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Plan of Mitsubishi G4M 'Betty'

Plan of Mitsubishi G4M 'Betty'

Plan of Mitsubishi G4M 'Betty'

Here we see front, top and side plans of the MitsubishiG4M 'Betty', showing the overall layout of the aircraft.


Micubiši G4M [Betty]

G4M2 22
July 1943, the engines MK4P Kasei 21 about the performance of the 1 825 horses, the laminar profile of the wing, the installation of larger fuel tanks (up to 6 490 l ), dorsal turret with 20 mm cannon, a bigger bomb bay, better glass bow, were built in total 1 154 aircraft G4M2

G4M2a 22a Ko
differences in the defensive armor, the other placing machine guns.

G4M2b 22b Otsu
differences in the defensive armor, some sources indicate installation of the dorsal gun turret from this version

G4M2a 24A
motors MK4-T Kasei 25 about the performance of the 1 875 horsepower with a more economic operation, transplanting the shooting windows (not against each other), in these side windows are cannons Type 99 Model 2 caliber 20 mm

G4M2a 24B
deliveries in 1944, in the side windows are the machine guns of 13.2 mm

G4M2c 24C
in the front střelišti one 13.0 mm machine gun and four guns caliber 20 mm with a belt feeder hubs, high-rise engines Kasei 25

G4M2b 25
the experimental engine installation Kasei 25b Ru with turbocharging turbocharged Ru-102, nedoložena production, apparently 2 prototypes

G4M2c 26
the experimental engine installation Kasei 25b

G4M2c 27
experimental setup the engine Kasei 27

G4M2e 24J Tei
is a modified G4M2a 22a into the form of a carrier suicide Ohky 11, for the start of this version were used by the auxiliary rocket engines, type 4, made of about 65-70 aircraft, installation of additional armor plates.

G4M3a 34
the larger the tank the fuel in the wings, the engines of the MK4-T Kasei 25, the adjustment of the rear range, the positive dihedral of the GTC, manufactured 60-65 aircraft version to g4m3.

G4M3b 34A
for the maritime patrolling with protilodním radar

G4M3c 36
only the prototype with turbokompresorovými engines Kasei 25b Ru.

G6M1 11
the accompanying heavy fighter, which came out of the G4M1 11, but made like the first,
had to accompany the bombers, the Mitsubishi G3M

Mitsubishi G6M1-L2
all unsuccessful accompanying jet cruisers were eventually adapted as a transport aircraft

The total was made: 2 446 aircraft G4M and G6M made by the company Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha

2 prototypes of the 12-Shi - Nagoya September 1939 to February 1940
30 serial G6M1 - Nagoya in 1940
1 200 serial G4M1 - Nagoya from January 1941 to January 1944
1 154 G4M2 - Nagoya (640) and Okayama (514) November 1942 - August 1945
60-65 to g4m3 small series in Nagoya and Okayama December 1943 - August 1945.

It is the year 1937 and the japanese naval air force lists specifications of the 12-Shi, there are formulated the technical requirements both on-board the fighter, which gave rise to the famous fighters A6M Zero , and yet here were the requirements for the attack bomber, base bomber G4M Betty. Both aircraft were a great success of the company Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha. .

As was then the custom, the navy announced requirements for the new aircraft in the year, when the equipment got bomber Mitsubishi G3M Type 96 Nell. So ensure that once it starts bomber G3M be out of date, will be available for bomber new. Requirements for a new bomber, an emphasis on the great range, which was necessary given the large distances in the Pacific and on the chinese battlefield. With a load of 800 kilograms of bombs, or a torpedo of the same weight, had a range of eur 2 000 nautical miles (3 703 km). Required was also quite effective defensive weapons, including a cannon caliber of 20 millimeters and the flight speed should be more a defense of a new bomber. Work on the development of the bomber were awarded without competition, above-named the factory Mitsubishi and based on the achievements of the bombers G3M in China.

In the first study, was the designer Joji Hattorim considered a mere enhancement G3M for help new more efficient engines Mitsubishi MK4A Kasei 11 with the capacity of 1 530 horses, but with regard to the fact that the fuselage had to place a large amount of fuel and also cougars, which were in G3M hung on external pylons, and here were the cougars the source of a large aerodynamic resistance, this variant soon discarded. The construction of the hull was entrusted to the 1. naval air arsenal in Yokosuce and Mitsubishi was in charge of all the other parts of a bomber aircraft. Already in December 1937 it was started with the blast of some parts of the model in the wind tunnel.

The design team was strengthened by internships in the US are returned Kira Honjoem, the constructor of the G3M and now also šéfkonstruktérem Mitsubishi. Honjo suggested double-girder wing and the space between the beams filled from a large part of the fuel tank. The new bomber had an electrically driven slotted flaps, and also landing gear retraction was electric, because the japanese hydraulic drives have never been completely reliable. The torso was bulky and aerodynamically clean, the shape resembled a cigar and so he had the unofficial title of Hamaki, which is japanese for a cigar. Range and speed has been subordinated to all, in particular the passive protection of the vital parts. Respectable was the amount of carried fuel 4 900 litres, unfortunately, even the tanks were not protected. The shape of the bomb bay was adapted to the torpedo Type 91, but it was possible to hang up and bombs weighing up to 1 000 kilograms (4 x 250 kg). At a decent level and missile armament, which formed the cannon Type 99 Model 1 in the rear střelišti and four machine guns Type 92 caliber 7.7 mm.

The prototype was [23.10.1939 at the air base in Kagamihaře, was completed about one month earlier. Development is a little delayed, the factory Mitsubishi was overloaded, developed at the same time, fighter A6M Reisen, which had a higher preference during the construction. Naval air force found that the new bomber not only proved to meet the requirements of the 12-Shi, but even it is smoothly overcome in range, when it reached up to 3 000 nautical miles, so at the maximum speed, where the requirement was 398 km/h and the prototype flew at speeds of up to 444 miles per hour.

Description of the version:

• First, the production didn't get the bomber version and this for two reasons, first, in the navy there was a concern that the start of production of a new bomber will cause a partial interruption of the supply of bomber aircraft on the chinese battlefield, there is already bombers G3M suffered losses and the japanese naval air force searched in vain for a way to secure their fighter defense. Small and maneuverable fighters Mitsubishi A5M not enough range, forward airfield for fighters not address the problem globally and the purchase of fighter aircraft in foreign (Seversky A8V1 and the Heinkel A7He1) did not bring nothing but further disappointment and it was now also a second reason why there has been a reconstruction of the promising and the executive bomber on escort fighter křižníkového type.

