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In regards to Vichy vs Free France, what was the status of Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy?

In regards to Vichy vs Free France, what was the status of Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy?

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The wikipedia article for Vichy France has a pretty good map, a low-res version of which I'll put here:

The map shows which territories were originally Vichy, and when they changed to Free French control (except for the yellow states in Southeast Asia, which came under Japanese control).

However, it's missing two French Territories: Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy. The two skyblue islands you see in the Caribbean are actually Guadeloupe and Martinique.

I would like to know if Saint Martin (the French possession, not the whole island) and Saint Barthelemy were originally under Vichy control, and when they came under Free France control. Who was governing them at the time and what statements did they make after 1940 June?

It helps being able to search in French.

From wiki - Histoire_de_Saint-Martin

De juillet 1940 à août 1944: la partie française de Saint-Martin est sous le régime de Vichy et dirigé par gouverneur Constant Sorin en Guadeloupe ; la zone néerlandaise, fidèle à la reine Wilhelmine des Pays-Bas en exil, est associée aux Alliés.


From July 1940 to August 1944: the French part of Saint-Martin is under the Vichy regime and directed by Governor Constant Sorin in Guadeloupe; the Dutch zone, loyal to Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands in exile, is associated with the Allies.

It was part of Vichy France. You didn't mention St Pierre and Miquelon. These small islands close to Newfoundland were also under Vichy control, until taken with (very little) force by the Free French. They still are French possessions today.

I don't know when Saint Martin came under Free French control, it must have been before 1943, because in that year crown princess Juliana visited the island. I doubt very much if the heir to the throne would do that, if the other half was under Vichy France control. Saint Martin is also Sint Maarten. The island is shared by France and The Netherlands. It's the only place where those two countries share a common border.

I'm only talking about Saint Martin/Sint Maarten. I assume - but don't know for sure - both islands were under Vichy French control.

The History of Drive-In Movie Theaters (and Where They Are Now)

Many people hear stories of their grandparents going to the drive-in theater for a Friday night hangout, but do you know the history of the classic movie experience?

Though there were drive-ins as early as the 1910s, the first patented drive-in was opened on June 6, 1933 by Richard Hollingshead in New Jersey. He created it as a solution for people unable to comfortably fit into smaller movie theater seats after creating a mini drive-in for his mother. Appealing to families, Hollingshead advertised his drive-in as a place where “The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are.”

The success of Hollingshead’s drive-in caused more and more drive-ins to appear in every state in the country and spread internationally as well. Drive-ins gained immense popularity 20 years later during the 1950s and ‘60s with the Baby Boomer generation. There were over 4,000 drive-ins throughout the U.S., and most were in rural areas. They maintained popularity as both a space for families to spend time with each other as well as an affordable date night option.

Drive-ins could only show movies during certain times of the year and were dependent on having decent weather. During the ‘70s oil crisis, people downsized their cars in order to save money on the inflated cost of gas, making it uncomfortable to watch movies at the drive-in. To make up for lost revenue, drive-ins began losing their family-friendly atmosphere by showing exploitation films like slasher horrors as well as adult content. The development of the VCR made it more appealing to stay at home and watch movies without paying for a movie at the drive-in.

Slowly, drive-ins began to lose their appeal. To have an effective drive-in, it had to be on at least 15 acres of land. Economically speaking, it became more practical for owners to close their drive-ins in order to sell their land to developers to build malls or multi-building complexes.

Even though drive-ins are not nearly as popular as they used to be (with some arguing that they will be obsolete within the next decade), there are still drive-ins in business throughout the country. Modern drive-ins vary, but many show current films as well as older films. A lot of them also plan double feature nights. Just like a classic drive-in and a regular theater, they sell refreshments like popcorn, candy, and soda. Some even have playgrounds for families to entertain their children.

Covered sick and family leave payments under the Act are taxable wages for income and employment tax purposes, except that such wages are exempt from Employer Social Security taxes. Such payments are subject to Medicare taxes, but the tax credit is increased by the amount of employer Medicare taxes (i.e., 1.45%) paid on such wages.

Employers must post a notice of the requirements described in this Act, "in conspicuous places where notices to employees are customarily posted." The DOL is to publish a model notice within seven days of enactment.

The More Research, the Better

Where do NADA Guides get their information, and how accurate are the figures they pass on to boaters? According to Lenny Sims, vice president of the company, “NADA Guides obtains monthly sales figures from auction sales reports, private party sales reports, as well as sales transactions from dealers. NADA Guides also reviews new and used historical pricing trends and the popularity of category offerings. The industry and marine enthusiast wants and needs change, and pricing follows this model. What's hot today could be a fad or a trend, and the experts at NADA Guides monitor this behavior. NADA Guides’ goal is to be within five- to 10-percent of the reported sales.”

How are the NADA Guides numbers perceived in the real world of boat sales? “To really evaluate what a boat is worth, you need to draw from many sources of information,” says Dave Pugsley, past president of the Yacht Brokers Association of America, and vice president/general manager of the Brewer Yacht Sales network in New England. Overseeing sales of a wide range of boats in the 11 Brewer brokerages, Pugsley says, “We often have clients come to us with NADA Guide prices. We've found that those prices are most applicable in the small-boat and trailerable world. The more boat size and system complexity increase, the more variables have to be factored into a boat’s value. For most boats, we find that NADA Guide figures are on the low side.”

This confirms information from NADA Guides’ Lenny Sims: "Actual dealer sales are a bit higher than the NADA Guides’ median, while private party sales are closer to the NADA Guides’ median. All sales will be based upon each individual unit’s condition and equipment options, therefore it is important to remember that all values are simply a guide. The actual sale price will always be above or below the guide values for a unit. The overall condition, history and local supply and demand contribute to the final asking and selling price of the boat."

