Qu Yuan have survived in an early anthology, the Chuci (“Elegies of Chu” Eng. trans. The Songs of the South, 1959 also translated as Elegies of the South, 2011), much of which must be attributed to later poets writing about the legendary life of Qu Yuan. The anthology begins with the long melancholic poem Lisao (“On Encountering Sorrow” Eng. trans. Li sao and Other Poems of Qu Yuan, 2001), Qu Yuan’s most famous work, which initiated a tradition of romanticism in Chinese literature. Qu Yuan’s other works available in English include The Nine Songs: A Study of Shamanism in Ancient China (1955, reissued 1989), translated by noted sinologist Arthur Waley, and Tian Wen: A Chinese Book of Origins (1986), translated by Stephen Field.
Japanese Internment Camp in China
"This story was submitted to the People’s War site by Jean Sharman, Scotland CSV on behalf of Moira Barbour (nee Chisholm)and has been added to the site with her permission. The author fully understands the site's terms and conditions."
I am now 72 years of age. I was brought up in the Far East in Shanghai. My father was a prison officer. I was 1943 when I was 9 years old when we were rounded up and put into a camp along with all the British and Dutch. The Japanese came and collected us in trucks and took us to a football pitch to sort everyone out in alphabetical order. The camp we were first taken to was in an old school. There were about 1500 people there. We got a family room for my Mum and Dad and sister, who was four at the time.
There was a lack of food and every morning and every night we were counted. Adults were beaten up all the time and we got quite blaze about seeing this and it ceased to mean anything. But at least we had toilets and showers at this camp.
In February or March 1945 we were moved to the Yu Yuen Road Camp outside Shanghai. There were no toilets and trenches were dug in the ground. We were fed on rice and cracked wheat. One time we got pork and I remember being very ill.
The sort of people who were in the camps with us were Policemen, prison officers, doctors, dentists, anyone who was working in the Far East at that time. My father showed he was a good leader and was given the position by other internees as a leader and had to make decisions about food distribution and other things.
We were supposed to get Red Cross parcels once a month but we only got three in the whole time we were in the camp. It was discovered after the war that the Japanese had put the Red Cross parcels in warehouses and they were full of condensed milk and chocolate and spreading cheese. They didn’t even open them for themselves.
There was no schooling organised at first but later we had lessons in the morning and the afternoon. The teaching was all oral as there were no books and we had to just remember things. I think this is why I have such a good memory now. When I got back to UK after the war I was able to step into a classroom with people my own age and was just as far on as everybody else. it was hard in the camps but you survived as long as you kept healthy.
As children we used to go to the fence to talk to the Chinese and it was them who told us we were free. Then the Americans came and brought us food and I got very sick from eating chocolate. I was also ill after the war with the rich food and I used to break out in boils regularly. The Americans looked after us and we stayed in the camp from August to November when we got on to a New Zealand boat ‘The Arana’ which took us back to the UK. We sailed to Southampton and then got a train to the North East of Scotland.
When we were in the camp my father got friendly with an Austrian Jew and learned German. After the war he got a job on the staff of Spandau Prison, Berlin. When he got there he got to know Rudolph Hess who was a prisoner. My father died in Berlin and my mother is still alive today.
In 1994 I made a trip back to the Yu Yuen Road Camp and was very traumatised at the experience.
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Mathematics Genealogy Project
Click here to see the students listed in chronological order.
|Drugan, Gregory||University of Washington||2014|
|Wang, Dake||University of Washington||2013|
|Warren, Micah||University of Washington||2008|
According to our current on-line database, Yu Yuan has 3 students and 3 descendants.
We welcome any additional information.
If you have additional information or corrections regarding this mathematician, please use the update form. To submit students of this mathematician, please use the new data form, noting this mathematician's MGP ID of 40827 for the advisor ID.
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Partly because of fictional portrayals in The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, his reputation has only increased over the years. One of his feats in the novel was to have arm surgery performed without anesthesia while he was playing a game of go (weiqi).
It is said that a shrine for him is in every Hong Kong police station. He is also a patron god of Chinese criminal groups for his bravery and fighting prowess. Business people and shop owners put up shrines in order to gain wealth. He is worshipped as a Daoist god, a Buddhist deity, and by Confucianists.
Who We Are
Mingshi’s mission is to be the most trusted investment manager in China. This is not only defined by superior returns, but also by global best-in-class risk management, compliance, and operations. Mingshi’s vision drives all members of the firm to ‘win together’. This motto embodies a culture of cooperation and a fundamental belief that as individuals, and as a firm we can continue to improve every day. Mingshi challenges the status quo of what it means to invest in China, and what it means to be a quantitative manager. We offer our investors unparalleled transparency into our investment process and operations. We are passionate about our mission. Being a market leader is defined by our endless pursuit to be better. Better for our clients, better for our colleagues and better for our community.