This trip was primarily supported by a group of naval officers from the test base in Yokosuce. Designation has changed to G6M1 changed hlavňová armament and so, that was newly formed by four dvacetimilimetrovými cannons, only the front guns have a machine gun of rifle caliber. Completely omitted was the bomb bay, and because of the weight savings of a reduced supply of fuel in the wings, now it was a stock of fuel 3 640 liters. United, by contrast, the supply of ammunition and that, and quite a large missile gondola under the fuselage, were the causes of the decline of the speed of the accompanying fighter planes up to such a degree that wasn't enough to their protégés after the release of the bombs. So the japanese naval air force found that even in this way can your bombers to protect. The total was made thirty such aircraft and the first was completed in August 1940.

Such kind of escort wasn't just a specialty of naval aviation, a similar development took place also in the army air force, which provide for the bomber Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu on the escort fighter Nakajima Ki-58, fortunately, the military development was not brought up to operational deployment. Similar to the way the development went, for example, in the U.S. and was also achieved similar results, it was a dead end road.

After you download the G6M1 from the combat units were demilitarizovány and served as practice and were later converted to transport G6M1-L, then, able to transport up to twenty paratroopers. Was introduced to armament in the form of the upper range with one machine gun. This range of the original G6M1 not.

• In December, finally, command of the maritime air force decided to launch the production of bombers, G4M1 Rikko. In April 1941 he was officially accepted into armaments and this month was also running the pre-series production in the factory number 31 in Nagoya. Serial production will be launched fully in may and the beginning of the war the monthly production consisted of decent 25 aircraft. In the initial phase of the fighting aeroplanes Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 11 achieved great success and in combat units gradually replacing obsolescent G3M2, exactly how the command of the navy in 1937 had planned.

Such a situation, however, was only at the beginning of the war, once the Allies a little recovered and started to defend ourselves more effectively, then began to grow losses G4M1 11. Soon acquired the unflattering and the apt nickname "the Flying cigarette lighter" to blame were both unprotected fuel tanks with a large amount of fuel and also the inability to pull the bomber, loaded with a suicide load, to a higher flight level, where he would be at least partially protected from anti-aircraft fire from the ground.

It is therefore not surprising that in February 1942 he was commissioned 2. naval aviation arsenal in Kisarazu adjustment 241. serial machines. The adjustment consisted in the development výškovějších engines Mitsubishi MK4E Kasei 15. This engine provide 1 530 horses at the start, but was mainly better high-rise properties, so the new model Betty (such was the allied code name) was about 400 meters higher dostupu and at the height of 8,000 meters ascended about three minutes earlier than it did the original version, slight was also an increase in the maximum speed. The new model had the designation Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 13. From the 406. production aircraft have had these engines all other machines and was also mounted the fire extinguisher system with CO2 to the tanks of fuel. Further improvement of the passive protection of the fuel tanks was from the 663. production aircraft, the trupovou the tank and under the fuel tanks in the wings was installed trojvrstvá crude rubber, which had a limited slip effect. It brought about an increase in weight and thereby also the decline in performance, for example, max. the speed dropped to 454 km/h from the original 463 km/hr. but later managed to eliminate the individual exhausts, that imposing any slight move, but at the range it was, however, already about 300 miles less. The total was made 1 702 aircraft G4M1, including the first two prototypes. Their production ended in until November, 1944, been produced in parallel with more modern versions of Bettynek.

G4M2 Model 22 was the next development version, which was requested by the navy, it were more massive armament, to Betty could more effectively resist the growing stíhacímu the air force of the Allies. It solved the factory installation of the dorsal gun turret, in which was the second cannon caliber of 20 mm cartridges for the cannon were drum with 45 rounds of ammunition, respectively grenades. The tower should have a relatively large weight of 900 kilograms and along with the required higher supply of fuel has brought a large increase in weight. This mass transgression should eliminate the more powerful engines Mitsubishi MK4P Kasei 21, these engines had the possibility of injection of chemicals and thus further increase performance, the starting performance was 1 of 800 hp. Propeller new version were čtyřlisté VDM, these were license-manufactured by Sumitomo. The fuel tank now accommodate up to 6 490 gallons of fuel, but the range is again decreased to 1 350 us. miles. Additional changes were made to the side střelišť, the original "bumps" have been replaced by the windows, change has undergone also the tail guns and the rear gun so gained greater space for manipulation. The bow was more prosklena and there were curtains for the two machine guns, wings and the GTC got a new end arches. Compared to the older type has been simplified manufacture of the fuselage, by now fashioned as one piece.

The first prototype flew on 12.December 1942, but the serial production was launched only in July 1943, the first machine bore the serial number 2001. The delay was caused by the navy, which had tried the new bombers Nakajima G5N Shinzan, but these bombers were a major disappointment, and it so happened that the navy ordered a new G4M2 22 with a delay. Production started quickly also the in the new factory in Mizushimě. It was made of 275 aircraft and then was in production halls replaced by another version of G4M2a Model 22A (Ko), from older different more powerful armament in the side windows. The windows were newly mutually combat, and that the shooters had more space and every side shooter now dominated dvacetimilimetrový cannon. These aircraft were produced, 50 pieces.
Some carried anti-ship radar Type 3-6 with a theoretical range of 140 km, the presence of radar equipment showed the antenna type Yagi. Version of Mitsubishi G4M2b 22B (Otsu) were again padesátikusová (serial No.2325-2374) had a more modern cannon Type 99-2 with a belt feeder rounds.

• Development of new engines the Mitsubishi MK4T Kasei 25 about the performance of the 1 825 horses characterized the version of G4M2 Model 24, that was otherwise identical with the version of the G4M2 22, made was only 14 aircraft of this version (serial No.2501-2514) and was replaced with another Model: 24A (Ko) (serial No. 2515-2529), here the armament fit of the Model 22A, but again with the engines of the Kasei 25. A larger series was another subversion of the G4M2Ab 24B (Otsu) (serial No.2530-2700) that, in turn, correspond to the Model 22B. From the series Well.2701 was constructed of subversion Model 24C (Hei) that already had its previous predecessor. Change was again in the armament in the bow was added to one mobile machine gun Type 2 caliber 13 mm and in the bow were a total of three machine guns, because there remained the earlier Type 92 caliber 7.7 mm. It brought even a slight adjustment in the glazing of the bow.

• Other models, like the carrier of a suicide aircraft Ohka, about which I will mention in conclusion, is produced only as prototypes. In a single copy was G4M2B Model 25, that was powered by engines Mitsubishi MK4V Kasei 27 B of the output 1 795 horsepower, but at a height of 6 580 meters provide even 1 480 horsepower and Betty reached max.the speed of 466 km/h. This machine was modified from the second prototype of the G4M2 Model 22.

• Houses engine Mitsubishi MK4T-B Kasei 25B, supercharged by a mechanical compressor, there were two prototypes of the G4M2C Model 26.