Pugsley emphasizes the importance of recognizing regional price differences. “A boat in Florida will often be priced lower than the same boat in New England or the Great Lakes. The Florida boat gets used 12 months of the year as opposed to the northern boat. Also, Florida is a huge boat market, so there are often a lot more examples to choose from. Exposure to the elements can have an effect on pricing, too, but this can work in a lot of ways. A Florida boat might have more year-round exposure, but be carefully protected by the owner, while a northern boat might have an owner who leaves water to freeze on board and cause damage while the boat is laid up. So there are a lot of things to consider. This is why a boat survey can be very important.”

The data you gather and compare at boats.com, in the NADA Guides, and in your other research will give you a solid grip on the market realities for your specific boat. It’s also a great way to get to know more about boats in general.

Good selling, good buying, and fair winds!

Also see How to Price My Boat For Sale and if you’d like to list your boat on boats.com – which is visited by over 800,000 boat buyers monthly—visit Create a Listing and choose a package.

Editor’s Note: This article was published in December 2010 and updated in April of 2018 and March 2021.

How do customers form expectations?

When are expectations formed? The truth is it happens at all times and across all stages of the customer journey - sometimes even before customers have bought something. Here are some of the more common ways that customers form expectations:

If your direct competitor is providing a better customer care experience, the customer will expect you to at least match or exceed that experience. Because of this, 81% of companies view customer experience as a way to gain a competitive advantage.

If you fail to address this, the customer will look favorably on your competitor as they will be the better all-around experience provider in their mind.

It’s the same sad story: A customer has a problem and they’re passed around from department to department, waiting endlessly on the phone. By the time they get through to the right person, they’re frustrated. Turns out they “rang the wrong number” and now they’ve found themselves in another call queue…

Customers tell nine people on average about a positive brand experience versus telling 16 people about a negative one. If your customer has an emotionally-negative experience when they need help, this experience will continue with them. The next time they want to use you, they’ll remember the experience and might think twice. On the other hand.

As the saying goes, bad news travels fast. The way your company deals with its complaints or reviews is something that customers will review ahead of time - 93% of consumers say online reviews impact their purchasing decisions. Make sure your reviews help them form positive assumptions about what they can expect by interacting with you.

In regards to Vichy vs Free France, what was the status of Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy? - History

Last Update: Fri Jun 4 19:59:32 2021 Eastern USA time

Quick Access: Go to the INDEX and click on a country name.


Disclaimer: MAINTAINANCE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS WAS A PUBLIC SERVICE OF the ex-KERMIT PROJECT AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. It was was originally written for our own business purposes (international shipping of our software in the pre-Internet days) and does not claim to be definitive, complete, systematic, or unopinionated. All opinions and conclusions are those of the author (or the contributors or references cited). Apologies for any inappropriate terminology, especially since this document aims to eradicate it. Format: handmade HTML with accented or non-Roman characters encoded in UTF-8, properly announced to allow inclusion of text in many languages and scripts. For more information about UTF-8 CLICK HERE and HERE.

Background: This document started in the 1980s as a short tip-sheet, organized geographically, with sections for regions or specific countries. Then about 1990, everything changed &ndash the breakup of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the breakups of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. This document reflects the changes, rather than simply starting over, because at the time we were faced with a big address conversion problem. Such events will continue to happen as time goes on so it's useful to recall their impact, even on this tiny area of human endeavor. Hence the sections labeled The Former Soviet Union , The Former Yugoslavia , etc.

Updates: The 14 November 2000 edition adds links to postal authorities in many countries, which are recapitulated alphabetically (in English) in the INDEX at the end. The 15 May 2001 edition adds ISO 3166-1 codes to the country list in Index this is the familiar Internet top-level domain (TLD) for each country (in most cases), and these are also used on international mail containers, machine-readable passports, and in national currency identifiers. Lots of corrections and expansion in January 2003. The February 2003 version is much expanded, including new tables and sections for Africa, the Mideast, Latin America, and with each country name in the Index linking back to the relevant section of the main document. In June 2003, the tables of English, Scottish, and Welsh counties, which are no longer used in UK addresses, was moved out to a separate file and the UK section was modernized.

The UTF-8 conversion was done on 20 January 2003 the previous ISO-8859-1 Latin Alphabet 1 version, current as of that date, remains available HERE (but won't be updated). The UTF-8 version includes text in Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic, Hebrew, Hindi, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tibetan, Thai, Khmer, and other scripts that can't be represented in Latin-1 but are easily accommodated by UTF-8. Most of this text is in the COUNTRY INDEX. Anybody who can supply missing country names or other relevant items in native language and script is welcome to send them in I'll be glad to add them (with credit, of course).

Periodic updates of any postal reference are necessary because countries change, provinces within countries change, postal codes change, addressing standards and recommendations change. The Internet makes matters simultaneously better and worse: better because now we can link to the postal authorities in each country and to other relevant sites, worse because web addresses change out from underneath us constantly. Thus any document like this is doomed to decay over time if it's not constantly maintained. The last update time is shown at the top. Feel free to report stale links, or send corrections, suggestions, or new information, by e-mail to [email protected].