Mingshi was founded in Shanghai, China in December 2010 by Professor Yu Yuan and Professor Robert Stambaugh. Mingshi is one of the founding firms of China’s quantitative investment industry. Professor Yuan is a Chinese national who completed his post graduate studies in the US receiving his Ph.D in Finance from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Stambaugh is an acclaimed US academic currently serving as the Miller Anderson & Sherrerd Professor of Finance at Wharton. Prof. Stambaugh was Prof. Yuan’s Ph.D advisor and Mingshi was the joint application of their academic research. Since 2010 the firm has grown in terms of staff, technology, and strategy. Mingshi has over 100 employees located across its global offices.
- AUM surpasses USD2.0bio.
- OPIM launches offshore China-A market neutral fund in research partnership with Shanghai Mingshi.
- OPIM launches offshore China-A long-only fund in research partnership with Shanghai Mingshi.
- AUM surpasses USD1.0bio.
- Shanghai Mingshi enters into a research agreement with Hong Kong based Manager (OP Investment Management Limited &ldquoOPIM&rdquo) to launch offshore based China-A investment strategies.
- OPIM launches offshore market-neutral SMA in research partnership with Shanghai Mingshi.
- Launch T0 inventory optimization signal.
- Shanghai Mingshi is included in the ICBC White List
- Managing multi-bank outsourced capital
- Complete the development of strategies and risk-management model specific for Chinese Market.
- Launch first onshore market neutral SMA.
- Diversified equity strategies & risk management model tailored towards China A-share market.
- Shenwan Hongyuan (SWHY) Securities became our 1st institutional investor.
Professor Robert Stambaugh is an acclaimed US academic and co-founder of Mingshi.
He received his B.A from Dickinson College in 1974, cum laude, his M.B.A from the University of Chicago in 1976, and his PHD under Professor Eugene Fama at the University of Chicago in 1981. &zwj
He is currently the Miller Anderson & Sherrerd Professor of Finance at The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Prof. Stambaugh was Prof. Yuan&rsquos advisor at Wharton. &zwj
A brief summary of his achievements includes &zwj
- President, American Finance Association, 2013
- Board of Directors, American Finance Association, 1988&ndash90
- Editorial committee, Annual Review of Financial Economics, 2007&ndash2012
- Editor, Journal of Finance, 2003&ndash2006
Professor Stambaugh acts as Chief Advisor to Mingshi. In this role he advises the team on research and is key to the business direction of the firm.
Professor Yu Yuan is the Founder, and Head of Strategy of Shanghai Mingshi Investment Management. &zwj
Prof. Yuan received his Ph.D in Finance from The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania in 2008. He also holds a Masters in Finance from The Wharton School, 2007. At the University Wisconsin-Madison Prof Yuan received Masters degrees in both Economics and Statistics, 2003. Prof Yuan started his academic journey in Shanghai Jiao Tong University where he received a Bachelor of Science (Finance) in 2001. &zwj
Before founding Mingshi, Prof. Yuan held positions as a research associate at the Reserve Bank of Dallas, visiting Professor at the Wharton School, and associate Professor at the Shanghai Advanced Institute of Finance. &zwj
Prof. Yuan has 9 published works in top three financial journals. Most recently, he co-authored &lsquoSize and Value in China&rsquo, which was published in the Journal of Financial Economics in October 2019. &zwj
As Head of Strategy, Prof. Yuan is responsible to managing the firm&rsquos research teams.
When did Li Ching Yuen born?
Li Ching-Yuen himself said he was born in 1736 in the village of Chenjiachang in Sichuan or Szechwan province of China but his birth year is also said to have been 1677. He died in 1933. Myth? Legend? Perhaps.
But in 1930 it was reported that Professor Wu Chung-Chien, dean of the department of education at China’s Min Kuo University had found records saying Li Ching Yuen was born in 1677 and that the then Imperial government of China, in the Qing dynasty, had congratulated him on his 150 th birthday in 1827 and 200 th birthday in 1877!
This was reported in 1928 in the two leading Chinese newspapers at the time, The North China Daily News and the Shanghai Declaration News and a year later in the New York Times and Time Magazine.
In 1928 a correspondent wrote in the New York Times that the oldest men in Li’s home province said their grandfathers had known him when they were boys and he was already a grown man.
The garden offers a number of architectural features and is divided into six parts according to the Suzhou style:
- Sansui Hall (三穗 堂, Sānsuìtáng ),
- Wanhua Chamber (萬 花 樓 / 万 花 楼, Wànhuālóu ),
- Dianchun Hall (點 春 堂 / 点 春 堂, Diǎnchūntáng ),
- Huijing Hall (會 景 樓 / 会 景 楼, Huìjǐnglóu )
- Yuhua Hall (玉華 堂 / 玉华 堂, Yùhuátáng ),
- Inner garden (內 園 / 内 园, Nèiyuán ).