• A third prototype of the G4M2 22 after installation turbocompressors engine Mitsubishi MK4T-B Ru Kasei 25B Ru changed the type of G4M2D Model 27. This machine was damaged by hot exhaust gases, which damaged the wing. Other attempts were stopped. A total of was built 1 152 aircraft G4M2 all model series.

Mitsubishi to g4m3 Model 34 was another version of Betty, in this version, emphasis was placed on it to Betty she had a good resistance in the fight and so was retrofitted with armour the crew compartment and the fuel tank were self-locking packaging. Work began in November 1942, the designer Mimojito Takahashi. Most changed the design of the wing, which was now one beam and it was literally crammed into integral fuel tanks of fuel. The prototype flew on 1. in January 1944, and showed a decent performance, but the navy insisted on the reinforcement structure of the wing and after that amplification was in the end of march granted permission to serial production. There was also to shorten the rear range and the shift of the center of gravity was eliminated vzepětím tail. A total of were produced 60 aircraft of this version (from the serial No.3004). The engines were the Mitsubishi MK4T Kasei 25. Two prototypes were tested with the engines Mitsubishi MK4T-B Ru Kasei 25B Ru, but the end of the war were not tests completed. Several aircraft were completed as G4M3a 34A Ko, this design allowed the aircraft to use as a transport, or ship-to-ship, with regard to a reduced gun armament then was a crew of five. The production of the last aircraft often suffered from a little quality, but it was understandable, because the factories were often bombed. Production lasted until the end of the war.

• At the conclusion I left a version of G4M2E 24E (Tei), this version was designed as a carrier of suicidal missile letounků Yokosuka MXY-7 Model 11 Ohka. In the bomb bay were special handles, to which the Ohka on the ground hung up, and after approach to the destination was of them dropped, the bomb bay didn't have a door. To facilitate the take-off to the overloaded machines were assembled at the Betty jumper, the rocket engines of the Type-4. The interesting thing is that this version of she didn't exactly like the actual version , but was created in a factory by rebuilding the already produced aircraft. Thus adjusted was 70 aircraft.

• The development of bomber aircraft G4M1 11 managed to completely conceal and even in spite of their deployment in China, after the outbreak of the war in the Pacific were these bombers for the Allies an unpleasant surprise. Operationally they were deployed perhaps on all the battlefields, their major failing was the lack of protection of fuel tanks and later it was the situation, when Betty had to be deployed and it wasn't for her no refund and so had to perform the tasks that were already beyond her power..


Mitsubishi G4M Betty

Mitsubishi's G4M 'Betty' bomber made its name by sinking two battleships in a day in 1941. Although the 'Betty' was not a perfect design, lacking in protection, this twin-engine warplane had respectable performance and bomb-carrying capacity. This much admired aircraft was the backbone of Japan's bomber force all the way through to the end of World War II, by which time it was used for carrying missiles.

Nicknamed 'Betty' by the Allies, this bomber did not have enough defensive armament and was susceptible to a fiery doom if its fuel was ignited. Some American pilots called the G4M the 'flying cigarette lighter'. Even so, Japan threw 2000 Mitsubishi G4Ms into the Pacific battle. The pratical qualities of this aircraft, including its reliability and long range, frequently overcame its shortcomings, leaving a trail of destruction in its wake.

Designed in 1937 and becoming operational in 1940, the 'Betty' had an unremarkable record with the Japanese army, but became one of the strongest weapons in Japan's naval force. Manufactured in greater numbers than any other Japanese aircraft, the G4M achieved considerable success in long-range bombing duties.

Mitsubishi engineers improved the 'Betty' as the war progressed, adding a better tailgun and other features but even though pilots liked the aircraft it was a creature of the past, not the future. Ironically, after years of war, the G4M's final duty was to carry the Japanese surrender delegation to the island of Ie Shima four days after the fighting ended.


Study the Picture: Japan's "Flying Cigar" Bomber Destroyed the Pacific

The Japanese G4M Betty Bomber served in virtually every Pacific battle.

Here's What You Need To Remember: They also served as transports and special-attack aircraft.

The two types of aircraft responsible for sinking the Prince Of Wales and Repulse represented the best of Japanese aviation in 1941. The older, more numerous type consisted of Mitsubishi G3M twin-engine aircraft, known simply as “Nells” to Allied pilots. (The Allies gave boys’ names to Japanese fighters and float planes, girls’ names to Japanese bombers and recon planes.) Manned by a crew of five, the Nell first flew in July 1935 and went into widespread production the following year.

Defensive armament consisted of three 7.7mm machine guns. Early versions were able to obtain a maximum speed of 188 knots and had an exceptional range of over 2,200 miles—improvements later in the war considerably extending both. Although chiefly a high-level bomber, the G3M was adapted to carry an 800-kg torpedo in an antishipping role. G3Ms were little known in the West, being used chiefly by the Japanese against the Chinese, although they achieved a notable distinction on August 14, 1937, when a force of them based in Formosa attacked targets in mainland China 1,250 miles away, thus realizing the first transoceanic air attack in history.

G3Ms remained in service throughout the war, though by 1943 they were mostly employed in second-line duties or used as transports. In all, 1,048 were eventually produced, 636 by Mitsubishi and an additional 412 under license by Nakajima.

It was Nell’s successor—the Mitsubishi G4M or “Betty”—that went on to become one of the most famous Japanese aircraft ever produced. Serving in almost every Pacific battle in every role imaginable, the G4M became a powerful symbol of Japanese strength and airpower second only to the vaunted Zero.

Re-Imagining The Aerial Bomber

Charged by the Imperial Navy in September 1937 to develop a new, more modern twin-engine bomber, Mitsubishi was faced with challenges that pushed the limits of both speed and range. It more than rose to the challenge and produced what was then considered the best land-based naval bomber in the world. The G4M won its honors through a combination of high-powered engines, a clean low-drag airframe, and minimal weight. Because long range was essential, the wings were designed to include fuel tanks but to hold down weight in favor of range, the designers omitted armor or a self-sealing feature for the tanks. Similarly, there was no armor protection for the crew, and defensive weapons were severely restricted. The fuselage, basically a circular tube, was of a diameter sufficient to accommodate an uncluttered bomb bay beneath the center wing-section, intended to make it easier for the crew to move about the aircraft during long, over-water flights.

The Betty first flew in October 1939 and was manned by a crew of seven. Early versions of the aircraft as deployed against Force Z could fly at up to 230 knots (265 mph) with a maximum range of 3,250 miles. It carried one 20mm cannon and four 7.7mm machine guns. It could hoist either one 800kg torpedo or 1,000kg of bombs.