Acknowledgements: Aleida Morel (Dominican Republic),
Mari Carmen Fonseca, Juan Castro, Patrick Decker, Andrew Leonard, Beth Espy, Tom Doan (México).
Fernando Cabral, Steve Slayton (Brazil).
Roberto Homs (Cuba),
بهاء عبيدات / Baha Obeidat (Palestine),
Felipe Zapata Roldán (Colombia),
Josh Gross, Kevin Tarr (Costa Rica)
Johnny Franco Arboine (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador)
Craig Hartnett, Doug Ewell, Alexis Hunt, John Sawyer, Benoît Le Nabec (Canada),
Irineu de Assis (Bolivia, Paraguay, and Colombia),
Cord Wischhöfer, ISO 3166/MA-Secretariat (Europe & North Africa).
Gerhard Helle, First Secretary, Universal Postal Union, Berne.
Kjetil Torgrim Homme (Norway).
Xander Jansen, Gert Grenander, Abigail , Sjoerd Cranen, Reinier Olislagers, Ken Martin, Roland Witvoet, Richard Paul, Liza R, Marco van der Wal, Jan Kamphorst (Netherlands).
John Klensin, Alexander Svensson, Alex Bochannek, Asmus Freytag, Otto Stolz, Claus Langhans, Clemens Gutweiler, Ralph Babel, David Krings, Jens Peter Hammer, Christian Asche (Germany).
Christoph Päper (Liechtenstein, Lëtzeburg).
Marco Cimarosti, Peter J. Russell, Guido Camilla (Italy).
Александр Лысиков / Alex Lisikov, Bill Conerly (Russia).
Олександр Лисіков / Alex Lisikov (Ukraine).
Алег Гайко / Aléh Haikó (Belarus).
Peter Russell (Lithuania).
Klein Tamás Márton, Zsbán Ambrus (Hungary).
Eduard Vopicka, Radovan Garabík (The Czech Republic and Slovakia).
Dustin Du Cane (Poland).
Marjan Baće, Sindi Keesan, David Vidmar, Bojan Milenkovic (The Former Yugoslavia).
Վաչէ Գունտաքճը / Vaçe Kundakçı (Armenia).
გიორგი ლებანიძე / Georgi Lebanidze (Georgia).
روزبه پورنادر / Roozbeh Pournader (Iran).
Sannidhya Misra, Stewart Evans, Yateendra Joshi (India).
Eric Nedervold, Dieter Walter (Nepal).
Anthony Fok Tung-Ling, Stephen Yang, Tom Tschritter, Henry Groover, Ed Callaway (China).
Paul Hastings (Thailand).
Graham Rhind, Arthur Marsh, Doug Moncur, Kevin K., Andrew Donnellan (Australia).
Elizabeth Eggers, Ken Westmoreland, Ben Arnold, Derek Sivers, Andrew Kerkham, "Paul" (New Zealand).
Peter Reynolds (Nigeria).
Ken Westmoreland (Kenya).
Eberhard W Lisse (Namibia).
Topi Linkala, Miikka-Markus Alhonen, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Era Eriksson (Finland).
Craig Hartnett (Zambia, Zimbabwe, Rhodesia, Nyasaland).
John Hagerson (Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, Israel, Serbia, Egypt).
Mordecai Glickman (Israel).
Avery Yen (Taiwan).
Kenneth Joseph Vella (Malta).
Andy Bell (Hong Kong).
Samuel Dickey, &ldquoAgroni&rdquo (Kosovo).
Joshua Holman (St. Martin & St. Barthélemy Diego García)
Fridjon Gudjohnsen (Iceland).
Gerben Vos, Ir. P. (Peter) Mazereeuw, John Robertson (the ex-Netherlands Antilles).
Pekka Pihlajasaari (Malaysia).
Giselle Vassallo Pitto, Ken Westmoreland (Gibraltar).
Darrell K. McKown, US Army Postal Operations, Germany (APO/FPO/DPO).
Gabriel Sroka, California State University.
Ed Callaway (Kyrgyzstan).
Andrew Liepins (Mauritius).

Britain and Ireland: John Benton, Ross Chandler, Craig Cockburn, Peter Crabb-Wyke, David Levy, James Grinter, Ian Morrison, Shane Wilson, George D , Hugh Dunne, David Goddard, Johannes Eggers, Christy Looby, Finlay Smith, Gerard Lardner, Robert Gormley, G.S. Sinclair, Chris Cooke, Colin Russ, Stewart Potter, Bill Bedford, Chris Harrison, P. Breathnach, Michael Everson, Mark Dyche, David Gowdy, Guy Burgess, Alan Berry, Ken Westmoreland, Jonathan Nigel, Peter Reynolds, Martin Spamer, Chris Davies, Benjamin Brundell, Mark Jolly, Liam McGee, William Wallace, Andy Paterson, Sarah Woodhouse, Mark Brader, Paul Black, Bernard Treves Brown, Greg Boettcher, Peter Kirk, Michael T. Farnworth, Andrew Leonard, Chris Woodhouse (Royal Mail), Philip Woods, John Marsh, Paolo Montanelli, Angela Watts, Gary Delaney, Kevin Tarr, "Rick", Cian Brennan.

General information and corrections: Daniel Schwarz, Marty Simon, Linda Beek, Dan Olsson, Peter Russell, Ken Westmoreland, Gert Grenander, Marcy Strawmyer, Mark Brader, László Kende, Tex Texin, Helgi Jonsson, Roozbeh Pournader, Tom Gewecke, Magda Danish, Stuart Brown, Noah Levitt, Herman Ranes. Miikka-Markus Alhonen, Marco Cimarosti, Kent Karlsson, Celvin Niklas Jojakin Ruisdael, Hans Schievelkamp, Pete Russel, Doug Ewell, Philip Newton, Jim Brent, Christian Rosner, Howard Laker, Cassandra Phillips-Sears, Austin Knight, G. Herbke, Joshua Holman, George Rhoten, Jay Davis, Tom Richards, Malik Kalfane, Jean-Christophe Deschamps, Chris Morris, Bettina Morton, Gregg Lobdell, Paul Buhler, Steve Williamson, John Sawyer, Anthony P. Lew, the IBM International Components for Unicode (ICU) library, and the Web page Country names in various languages by Werner Fröhlich for several of the native-script country names (Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, etc).