Each of these six parts is separated from the others by dragon walls made of gray bricks that end in a dragon's head.
The so-called Old Summer Palace consists of three adjoining extensive garden and palace complexes. They are:
- Yuanming Yuan ( 圓明園 / 圆明园 , Yuánmíng Yuán - "Garden of Perfect Clarity" or "Garden of Perfection and Light"), western area (about 200 hectares). Work began here in 1709 in a smaller area as the residence of an Imperial Prince. The name is also used for the entire garden complex.
- Changchun Yuan ( 長春 園 / 长春 园 , Chángchūn Yuán - "Garden of Eternal Spring"), northeastern area (about 90 hectares), which from 1745 as future retirement home for the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736 - 1785) on previously vacant land was created. Part of the Changchun Yuan on its north side is the Xiyang Lou , a narrow area extending west-east with water features and stone pavilions based on European models, which was laid out by Jesuits from 1747.
- Qichun Yuan ( 綺 春園 / 绮 春园 , Qǐchūn Yuán - "Garden of Beautiful Spring") or Wanchun Yuan ( 萬 春園 / 万 春园 , Wànchūn Yuán - "Garden of Ten Thousand Springs"), the southeastern area (about 60 hectares) which came into imperial possession from around 1770 and was expanded mainly in the first half of the 19th century.
Chinese Garden (Yu Hwa Yuan)
The idea for a Chinese garden came about in 1968 as part of the concept for Jurong Park, which envisioned the conversion of mangrove swamps on the upper reaches of the Jurong River into a green belt with landscaped gardens, a lake and open spaces. 2 Three islands would be created on the lake to house a Chinese garden, a Japanese garden and a tropical garden. 3 A Jurong Park Committee was set up in late 1968 to coordinate the design of the various gardens and developments on the proposed site. Earthworks began that same year and were completed by 1970. 4 The plan for the tropical garden was eventually dropped in favour of an 18-hole golf course to provide more recreational options. 5
The design concept plan for the Chinese Garden was prepared by Yu Yuen Chen, a Taiwanese expert on Chinese gardens. 6 The landscaping, architectural and structural plans were subsequently finalised and the construction of the gardens commenced in 1971. 7
The 13.5-hectare garden is modelled on the northern Chinese imperial style of architecture during the Song dynasty (960&ndash1279 CE) and the Summer Palace in Beijing. 8 Said to be the largest of its kind outside of China at the time, the striking architecture and vibrant colours of the Chinese Garden was intended to contrast with the tranquillity of the Japanese Garden. 9
The S$5.1 million Chinese Garden was officially opened on 18 April 1975 by then Minister for Finance Hon Sui Sen. 10 It welcomed almost half-a-million visitors by the end of that year. 11
Iconic features of the garden include the marble stone lions, the 13-arch White Rainbow Bridge, the Arch and Main Gate complex, the Stone Boat and Tea House, as well as the seven-storey pagoda. 12
Upon entering the garden, visitors are greeted by two marble stone lions at the main entrance. It is a Chinese belief that lions represent authority and felicity. Sculpted stone lions are often placed at entrance of buildings and temples as guardians of these places. The pair of stone lions at the Chinese Garden were sculpted from imported marble stone. 13
The main entrance leads to the White Rainbow Bridge. Bridges are one of the characteristic features of Chinese gardens. The design of the White Rainbow Bridge is adapted from the style of the 17-arch bridge at Beijing&rsquos Summer Palace. 14
Winding footpaths lead visitors to the various structures and scenic spots in the garden. The Arch and Main Gate complex houses an ornamental pond and two courtyard gardens. 15
The Stone Boat is a famous traditional feature of Chinese architecture. The Stone Boat is based on the Beijing style, with some adaptations to its design and materials used. The Tea House is a miniature structure following the style of the more elaborate, winding gallery of the Beijing Summer Palace. 16
Interspersed within the garden are pavilions and pagodas. The pavilion is an important component of Chinese gardens. Its arrangement, with its plateau and tower, is based on the principle of balance between height and size. There are altogether five pavilions found within the Chinese Garden. 17
A seven-storey pagoda reminiscent of the Ling Ku Temple Pagoda in Nanking is situated on a small hill in the garden. 18 There is also a pair of pagodas by the lake, which are modelled on the Spring and Autumn pagodas in Southern China. 19
Over the years, the garden has undergone several changes with new features added to it. For instance, a S$5 million Suzhou-style Bonsai Garden was opened on 22 June 1992. 20
Covering an area of 5,800 sq m, the Bonsai Garden houses over 2,000 bonsais from China, Taiwan, Japan, Southeast Asia and Singapore. 21 Sitting at the garden&rsquos entrance are two lion-shaped bonsai, said to be over 280 years old, from Guangzhou, China. 22
In 2001, as part of revitalisation plans for the garden, JTC made the Bonsai Garden free to the public and extended its opening hours to 10 pm. 23
The Live Turtle and Tortoise Museum was opened in 2002 by collector, Danny Tan. 24 More than 200 turtles and tortoises from over 60 species are on display at the museum. 25
The Chinese Garden is especially popular during the Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival celebrations. 26 It is known for its large-scale festive displays. In 2012, for instance, over 3,500 lanterns were displayed around the garden and lake during the Mid-Autumn Festival. 27
1. Jurong Town Corporation. (1976). Jurong Town Corporation annual report &rsquo75. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 39. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR]) Yeo, T. J. (1968, October 26). Jurong gets ready to grow three times. The Straits Times, p. 10. Retrieved from NewspaperSG Jurong Town Corporation. (1969). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1968/69 [Microfilm no.: NL 10959]. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 2.