Despite the G4M’s speed and exceptional range, it’s fatal flaws were the lack of armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, thus making the plane especially vulnerable to enemy fire—often one or two bursts were all that were required to set it aflame. In fact, it became known derisively to Allied pilots as the “Flying Cigar.” Ironically, as the war continued and the Japanese were pushed back closer to their homeland and interior Pacific bases, the need for range diminished.

The Betty’s most outstanding success came in the early days of the war with the sinking of the Prince Of Wales and Repulse, the first capital ships ever to be sunk by air attack while at sea. In fact, only three other battleships have ever been destroyed under such conditions: Japan’s own Yamatoand Musashi late in the war, and the Italian battleship Roma in the Mediterranean in 1943.

In all 2,416 Bettys were produced by Mitsubishi and saw action in almost every engagement in the South Pacific. They also served as transports and special-attack aircraft. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was aboard a Betty when it was shot down in 1943. Late in the war Bettys were used as Kamikazi aircraft. Indeed the Betty, which was there at the very start of the conflict, was also there at its end, being used as special transport aircraft for the Japanese delegation who arranged Japan’s surrender to the Allies in August 1945.


Plan of Mitsubishi G4M 'Betty' - History

The Mitsubishi G4M was a twin-engine, land-based medium bomber formerly manufactured by the Mitsubishi Aircraft Company, a part of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. Its official designation is and was commonly referred to by Japanese Navy pilots as due to the cylindrical shape of its fuselage. The Allied reporting name was "Betty". Designed to a strict specification to succeed the Mitsubishi G3M already in service, the G4M boasted very good performance and excellent range and was considered the best land-based naval bomber at the time. This was achieved by its structural lightness and an almost total lack of protection for the crew, with no armor plating or self-sealing fuel tanks. The G4M was officially adopted on 2 April 1941 but the aforementioned problems would prove to be a severe drawback, often suffering heavy losses Allied fighter pilots nicknamed the G4M "The Flying Lighter" as it was extremely prone to ignition after a few hits. It was not until later variants of the G4M2 and G4M3 that self-sealing fuel tanks, armor protection for the crew and better defensive armament was installed. Nevertheless, the G4M would become the Navy's primary land-based bomber. It is the most widely produced and most famous bomber operated by the Japanese during World War II and it served in nearly all battles during the Pacific War. The aircraft is also known for being the mothership that carried the Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka, a purpose-built anti-ship suicide weapon during the final years of the war. Of the 2,435 G4Ms produced, no intact aircraft have survived.

The G4Ms predecessor the Mitsubishi G3M went into service in 1937 in China. Only two months later the Japanese Navy issued specifications to Mitsubishi. The specifications, unprecedented at the time, called for a twin-engine, land-based, attack bomber with a top speed of , altitude of , and a range of unloaded (without bombs and torpedoes), and a range of when carrying an torpedo or the same weight in bombs. The G4M was designed for a long range and high speed at the time of its introduction. In order to meet the Navy's specifications a Mitsubishi team lead by Kiro Honjo did not incorporate self-sealing fuel tanks and armor plating to save weight and extend range. This consequently made both the G4M and the Zero, which Mitsubishi used the same design features, vulnerable to machine gun and cannon fire. Consequently, this made Allied fighter pilots to give it derisive nicknames such as "the flying lighter" "the one-shot lighter", "the flying Zippo" and "the flying cigar" because of their tendency to ignite from damage to the wing fuel tanks after being hit by gunfire. The pilots of the Imperial Japanese Navy called the G4M the "''hamaki''" ("cigar"), however this was due to its shape. Due to deficiencies of the G3M in warding off concentrated fighter attacks Honjo incorporated guns in the nose, on top and both sides of the fuselage and in the tail a cannon was added. When used for medium- to high-altitude bombing against stationary land targets like supply depots, seaports or airfields, it was much harder to intercept. Using its long range and high speed, the G4M could appear from any direction, and then it could be gone before any fighters intercepted them. The 20 mm cannon in its tail turret was much heavier armament than was commonly carried by bombers of either side, making aerial attacks from the rear quite dangerous for the Allied fighter aircraft. Sometimes, assuming they did not catch fire after being hit in the wings by flak from the ground or by machine gun bullets from enemy fighters, G4Ms also proved to be able to remain airborne despite being badly damaged. For example, after the attack of the ''751 Kōkūtai'' (air group) on the USS ''Chicago'' during the Battle of Rennell Island, three out of four surviving aircraft (of the original eleven) returned despite flying with only one engine. As the war continued improved bomber designs failed to materialize and Mitsubishi began creating additional versions to fulfill various news missions as well as eliminate the weakness in the design including various engine and weapon variants. The G4M2 redesign failed to shore up the G4Ms vulnerability to weapons fire.

The first G4M prototype left Mitsubishi's Nagoya plant in September 1939 disassembled and loaded in five ox-drawn farm carts to Kagamigahara airfield to the north. On October 23, 1939, test pilot Katsuzo Shima flew the G4M prototype. Despite successful tests the Navy shelved the bomber for the more heavily armed G6M1 variant in hopes it could be used as heavy escort fighter for other bombers. Failing these expectations the G4M1 was ordered into production.

The first production G4M was completed in April 1941 and was not discontinued until the end of the war. * G4M1 Model 11: 1172 examples (including prototypes) * G4M2 models 22, 22 ''Ko'' and 22 ''Otsu'': 429 examples * G4M2a, models 24, 24 ''Ko'', 24 ''Otsu'', 24 ''Hei'', and 24 ''Tei'': 713 examples * G4M3 models 34 ''Ko'', 34 ''Otsu'', and 34 ''Hei'': 91 examples * G6M1: 30 examples * Total production of all versions: 2,435 examples