Reference: Law, Gwillim, Administrative Subdivisions of Countries , McFarland & Company (1999). Updates available on the Web at http://www.statoids.com. See this reference for states, provinces, or other subdivisions of any country.

  • USPS IMM Index of Countries and Localities
  • USPS Domestic and International Postage (UPU)
  • UPU Addressing Solutions and Database
  • European Union Postal Services
  • ISO 3166 Alpha-2 Country Codes (Wikipedia)
  • A comprehensive but unofficial list of countries and country codes
  • University of Texas Map Library
  • UN Maps (PDF, zoomable)
  • Wikipedia List of Postal Codes


This document tries to describe &ndash or invent when necessary &ndash conventions for addressing postal mail from within the USA to other countries that are both (a) effective (i.e. have a good chance of working), and (b) as inoffensive as possible when addressing choices might be controversial. Note that the general problem &ndash how to address mail from country A to country B, for all A's and B's &ndash is an n × n problem, of which this document attempts to address only one dimension: mail from the USA to elsewhere. But even this is a moving target as addressing guidelines and formats of each country are constantly revised.

The very term country can be controversial. Who decides what is a country and what isn't? The criterion used in this document is simple: if the USPS lists it in its Index to Countries and Localities, we treat it as a country. Thus some localities (such as Reunion Island) that are not distinct countries are listed, whereas other localities that consider themselves countries (such as Western Sahara) are not listed (but still discussed). Rationale: if you address mail from the USA to WESTERN SAHARA, the USPS won't know what to do with it. If you want to send mail to SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON (a part of France that is in Canada) from the USA, it doesn't make sense for the mail to go all the way to France and back.

Similarly, saying that a particular country is in Europe or Africa or Latin America or Asia or the Middle East can be controversial. Where does Russia go? Turkey? Egypt? The Falkland Islands (Malvinas)? I've made a few groupings like this for convenience, e.g. to keep the number of tables to a minimum and avoid duplications &ndash these choices are purely logistical and not political or ideological.

The best international addressing strategy is one that is not only consistent and inoffensive, but that also achieves to whatever degree possible several potentially conflicting goals:

    The address complies with the addressing guidelines of the originating country (USA in this case) and is dispatched to the correct destination country without any delay caused by the address itself.

When this document was first written for internal use in the late 1980s, the United States Postal Service (USPS) had no published guidelines for addressing international mail &ndash if it did, we'd have just used them. There were no standard or recommended names for countries. The situation has improved since then with the appearance of the USPS International Mail Manual (IMM), including an index of countries and localities , first discovered (by me) in 2000, newly available in HTML so we can link directly to it and to sections of it. The new HTML version also seems to be greatly expanded over the earlier versions, for example containing long lists of cities with postcodes for each country (e.g. Russia).

ISO International Standard 11180, Postal Addressing (1993) (withdrawn 15 Jan 2004), by the way, was no help at all, except that it contained a reference to the Universal Postal Union:

which provides tip sheets for addressing mail to each country. But there is no way to tell how authoritative or current the UPU guidelines are &ndash they are not dated, and they give no references. But for some countries, the UPU provides the only guidance available. It should also be noted that addressing guidelines are incidental to the UPU's primary mission, which is creating standards for the description of postal addresses (that is, defining and naming the elements), not for their rendition, which is left to each country.

USPS Service Updates The United States Postal service delivers mail to most of the countries on earth, but there are some exceptions and restrictions owing to politics (Cuba), war (Gaza), natural disasters (Haiti), or other factors such as isolation (Pitcairn Island). To see the current list of affected countries, visit the USPS Service Updates page.

Note: At some point USPS converted its website from http: to https:, but without forwarding the old URLs to the new ones, thus breaking every USPS link in this page, and in many other pages too, no doubt. All USPS links in this page were converted to https in July 2017, but not every single one of them has been tested if you find nonfunctional USPS (or any other) links, please let me know.

Abbreviations and Acronyms:


As a basis for discussion, let's begin by looking at a typical international address:

It illustrates several points, all of which are discussed later in greater detail:

Order of Presentation In the USA, we write addresses in minor-to-major order, with the most specific (smallest) item (e.g. person's name) at the top, proceeding to the most general (largest) item (i.e. country name) at the bottom. This order is not necessarily used in other countries (e.g. Iran, Russia), but since we are sending mail from the USA, it might be safer to use it in all cases because our own postal service must process the address first.

The Country Name For domestic mail (mail within the USA), we omit the country name. For all other countries, we write the country name as the last line, by itself, in all CAPITAL LETTERS, with no accompanying notations such as postal codes, or hints as to which continent the country is on. We use country names consistently they are listed in the Index. In the USA and many other countries, postal sorting machines read and sort by the country name. Thus within each country, the country name list must be well-known and standardized.

According to USPS officials that I interviewed in 2002: unless the country name is CANADA, the USPS does not read and does not care about anything that appears above it. International mail from the USA to any country but Canada goes to a single location in that country for sorting and separation. Thus when sending mail from the USA to any other country we are free to format the address according to the requirements of the destination country (for mail to Canada, the addressing requirements conform to our own for details see the section on Canada).