2. Jurong Town Corporation. (1969). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1968/69 [Microfilm no.: NL 10959]. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 33 Plans that led to the wide open spaces at Jurong. (1975, April 19). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
3. Jurong Town Corporation. (1969). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1968/69 [Microfilm no.: NL 10959]. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 33 Jurong Town Corporation. (1971). Jurong Town Corporation annual Report 70. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 29. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR])
4. Jurong Town Corporation. (1969). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1968/69 [Microfilm no.: NL 10959]. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 33.
5. Jurong Town Corporation. (1976). Jurong Town Corporation annual report &rsquo75. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 41. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR])
6. Jurong Town Corporation. (1969). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1968/69 [Microfilm no.: NL 10959]. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 33 Plans that led to the wide open spaces at Jurong. (1975, April 19). The Straits Times, p. 6. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
7. Jurong Town Corporation. (1971). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1970. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 29. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR]) Jurong Town Corporation. (1972). Jurong Town Corporation annual report 1971. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 26. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR])
8. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 10. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR) Campbell, W. (1973, December 2). The Chinese Garden. The Straits Times, p. 12. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
9. Jurong Town Corporation. (1976). Jurong Town Corporation annual report &rsquo75. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 40. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR]) Chinese Garden taking shape on four islands in Jurong River. (1971, October 23). The Straits Times, p. 22. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
10. Jurong Town Corporation. (1976). Jurong Town Corporation annual report &rsquo75. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 14. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR]) Plans that led to the wide open spaces at Jurong. (1975, April 19). The Straits Times, p. 6 Cheang, C. (1975, April 18). Hon opens $5 mil Chinese Garden. The Straits Times, p. 18. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
11. Jurong Town Corporation. (1976). Jurong Town Corporation annual report &rsquo75. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 40. (Call no.: RCLOS 352.0072 JTCAR-[AR])
12. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 6. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
13. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, pp. 6, 13. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
14. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, pp. 6, 17. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
15. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, pp. 6&ndash7. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
16. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 21. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
17. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 25. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
18. Jurong Town Corporation. (1975). Yu Hwa Yuan. Singapore: The Corporation, p. 31. (Call no.: RCLOS 959.57 JUR)
19. You will find peace and quiet in this green haven. (1975, April 18). The Straits Times, p. 19. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
20. Suzhou-style bonsai garden opens. (1992, June 23). The Straits Times, p. 26. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
21. Suzhou-style bonsai garden opens. (1992, June 23). The Straits Times, p. 26. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
22. Bonsai lions stand guard at garden&rsquos gate. (1992, April 21). The Straits Times, p. 20. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
23. Leong, P., & Arlina Arshad. (2001, September 24). Visit Chinese Garden for free from mid-November. The Straits Times, p. 6 Boo, K. (2001, November 10). Stroll the Chinese Garden by moonlight. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
24. McLeod, M. (2003, June 13). Turtle collector shelling out $1.6m for bigger museum. The Straits Times, p. 4. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
25. Singapore Tourism Board. (n.d.). Chinese Garden. Retrieved 2017, February 9 from Singapore Tourism Board website: http://www.yoursingapore.com/see-do-singapore/nature-wildlife/parks-gardens/chinese-garden.html
26. Singapore Tourism Board. (n.d.). Chinese Garden. Retrieved 2017, February 9 from Singapore Tourism Board website: http://www.yoursingapore.com/see-do-singapore/nature-wildlife/parks-gardens/chinese-garden.html
27. Vasko, L. (2012, September 21). Light show. The Straits Times, p. 2. Retrieved from NewspaperSG.
The information in this article is valid as at 2012 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.