The G4M was similar in performance and missions to other contemporary twin-engine bombers such as the German Heinkel He 111 and the American North American B-25 Mitchell. These were all commonly used in anti-ship roles. The G4M Model ''11'' was prominent in attacks on Allied shipping from 1941 to early 1944, but after that it became increasingly easy prey for Allied fighters. The G4M was first used in combat on 13 September 1940 in Mainland China, when 27 "Bettys" and Mitsubishi C5Ms of 1st ''Rengo Kōkūtai'' (a mixed force including elements of the ''Kanoya'' and ''Kizarazu'' ''Kōkūtai'') departed from Taipei, Omura, and Jeju City to attack Hankow. The bombers and the reconnaissance aircraft were escorted by 13 A6M Zeros of 12th ''Kōkūtai'' led by the IJN lieutenant, Saburo Shindo. A similar operation occurred in May 1941. In December 1941, 107 G4Ms based on Formosa of 1st ''Kōkūtai'' and ''Kanoya Kōkūtai'' belonging to the 21st ''Koku Sentai'' (air flotilla) crossed the Luzon Strait en route to bombing the Philippines this was the beginning of Japanese invasions in the Southwest Pacific Theater. In its first year of combat the G4M was a success. They bombed the U.S. Army air base Clark Field, Philippines on December 8, 1941. The G4M was instrumental in sinking HMS ''Prince of Wales'' and HMS ''Repulse'' two days later. Nine G4Ms participated in the long-range bombing raid of Katherine, Northern Territory, on 22 March 1942 (the deepest inland attack on Australian territory during the war at over 200 miles from the coast). Against weak fighter opposition the G4M attacked targets ranging as far as the Aleutians to Australia using its long range, the drawbacks of no self-sealing fuel tanks and armor not presenting themselves as problems at this point. The G4M's most notable use as a torpedo bomber was in the sinking of ''Prince of Wales'' and ''Repulse'' off the eastern coast of Malaya on 10 December 1941. The G4Ms attacked along with older Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" bombers, which made high-level bombing runs. ''Prince of Wales'' and ''Repulse'' were the first two capital ships to be sunk exclusively by air attacks during a war, while in open waters. The bomber crews were from the Kanoya Air Group (later 751 Ku), Genzan Air Group (later 753 Ku), and the Mihoro Air Group (later 701 Ku), trained in torpedo attacks at an altitude of less than , and in long-range over-ocean navigation, so they could attack naval targets moving quickly at sea. G4Ms later made many attacks against Allied ships and also land targets during the six-month-long Guadalcanal Campaign (in the Solomon Islands) in late 1942. More than 100 G4M1s and their pilots and crews were lost (with no replacements or substitutes available) during the many battles over and near Guadalcanal from August to October 1942. On 8 August 1942, during the second day of the U.S. Marine landings on Guadalcanal, 23 IJNAF torpedo-carrying G4M1s attacked American ships at Lunga Point, but 18 of the G4M1s were shot down, by very heavy anti-aircraft fire and carrier-based F4F fighters. In all 18 Japanese crews – approximately 120 aviators – were lost at Lunga Point. In the two days of the Battle of Rennell Island, 29 and 30 January 1943, 10 out of 43 G4M1s were shot down during night torpedo attacks, all by U.S. Navy anti-aircraft fire. About 70 Japanese aviators, including Lieutenant Commander Higai, were killed during that battle. Probably the best-known incident involving a G4M during the war was the attack resulting in the death of Admiral Yamamoto. On 18 April 1943, sixteen P-38 Lightnings of the 339th Fighter Squadron of the 347th Fighter Group, Thirteenth Air Force, shot down a G4M1 of the 705th ''Kōkūtai'' with the tailcode "T1-323", carrying Admiral Yamamoto. In the same battle, another G4M1 carrying Chief of Staff Vice Admiral Matome Ugaki was also downed by the P38s, although Ugaki survived. The G4M Model ''11'' was replaced by the Models ''22'', ''22a/b'', ''24a/b'', ''25'', ''26'', and ''27'' from June 1943 onward, giving service in New Guinea, the Solomons, and the South Pacific area, in defense of the Marianas and finally in Okinawa. Other G4Ms received field modifications, resulting in the Model ''24j''. This model carried the Yokosuka MXY7 ''Ohka'' Model ''11'' suicide flying bomb, beginning on 21 March 1945, with disastrous results due to heavy Allied fighter opposition. After the loss of Okinawa, G4Ms constituted the main weapon of the land-based Japanese naval bomber force. It consisted of 20 ''Kōkūtai'' at the end of the war. This included the testing air group, which was equipped in 1944–45 with the latest version G4M3 Models ''34'' and ''36'', though these arrived too late to affect the course of the war. From November 1944 to January 1945, G4Ms were one of the main types of aircraft used in the Japanese air attacks on the Mariana Islands, and plans to use converted G4Ms to land commandos on the islands were developed in mid-1945 and cancelled only at the end of the war. As part of the negotiations for the surrender of Japan, two demilitarized G4Ms, given the call-signs Bataan 1 and Bataan 2, flew to Ie Shima, carrying the first surrender delegations on the first leg of their flight to Manila. The G4Ms were painted white with green crosses, and were escorted by American P-38 fighters. The G4M's intended successor was the Yokosuka P1Y Ginga, although because of production problems, the changeover was only begun by the time the war ended.

G4M1 prototypes: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 attack bomber) / (Mitsubishi Navy Experimental 12-Shi land attacker). Two prototypes built. G4M1 Model 11: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 11). The first bomber model of series, with Mitsubishi MK4A "Kasei" Model 11 engines driving three-blade propellers. The following modifications were made during production: * March 1942: the first aircraft (241st production example) fitted with Mitsubishi MK4E "Kasei" Model 15 engines with larger superchargers for better high altitude performance, became standard in August 1942 from 406th aircraft onwards. These MK4E-engined aircraft have often (erroneously) been referred as the "G4M1 Model 12". * Summer 1942: propeller spinners introduced * March 1943: from 663rd machine onwards, rubber ply sheets installed beneath the wing outer surfaces to protect the underside of the fuel tanks (speed reduced by and range by , armour plates added into tail gunner's compartment. * Spring 1943: outer half of the tail cone cut away in order to improve tail gunner's field of fire. * August 1943: a completely redesigned tail cone, with reduced framing and wide V-shaped cut out this form of tail cone was also used in all G4M2 models. * September 1943: individual exhaust stacks from 954th airframe onwards Production of the G4M1 ended in January 1944.