The City Line The line just above the country name shows the town, and sometimes the major subdivision of the country, known as the state, province, county, district, territory, land, shire, department, canton, prefecture, oblast, autonomous region, etc, depending on the country, and often a postal code to aid in automated sorting. We call this the City Line. Since the USPS does not read or care about this line (except in mail to Canada and, by some accounts, the UK), it can and should be formatted as required by the destination country.

A handful of national postal authorities now recommend writing postal code on a line by itself, above or below the city line (Ecuador, Ukraine, Hungary. and now also the UK). In such cases, the City Line occupies two lines. As far as I can tell, this is a recent development and is largely ignored in many of the countries that recommend it (e.g. Russia). In any case, it makes formatting and parsing international addresses all the more complicated, and might also cause addresses to exceed address-line limits, where they did not before (e.g. for postal scanners, databases, forms, or window envelopes).

Hungary is a special case. Zsbán Ambrus reports (December 2016):

  1. name of recipient,
  2. town name,
  3. street address or post box number,
  4. four digit postal code.

While the United States might ignore the destination city in international mail, other countries do not necessarily do so. For example, mail from England to Los Angeles is sent directly to Los Angeles, whereas a letter to New York goes on a flight to New York. The journey of a letter from Nome (Alaska) to Provideniya (Siberia), if sent westward rather than east, could be 23,000 miles shorter if the USPS processed the city line.

The following table shows a sampling of City Line formats. Punctuation shown in the Format column is to be taken literally:

In the formats above, province stands for whatever each country calls its subdivisions (e.g. state in the USA), and often is abbreviated according to local postal standards. Here are some variables in City Line format, all of which are illustrated later in this document:

Upper and Lower Case The postal authorities of the USA, Canada, UK, and many other countries recommend that the City Line (and preferably the entire address) be written in ALL UPPERCASE. In the UK, the City Line (Post Town) and postcode should use only capital letters, but the remainder of the address can (but need not) be in mixed case.

State/Province In some countries (like the USA, Canada, and Australia) the province (state, county, etc) is necessary, in others it is omitted, and in others it is either optional, or needed in some cases but omitted in others.

Punctuation In some countries (like Ireland) punctuation must be used in the City Line, but in others (like the USA, Canada, and Australia), it should not be used.

Postal Codes Postal codes, in countries that have them, are usually numeric, sometimes containing a space or a hyphen. Different countries use different terms for postal codes (e.g. Zone Improvement Plan, Postleitzahl) and different abbreviations for the terms (e.g. ZIP, PLZ, CEP, CAP, PIN). See the Wikepedia page on Postal codes.

European postal codes can have an alphabetic prefix, denoting the country, separated by a hyphen (such as DK-1234 in Denmark), but this seems to be going out of style (more about this in the section on Europe). Canadian, UK, and some other postal codes contain mixtures of digits and letters. Depending on the country, the postal code can go in the city line (left or right of the city), above it, or below it. In most countries where the postal code is on the right, we separate it by two (2) spaces (unless it is really a zone, like Dublin 4 , and not a postal code) (Dublin reference semi-obsolete as of July 2015, see Ireland section).

For the lines above the city line, each country has its own standards, which are discussed to some extent in the sections on individual countries such as Cuba and México, but for details consult the postal authority websites of each country, which are accessible from the tables at the beginning of each main section of this document. For the purposes of international mail, the main thing is to get the country line right so the USPS sends it to the right country, and city line right so the main receiving depot in the country can route it to the right town or city, whose local post office will deal with the rest.

In the years and decades since I started working on this page in the 1980s, resources have appeared that today are likely much more current, comprehensive, and well-maintained for example the Wikipedia List of Postal Codes, its pages for each country, its page on the Universal Postal Union, etc.

When sending international mail:

    The Country Line must be understandable by the USPS. Therefore, use the English name of the country (INDEX), not the local name, e.g. use GERMANY, not DEUTSCHLAND. To be more precise, use the same name the USPS uses for the country in the IMM, e.g. GERMANY and not FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY. The USPS IMM names are usually the common English names, but not always (for example, the USPS lists CÔTE D'IVOIRE, but not IVORY COAST). When more than one name is listed for the same country, you should use your knowledge of current events to choose the one that is most current and acceptable in that country, as we have done in the INDEX, bearing in mind that the choice might be controversial (e.g. BURMA vs MYANMAR each choice is likely to offend a different group of people, but MYANMAR is currently the official name of the country in English). In any case, use only one name for each country so you can produce reports by country, keep country-specific information in your database, etc.

The form you choose depends on your own database and record-keeping requirements, for which is it always best to use consistent city names.

When sending mail to Russia, Israel, Greece, Armenia, China, etc, it is perfectly acceptable to write the lines above the City Line in the native script. According to the USPS IMM, it is also OK to write the City Line in the native script, but it must also be written in English below the native script and above the Country Line (USPS guideline (d) below):

Obviously if you don't have a way to write the address in Cyrillic, Hebrew, Greek, etc, it can be transliterated in whatever way is most acceptable at the receiving end. Most countries that use non-Roman writing systems can deliver letters that are addressed in Roman transliteration &ndash Russia, Greece, Israel, most Arab countries, Japan, Korea, and both Chinas among them.

For mail to México, Italy, France, etc, if you can print accented Roman letters, all the better. If you can't, leave off the accents or transliterate according to language-specific rules (as in German ä to ae &ndash see section on Germany).