The first of the four G4M2 prototypes flew in December 1942 (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22). It differed from the preceding model in having Mitsubishi MK4P "Kasei" Model 21 engines with VDM electric four-blade propellers capable of full feathering function, redesigned main wings with LB type laminar flow airfoil. and widened tail horizontal stabilizer wing area, which improved service ceiling to and maximum speed to . Main wing fuel tanks were enlarged to which increased the range to (overloaded, one way). An electrically powered dorsal turret featuring a Type 99 cannon was introduced in place of G4M1's dorsal position with a Type 92 machine gun, total guns armed were two Type 99 cannons (one tail turret, one top turret), and four Type 92 machine guns (one nose, two waist, and one cockpit side). External differences also included increased nose glazing, flush side gun positions instead of blisters, and rounded tips of wings and tail surfaces. These major improvements also made it possible for the G4M2 to carry more powerful bombs one Navy Type 91 Kai-7 aerial torpedo or one bomb or two bombs or one Type 3 No. 31 bomb (ray-detective type bomb) and twelve bombs. The G4M2 entered service in mid-1943. G4M2 Model 22: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22) the base model, the first production example completed in July 1943. Introduced bulged bomb bay doors from 65th aircraft onwards, and an optically flat panel in the nose cone from the 105th aircraft onwards. G4M2 Model 22''Ko'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22 ''Ko'') very similar to previous model. Carried Type 3 ''Ku'' Mark 6 search radar and was armed with Type 99 Model 1 cannon s replacing the Type 92 machine guns in the lateral positions. G4M2 Model 22 ''Otsu'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22 ''Otsu'') dorsal turret cannon changed to longer-barreled Type 99 Model 2 cannon. G4M2a Model 24: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24) modified Model 22, Mitsubishi MK4T Kasei 25 engines, with bulged bomb bay doors as standard for larger bomb capacity. Externally distinguishable from the Model 22 by a carburetor air intake on the top of the engine cowling. G4M2a Model 24 ''Ko'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24 ''Ko'') armament similar to Model 22 ''Ko''. G4M2a Model 24 ''Otsu'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24 ''Otsu'') armament similar to Model 22 ''Otsu''. G4M2a Model 24 ''Hei'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24 ''Hei'') modified 24 ''Otsu'', with one Type 2 machine gun mounted in tip of the nose cone, radar antenna relocated from that position to above the nose cone. G4M2b Model 25:(Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 25) one G4M2a modified to Mitsubishi MK4T-B Kasei 25 ''Otsu'' engines. Only experimental. G4M2c Model 26: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 26) two G4M2as modified to Mitsubishi MK4T-B Ru Kasei 25b engines with turbochargers. G4M2d Model 27: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 27) one G4M2 modified to Mitsubishi MK4V Kasei 27 engines. G4M2e Model 24 ''Tei'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24 ''Tei'') special version for the transport of the ramming attack bomb plane Kugisho/Yokosuka MXY-7 ''Ohka'' ("''Baka''") Model 11, conversions of G4M2a Model 24 ''Otsu'' and 24 ''Hei''. Had armour protection for the pilots and fuselage fuel tanks. MXY11 (Yokosuka Navy Type 1 attack bomber ground decoy): ground decoy non-flying replica of Mitsubishi G4M2 developed by Yokosuka

G4M3 Model 34: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 34 ''Tei'') redesigned G4M2 with added self-sealing fuel tanks, improved armor protection and an entirely new tail gunner's compartment similar to that of late model B-26 Marauders. Wings were also redesigned and the horizontal tailplane was given dihedral. Armed with two Type 92 machine guns in nose cabin and in both side positions, and one Type 99 Model 1 cannon in dorsal turret and tail. Entered production in October 1944 in G4M3a Model 34 ''Ko'' form with Type 99 cannon in side positions instead of machine guns. G4M3a Model 34 ''Hei'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 34 ''Hei'') similar modifications as in corresponding Model 24 variants. G4M3a Model 34 ''Otsu'': (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 34 ''Otsu'') similar modifications as in corresponding Model 24 variants. G4M3 Model 36: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 36) prototype. Two G4M2 Model 34 modified to Mitsubishi MK4-T Kasei 25b Ru engines.

G6M1: (Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 wingtip convoy fighter) initial model of the series, armed with three Type 99 cannon (two in a belly blister, one in the tail) and one Type 92 machine gun in the nose 30 built. G6M1-K:(Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 large land trainer) trainers converted from G6M1s. G6M1-L2:(Mitsubishi Navy Type 1 transport) G6M1s modified as transports.

* Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service operated the type during 1941–45 in a total of 37 ''Kōkūtai'' (air groups).

* Indonesian Air Force * People's Liberation Army Air Force * Royal Air Force operated at least one captured aircraft for evaluation purposes. * United States Air Force, like the RAF, operated captured aircraft for evaluation.

No flyable Mitsubishi G4Ms are left although several wrecks remain scattered in southeast Asia and on Pacific islands. *G4M1 Model 11 (Serial #1280): On display in a diorama at the Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California in an unrestored condition. The only complete G4M Betty bomber. Built in Nagoya Works No. 3 on 16 April 1942, tail number 370, which had probably crash landed before mid-1944, and was recovered from Babo Airfield, Indonesia, in 1991. *G4M1 Betty Model 11 (Serial #1800): Assigned to the 701st Naval Air Group. Abandoned on Ballale Airfield. During August 2018, it was recovered from Ballale Island in the Solomon Islands, along with another G4M1 (Serial #2806) and the fuselage of an early model G4M1 by a "foreign salvager." *G4M1 Betty Model 11 (Serial #2806): Tail code U-321, was assigned to the Misawa Naval Air Group in the Solomon Islands from Ballale Airfield. Was abandoned on a revetment, next to a bomb crater, both engines missing. During August 2018 it was recovered by a "foreign salvager" along with another G4M1 Betty Model 11 (Serial #1800) and a fuselage of an early model G4M1. Several other locations display pieces of G4Ms including the restored fuselage of a G4M2 is on display at the Kawaguchiko Motor Museum in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Additionally the Smithsonian Institution retains the forward fuselage of a G4M3 Betty Model 34. Likely based in Oppama Air Field near Yokosuka, Japan there is no recorded tail number. The aircraft was part of 145 other Japanese aircraft for tests and evaluations by the U.S. Navy. After being flight tested as "Foreign Equipment Test number T2-2205" the airplane was dismembered by a cutting torch for unknown reasons.

Specifications (G4M1, Model 11)

* Aoki, Hideo. "Kugisho Suicide Attacker "Oka" (MXY7) Baka." ''Airreview's Japanese Navy Aircraft in the Pacific War''. Tokyo: Kantosha Co. Ltd., 1972. * Aoki, Hideo. "Mitsubishi Type 1 Attack Bomber (G4M) Betty." ''Airreview's Japanese Navy Aircraft In The Pacific War''. Tokyo: Kantosha Co. Ltd., 1972. * Bridgwater, H.C. and Peter Scott. ''Combat Colours Number 4: Pearl Harbor and Beyond, December 1941 to May 1942''. Luton, Bedfordshire, UK: Guideline Publications, 2001. . * Chant, Chris. ''Aircraft Of World War Two''. London: Grange Books PLC., 2001. . * Ferkl, Martin. ''Mitsubishi G4M Betty'' (in English). Praha, Czech Republic: Revi Publications, 2002. . * Francillon, PhD., René J. ''Imperial Japanese Navy Bombers of World War Two''. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Hylton Lacy Publishers Ltd., 1969. . * Francillon, PhD., René J. ''Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War''. London: Putnam & Company Ltd., 1979. . * Francillon, PhD., René J. ''Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" & Okha Bomb (Aircraft in Profile 210)''. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1971. * Fumio, Iwaya. ''Chuko (Medium Attack Bomber)''. Tokyo: Hara Shobo, 1958. * Green, William. ''Famous Bombers of the Second World War''. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1975 (Second edition of 1959 book, reprinted at least twice: 1976 and 1977). . * Gunston, Bill. ''The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Combat Aircraft of World War II''. London: Salamander Books Ltd., (Third impression ) 1979. . * Horodyski, Joseph M. "British Gamble In Asian Waters". ''Military Heritage''. Volume 3, No. 3, December 2001, pp. 68–77. (sinking of the British battleship ''Prince of Wales'' and battlecruiser ''Repulse'' by Japanese on 10 December 1941 upon U.S. entry into World War II). * Morgan, Eric B. "Mitsubishi G4M Betty." ''Twentyfirst Profile,'' Vol. 2, No. 17. New Milton, Hantfordshire, UK: 21st Profile Ltd., . * Nowicki, Jacek. ''Mitsubishi G4M "Betty"'' (in Polish). Warszawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Militaria, 1998. . * Tagaya, Osamu. ''Mitsubishi Type 1 Rikko Betty Units of World War 2.'' London: Osprey Publishing, 2001. . * Thorpe, Donald W. ''Japanese Naval Air Force Camouflage and Markings World War II''. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers Inc., 1977. (pbk.), (hc.). * Wheeler, Barry C. ''The Hamlyn Guide to Military Aircraft Markings.'' London: Chancellor Press, 1992. .