Never put ATTN: person's name or any other notations such as apartment number below the City or Country Line. This interferes with automatic sorting and can slow down delivery. (Personally, I think bureaucratic notations like ATTN are useless &ndash if you have addressed your mail to a person, then of course it is for their attention.)

Americans should avoid referring to other countries' postal codes as Zip codes, and also should not call other countries' administrative subdivisions states. These are common errors on address forms. Use "State or Province" and Zip or Postal Code on your address forms. It's not perfect, but it indicates that we understand that other countries can have their own terminology.

The USPS used to list the following general addressing guidelines (2019) most (but not all) of these points apply also to international mail:

  1. Always put the address and the postage on the same side of your mailpiece.
  2. On a letter, the address should be parallel to the longest side.
  3. All capital letters.
  4. No punctuation (This does not necessarily apply to all countries some countries require punctuation in their addresses).
  5. At least 10-point type.
  6. One space between city and state.
  7. Two spaces between state and ZIP (i.e. postal) Code (This applies to countries like the USA and Canada that place the postal code on the right the USPS does not offer this advice consistently but other countries, such as Canada, are quite emphatic about the need for two &ndash or more! &ndash spaces, so we might as well use them for addresses in all countries that write the postal code on the right, barring explicit instructions to the contrary).
  8. Simple type (i.e. monospace, fixed) fonts.
  9. Left justified.
  10. Black ink on white or light paper.
  11. No reverse type (white printing on a black background).
  12. If your address appears inside a window, make sure there is at least 1/8-inch clearance around the address. Sometimes parts of the address slip out of view behind the window and mail processing machines can't t read the address.
  13. Keep the destination address reasonably near the center.
  14. If you are using address labels, make sure you don't cut off any important information. Also make sure your labels are on straight. Mail processing machines have trouble reading crooked or slanted information.

    At least the entire right half of the address side of the envelope, package, or card should be reserved for the destination address, postage, labels, and postal notations.

In the absence of more-specific guidelines, don't put more than six lines (including the country name) in an international address, nor more than 38 characters in any line (these are the requirements for France). Pieces that do not follow the guidelines are liable to be rejected by automatic sorting machines, slowing down their delivery.

Here's an example of a well-formed address for mail from the USA to Canada:

It conforms to both US and Canadian postal addressing guidelines. It's printed in a fixed font with all capital letters and contains absolutely no punctuation. The lines go from most specific at the top to most general at the bottom. The City Line includes the official province abbreviation with no comma and two spaces before the postal code, which is the format recommended by Canada Post. The country line is at the bottom. The postal code goes in the City Line, not the Country Line, on the left or right according to the standard of the destination country.


For general delivery (poste restante &ndash to be called for ), the addressee's name must match the name on the proof of identity (such as a passport) that the addressee will show upon picking up the mail. In the United States, the +4 part of the ZIP+4 code for General Delivery is 9999, and for a Post Office Box, the last four digits of the PO Box number.


where ST is the official USPS 2-letter state or territory abbreviation from the table below with no comma preceding it, followed by the ZIP or ZIP+4, for example:

in which ST, NW, STE, and NY are abbreviations recognized by USPS (for Street, Northwest, Suite, and New York, respectively). If ZIP+4 is used, the two parts of the ZIP code must be separated by a single dash (and no spaces). The state abbreviation and ZIP code should be separated by one or two spaces (depending on which recommendation you read). Examples:

Uppercase is used, as recommended by the USPS, for ease of automatic scanning and application of bar codes. See the USPS ZIP Code directory or other relevant publications for additional addressing recommendations such as the format of street addresses, recommended abbreviations, etc, all of which help to keep your mail from being rejected by the automatic sorters. Some useful information on USA addresses can be found at the USPS Website:

In cases where the street name and number might be too long (e.g. for a database field, or for an automatic reader), any part of this line that denotes a sub-part of the main address (e.g. an apartment or suite number) can or should be put on a separate line above the street name and number:

Don't spell out state names or use old-fashioned state abbreviations for them like Ala , Miss , or N.Y. . Here is the table of states and other postal entities of the USA with their official 2-letter abbreviations (source: USPS National ZIP Code Directory) that are recognized by the USPS and its postal sorters:

Military addresses use APO (Army or Air Force Post Office) or FPO (Fleet Post Office for the Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard) instead of the city name, and then the state name is AA (for Americas), AE (for Europe), or AP (for Pacific), e.g.:

  • In the street address simply type in the CMR or PSC number and Box number
  • In the City type in APO or FPO
  • The State will be AE, AA, or AP depending on what part of the world it is in.

Mail addressed to Overseas Military members must be addressed to a specific individual. Mail addressed to &ldquoAny Service member&rdquo, &ldquoOccupant&rdquo or similar type generic name will not be processed or delivered to the address listed on the mail piece.

As of 2009, certain diplomatic sites have DPO (Diplomatic Post Office) addresses, similar to APO addresses (DPO AA, DPO AE, DPO AP, followed by Zip or, preferably, Zip+4), as in this example for the US Embassy in Rabat, Morocco:

DPO Addresses do not use PSC or CMRs in their addressing system. Diplomatic installations that don't have DPO addresses can be mailed to in care of the US State Department in Washington DC. All others require international mail.

APO/FPO/DPO addresses can be used only from the USA or other areas served by the US Post Office, or from other APO/FPO/DPO addresses. Mail from elsewhere to these locations must be addressed through the town, city, and country in which the military or diplomatic installation is located, e.g.:

(That is the address given by the embassy, but it should have postal code.) You can always refer to the USPS Postal Bulletin (see References below) published every two weeks to see if APO/FPO/DPO zip codes are valid and refer to the restrictions or limitations on certain articles and sizes of articles that could be prohibited.

  • USPS Postal Bulletin Archives.
  • National ZIP Code Directory , Volumes I and II, US National Information Data Center,
    Washington DC (published annually).
  • STATE ABBREVIATIONS, a brief document at the USPS website sketching the history of the abbreviations used for states of the United States. The current 2-letter codes were adopted along with the Zip Code in 1963.

For more about automatic sorting of US mail, see the Kermit News article, Kermit Helps Automate Mail Delivery .


The Canada city line format is like the USA format:

No commas or other punctuation*, postal code on the right separated by two spaces. Upper case is preferred but not required except in the postal code. Example:

Canada has 2-letter abbreviations for its provinces and territories, just like we have for our states, and which do not conflict with ours:

    On 1 April 1999, Northwest Territories split in two. The new (eastern) half is called Nunavut and the western half is still called Northwest Territories (not "Bob"). Until 12 December 2000 Nunavut's province symbol was NT after that it became NU (but NT should still work, and in fact is still listed in many places as the official symbol for Nunavut).

Canadian postal codes are always LNL NLN (Letter, Number, Letter, Space, Number, Letter, Number). (In this context, Number means Digit .) The first segment is the Forward Sortation Area the second is the Local Delivery Unit. The postal code is placed two spaces to the right of the province/territory abbreviation. All letters in the City Line (and preferably the entire address) should be uppercase. Examples:

Doug Ewell has written a report on the semantics of Canadian postal codes CLICK HERE for details.

The city or town name must not be translated. If the official name of the municipality is French, it must be written in French including accents if it is English, it must be written in English. Canadian postal policies emphasize equal treatment of English and French, but they do not mention other languages of Canada such as Inuktitut, Cree, Lakota, Micmac, Ojibwa, etc. I assume that locality names must be written in Roman letters and not Canadian Syllabics, although I could not find any statements to that effect at the Canada Post website. In Nunavut, the Inuit languages Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun are official languages, along with French and English road signs are in both Roman and Inuit Syllabics &ndash what about mail?

By the way, it turns out that even French town names with accents are stored internally in uppercase ASCII without accents, as you can see in postcode lookup. (In February 2020, Benoît Le Nabec clarifies: "In fact, both are accepted. If you enter the city name with accents the application ‘Find a Postal Code’ will return the city name with or without accents as a choice."

Links (last checked: 22 September 2017):

  • Addressing Guidelines
  • Postcode Lookup (Canada Post) (Doug Ewell)
  • Free Postal Code tools for Canada (ZIPCodeSoft).
  • Nunavut: The New Territory - Basic Facts
  • Inuit language finds home on net (BBC News, 3 Nov 2004).
  • Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics (Alan Wood)

Canadian postal humor: Canada Post doesn't really charge 32 cents for a stamp. It's 2 cents for postage and 30 cents for storage. (Gerald Regan, Cabinet Minister, 31 Dec 1983 Financial Post)


Here's a summary table of Caribbean localities showing the USPS country name (see INDEX for local, long, and other forms), ISO 3166 Alpha-2 Code, United Nations Car Code (these codes are explained in the section on Europe), postcode format (if any), and sample City line. As far as I can tell, neither ISO nor Car codes are used in Caribbean postal addresses. The right two columns are taken from the Universal Postal Union, when available (a surprising number are not). In the postcode format, n indicates a digit and L indicates an uppercase letter italic words like town and island are to be replaced by actual town or island names. Country names link to the country's postal authority website, if known, or other relevant site, if any.

    BARBADOS is installing a new postal code system, CLICK HERE for information. In the sample city line shown, Cheapside is a district of Bridgetown. The address of the postal authority itself is written this way.

Anguilla has a single postal code, AI-2640 for everybody.

See the Bermuda Yellow Pages website for a list of postcodes, as well as for the proper way to address a letter in Bermuda (27 June 2012).

Account Opening with PrimeFin Review

The process of opening an account with the PrimeFin requires just three simple steps. These are as follows:

1) Firstly, visit the official website and click to open an account option. After that, it will redirect you to the page where you have to give your name and phone number for the verification process.

2) Secondly, once the number is verified, you need to upload all the desired documents related to your income status. Further, you can skip this step if the scanned documents are not available with you at that particular moment.

3) At last, the final step is deciding the market or trade you wish to carry out. And, once you deposit the required amount for that trade, you can start trading.


Each department belongs to a single region. (Each of four overseas region being composed of a single department).

France is divided into 101 departments. They are divided into 343 districts ("arrondissements"), 4 058 townships ("cantons") and 36 699 Towns ("communes").

Each department has a capital city or prefecture which includes its institutions. This capital is often the largest city of the department.

According to figures (in 1999), the median population of a department of continental France was 511 012 inhabitants.

The skills of the department are:
- Social Action
- Restructure rural land
- Construction
- Maintenance of colleges
- School and transport
- .

The removal of one or more local levels is being debated in France for several years and especially the option to remove department level.
For now, the Balladur committee dealing with the reform of local government did not adopt this proposal, so there is currently no change at the departmental level.

How Qatar came out of the Saudi-led blockade stronger than before

Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman welcomes Qatar's Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani in Al-Ula, Saudi Arabia January 5, 2021. Bandar Algaloud/Courtesy of Saudi Royal Court/Handout via REUTERS

Since 2017, the GCC blockade, spearheaded by Saudi Arabia against its neighbour Qatar has effectively ended. But despite the years of isolation Doha endured, it has come out of the diplomatic spat strengthened.