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Mitsubishi G7M “Taizan”

Empire of Japan (1941)
Strategic Bomber- 1 Scale Mockup Built

The Mitsubishi G7M “Taizan” (泰山/Great Mountain) was a planned long range strategic bomber for Imperial Japan’s Army Air Service. Developed out of the need for a bomber capable of striking the continental United States, the Taizan would face a series of developmental problems, ultimately leading to the cancellation of the project.

History

Prior to the start of World War II, Japan had foreseen that in a potential future conflict with the United States, it would require a long range bomber capable of striking the US mainland. In order to fulfill this requirement, a review was conducted in 1941 of all the Imperial Japanese Navy’s bomber aircraft in service. It was revealed that the entirety of the Japanese bomber arsenal was incapable of striking targets in the United States from the Japanese airfields. The Mitsubishi G4M “Betty” was one of Japan’s newest aircraft being pushed into service. Despite its superior range of 3,749 mi (6,043 km) compared to previous IJN bombers, it still was not sufficient enough to strike the US mainland or targets deep in the Soviet Union. As a result of this, the Naval Kōkū Hombu (Aviation Bureau) issued the 16-shi specification in 1941 for a long range bomber. The 16-shi specification would call for a bomber capable of flying at least 361 mph (580 km/h) with a maximum range of 4,598 mi (7,340 km).

Interested in this specification, Mitsubishi’s staff began work on a design that would meet the criteria set by the Kōkū Hombu. Mitsubishi engineer Kiro Honjo (the designer of the G3M and G4M) proposed a four engine design, but this was promptly rejected by the Kōkū Hombu. As a result, another Mitsubishi engineer by the name of Kijiro Takahashi submitted his own design. Upon inspection by the Kōkū Hombu, Honjo’s design was approved and given the green light to proceed. Within Mitsubishi, the 16-shi design was known as the “M-60”. Takahashi’s design was to be powered by two “Nu” engines. The Nu was a 24 cylinder liquid cooled engine which was able to provide 2,200 hp at 16,404 ft (5,000 m) but, due to the start of Operation Barbarossa, Germany was unable to export machinery and tools needed to manufacture the Nu engine. Unfortunately for Takahashi, this turn of events would prevent his design from being completed. As a result of this, Takahashi fell out with the Kōkū Hombu and Kiro Honjo would take over the M-60 project. This time, Honjo followed the Kōkū Hombu’s suggestion and used two engines instead of his idea of four. Under Honjo’s lead, the Taizan’s power plant was changed to two 18 cylinder Mitsubishi Ha-42-11 engines capable of generating 2,000 hp each. It was also seen that Honjo’s design was less aerodynamic than Takahashi’s due to the weaker engines and heavier armament.

On October 31st of 1942, an evaluation was conducted on the work done so far, and a performance estimation gave the Taizan a range of 3,454 mi (5,559 km) and a speed of 332 mph (518 km/h) at 16,404 mi (5,000 m). Falling short of the original 16-shi specification, Mitsubishi scrambled to make adjustments but further revised estimates stated that the design didn’t see any improvements, and actually saw some deterioration. By the time the Taizan’s design was completed in late 1942 and ready for construction of a wooden mockup, a new 17-shi specification was released calling for a new bomber design. Kawanishi took up the design and created the K-100 bomber project. Seeing promise and a better alternative to the Taizan, the Kōkū Hombu ordered all work on the Taizan to be halted until the K-100 could be completed and evaluated. Kawanishi completed initial work on the K-100 and a comparison was made between K-100 and Taizan in the summer of 1943. The Taizan’s range differed significantly from the proposed normal range from 2,302 mi (3,705 km) to 1,726 mi (2,778 km). Due to the significant range reduction, the Kōkū Hombu stopped supporting the Taizan. With no more interest and reason to develop the Taizan, Mitsubishi would finally shelve the project and stop all work on it.

Design

From an exterior aesthetic point of view, the Taizan bears a striking resemblance to the German Heinkel He 177. The nose of the Taizan was rounded and glazed over, a new design not in use by any Japanese bombers at the time. The wings of the Taizan were mounted mid fuselage, and were to be constructed out of metal. Fabrics, however, were to be used for the cover of the Taizan’s ailerons and rudder.

Ordinance wise, the Taizan was to carry a maximum bomb load of 1,764 lbs (800 kg). The defensive armament underwent several changes. Takahashi’s Taizan design was to be armed with two 20mm Type 99 Mk.2 cannons and two 7.7mm Type 97 machine guns. Honjo’s initial design would carry two 20mm Type 99 Mk.2 cannons, two 13mm Type 2 machine guns and two 7.92mm Type 1 machine guns. Later on, the armament finalized at two 20mm Type 99 Mk.2 cannons and six 13mm Type 2 machine guns. There would have been one Type 99 Mk.2 in the nose and one in the tail. There would have been two Type 2 machine guns in the forward upper fuselage turret, two in the rear fuselage turret and two in ventral position, firing rearwards.

Operators

  • Empire of Japan – The Taizan would have been operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service.

Mitsubishi G7M1 “Taizan” *

Gallery

Artist’s conception of the operational G7M Taizan


Mitsubishi G7M “Taizan”

Empire of Japan (1941)
Strategic Bomber- 1 Scale Mockup Built

The Mitsubishi G7M “Taizan” (泰山/Great Mountain) was a planned long range strategic bomber for Imperial Japan’s Army Air Service. Developed out of the need for a bomber capable of striking the continental United States, the Taizan would face a series of developmental problems, ultimately leading to the cancellation of the project.