On 5 January, the emir hugged his sworn enemy, the Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Ben Salman, ending the blockade imposed on him by several of his neighbours since 2017. An embargo that cost Qatar dearly, but from which it has emerged strengthened.

The scene was surprising. Firstly because during a global pandemic, a hug between politicians has become an extremely rare, almost unheard of gesture. Then, and above all, because relations between the two Gulf leaders – who fell into each other’s arms on the tarmac of Al-Ula airport in Saudi Arabia on 5 January – have not been warm in recent years.

Nevertheless, with this gesture between the Qatari emir, Tamim Al Thani, and the Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Ben Salman, one of the most serious diplomatic crises in the history of the Arabian Peninsula came to an end. It was a crisis that had pitted Qatar against almost all of its neighbours for three years.

Punching above its weight?

Since June 2017, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain and Egypt had imposed a land, air and sea blockade on this small emirate – with whom they had broken off all relations – dragging several African countries along with them.

This sudden and brutal decision, which was made during the month of Ramadan, was justified for various reasons which included Qatar’s supposed “support for terrorism” and the Muslim Brotherhood, its warm relations with Iran and Doha’s supposed desire to destabilise the various powers of the Arab world via Al-Jazeera.

Grievances which, for some, were not new, but which were generally not expressed outside the confines of the Arab League or the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

In short, Qatar was accused of punching above its weight by practicing an ambitious foreign policy that went contrary to the strategic objectives of its powerful neighbours. It was therefore necessary to send them a message to humble them. A list of thirteen conditions for the lifting of the blockade had been sent to the emir, including the closure of Al-Jazeera and the immediate downgrading of diplomatic relations with Iran.

The international context at the time played a part in the timing: Donald Trump had just come to power in the US and had booked his first official visit to Saudi Arabia, where he was received with great pomp and circumstance. Riyadh then felt like it could pick a fight with its small neighbour, which is home to one of the largest US overseas bases.

Blow after blow

The extremely rich gas emirate is not used to being seen as a victim on the international stage. However, the shock expressed by the Qataris waking up on 5 June 2017, when they discovered that the only road linking them to the peninsula had been closed, was not overplayed. The Qatari authorities were scrambling within hours to find new solutions to feed a population heavily dependent on imports.

More dairy products? That wasn’t the point: Doha was using Qatar Airways to import thousands of cows and set up a national dairy industry in less than a year. Westerners preferred to stick to a cautious neutrality?

Even in Covid-19 times, Riyadh is worth hugging.

It was Turkey that flew to the rescue of its small ally. It sent troops to ensure that its powerful Saudi neighbour would not attempt a coup to instate one of its emirs in Doha. Qatar Airways could no longer fly over the territories of the “blocking” states? In exchange for cash, Iranian airspace became the obligatory passage for planes flying to and from Doha. The blockade thus pushed Qatar further into the arms of Turkey and Iran.

The article continues below

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Admittedly, all this cost the small emirate excruciatingly large sums of money (tens of billions of dollars). Qatar Airways was operating at a loss and Hamad International Airport had lost its status as a regional hub. Qatar’s neighbours also launched a media campaign against Doha, accusing it of many evils from financing terrorism to supporting popular uprisings in the Arab world… and even the Yellow Vests (an accusation echoed by an Egyptian news source).

But Qatar has delivered blow after blow: legal attacks against its neighbours, media coverage of the Yemen conflict and hourly news updates on Al-Jazeera during the Khashoggi affair… 300,000 Qataris have become patriotic and are grateful to their emir for not letting them down.

Tightening ranks against Tehran

Why has Saudi Arabia finally decided to end this crisis, even though Qatar has not agreed to any of its thirteen demands? Riyadh, which is experiencing some tensions with the UAE, wanted to resolve a crisis which has above all earned it bad publicity. Despite their reluctance, Abu Dhabi, Cairo and Bahrain have been strongly encouraged to join in the reconciliation.

Not to mention that the new US president, Joe Biden, will not be as firm with regards to Iran as his predecessor was and that Riyadh seeks to unify the Gulf countries against Tehran. However, Doha does not intend to break with Iran, with which it shares the world’s largest gas field, and emir Tamim would rather see himself as a mediator between the Saudis and Iranians.

For its part, and even if some of its political leaders are quick to assert that the country is doing better since the blockade, Qatar could not afford to prolong a crisis that cut it off from its region – and which has cost it a small fortune. Even in Covid-19 times, Riyadh is worth hugging.

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When the COVID-19 Pandemic Leaves Us Feeling Helpless

For most patients, the COVID-19 crisis has created a “new normal.” They may be stuck at home, unable to work, or feeling isolated from dear friends and family.

This all can leave people feeling helpless.

So what can we do to help patients regain a sense of agency during the pandemic? Bessel van der Kolk, MD has several ideas.

Take a moment now to hear them in the video below.

Just one note before you watch: there’s a section that Bessel specifically asked us to leave in, even though we’d normally remove it. However, this time he wanted you to be able to hear it for yourself.

According to Bessel, there are insights we can draw from trauma therapy that could help patients when they’re feeling helpless or reeling from the unpredictability of life during a pandemic.

Now think of the patients you’ll be seeing this week. Is there a strategy from the video that one of them might find particularly helpful?

We understand that not everyone will agree with Bessel’s politics, and we appreciate that we have a community of practitioners from both sides of the aisle. But for the comments we’d like to focus on what we all have in common: our work with patients.

Please let us know a strategy that one of your patients may find helpful in the comments below.

Watch the video: Ten Minute History - World War 2: Free and Vichy France Short Documentary (August 2022).