History

Prior to the start of World War II, Japan had foreseen that in a potential future conflict with the United States, it would require a long range bomber capable of striking the US mainland. In order to fulfill this requirement, a review was conducted in 1941 of all the Imperial Japanese Navy’s bomber aircraft in service. It was revealed that the entirety of the Japanese bomber arsenal was incapable of striking targets in the United States from the Japanese airfields. The Mitsubishi G4M “Betty” was one of Japan’s newest aircraft being pushed into service. Despite its superior range of 3,749 mi (6,043 km) compared to previous IJN bombers, it still was not sufficient enough to strike the US mainland or targets deep in the Soviet Union. As a result of this, the Naval Kōkū Hombu (Aviation Bureau) issued the 16-shi specification in 1941 for a long range bomber. The 16-shi specification would call for a bomber capable of flying at least 361 mph (580 km/h) with a maximum range of 4,598 mi (7,340 km).

Interested in this specification, Mitsubishi’s staff began work on a design that would meet the criteria set by the Kōkū Hombu. Mitsubishi engineer Kiro Honjo (the designer of the G3M and G4M) proposed a four engine design, but this was promptly rejected by the Kōkū Hombu. As a result, another Mitsubishi engineer by the name of Kijiro Takahashi submitted his own design. Upon inspection by the Kōkū Hombu, Honjo’s design was approved and given the green light to proceed. Within Mitsubishi, the 16-shi design was known as the “M-60”. Takahashi’s design was to be powered by two “Nu” engines. The Nu was a 24 cylinder liquid cooled engine which was able to provide 2,200 hp at 16,404 ft (5,000 m) but, due to the start of Operation Barbarossa, Germany was unable to export machinery and tools needed to manufacture the Nu engine. Unfortunately for Takahashi, this turn of events would prevent his design from being completed. As a result of this, Takahashi fell out with the Kōkū Hombu and Kiro Honjo would take over the M-60 project. This time, Honjo followed the Kōkū Hombu’s suggestion and used two engines instead of his idea of four. Under Honjo’s lead, the Taizan’s power plant was changed to two 18 cylinder Mitsubishi Ha-42-11 engines capable of generating 2,000 hp each. It was also seen that Honjo’s design was less aerodynamic than Takahashi’s due to the weaker engines and heavier armament.

On October 31st of 1942, an evaluation was conducted on the work done so far, and a performance estimation gave the Taizan a range of 3,454 mi (5,559 km) and a speed of 332 mph (518 km/h) at 16,404 mi (5,000 m). Falling short of the original 16-shi specification, Mitsubishi scrambled to make adjustments but further revised estimates stated that the design didn’t see any improvements, and actually saw some deterioration. By the time the Taizan’s design was completed in late 1942 and ready for construction of a wooden mockup, a new 17-shi specification was released calling for a new bomber design. Kawanishi took up the design and created the K-100 bomber project. Seeing promise and a better alternative to the Taizan, the Kōkū Hombu ordered all work on the Taizan to be halted until the K-100 could be completed and evaluated. Kawanishi completed initial work on the K-100 and a comparison was made between K-100 and Taizan in the summer of 1943. The Taizan’s range differed significantly from the proposed normal range from 2,302 mi (3,705 km) to 1,726 mi (2,778 km). Due to the significant range reduction, the Kōkū Hombu stopped supporting the Taizan. With no more interest and reason to develop the Taizan, Mitsubishi would finally shelve the project and stop all work on it.

Design

From an exterior aesthetic point of view, the Taizan bears a striking resemblance to the German Heinkel He 177. The nose of the Taizan was rounded and glazed over, a new design not in use by any Japanese bombers at the time. The wings of the Taizan were mounted mid fuselage, and were to be constructed out of metal. Fabrics, however, were to be used for the cover of the Taizan’s ailerons and rudder.

Ordinance wise, the Taizan was to carry a maximum bomb load of 1,764 lbs (800 kg). The defensive armament underwent several changes. Takahashi’s Taizan design was to be armed with two 20mm Type 99 Mk.2 cannons and two 7.7mm Type 97 machine guns. Honjo’s initial design would carry two 20mm Type 99 Mk.2 cannons, two 13mm Type 2 machine guns and two 7.92mm Type 1 machine guns. Later on, the armament finalized at two 20mm Type 99 Mk.2 cannons and six 13mm Type 2 machine guns. There would have been one Type 99 Mk.2 in the nose and one in the tail. There would have been two Type 2 machine guns in the forward upper fuselage turret, two in the rear fuselage turret and two in ventral position, firing rearwards.

Operators

  • Empire of Japan – The Taizan would have been operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service.

Mitsubishi G7M1 “Taizan” *

Gallery

Artist’s conception of the operational G7M Taizan


Focke Wulf FW 200 vs. Mitsubishi G4M1

Post by Admiral Yi » 15 May 2005, 20:17

What did the German Luftwaffe thought about the Mitsubishi G4M1 after the destruction of Force Z? Were they interested in getting some Betty bombers to replace their fragile FW 200? The Betty was faster, had a better range and service ceiling. But it only had a bomb-load of 800 kg and was known as flying lighter.
In one case I know that the Luftwaffe was interested in Japanese planes. They tried to acquire the manufacturing licence for the Mitsubishi Ki-46 under the Japanese-German Technical Exchange Programme (source: "Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War" written by Rene Francillon).
Thank you for your much appreciated help.

Post by MadderCat » 15 May 2005, 21:32

never heard anything about such thoughts
better to compare the Betty with the Ju88/Ju188 than with an militarised conversion of an airliner

the Dinah was considered worth of license building but never came beyond the paperwork

Post by Admiral Yi » 16 May 2005, 15:25

Post by MadderCat » 16 May 2005, 18:34

just a stupid question:
what do You compare? bombload, range, mission type?
just curious to know to give You a better answer than my last

Post by Simon Gunson » 19 May 2005, 15:21

Most of the technology flowed the other way. Even before the war Germany was helping Japan develop aero engines and fighters. U-boats sailed to Singapore/Djakarta/Penang with Me-163, Me262, A4 rockets, Fi103 buzz bombs, radar, flak guns, optics and enigma machines for copying in Japan. Albeit that not all cargoes got through. Japan also wanted to manufacture the He-177 as a bomber to reach USA.

I suspect the Germans said they were interested in Japanese designs more to flatter the Japanese than for real interest. Had they been really determined the Germans would have had little trouble early in the war using surface blockade runners, or at least obtaining plans.

Re: Focke Wulf FW 200 vs. Mitsubishi G4M1

Post by Karl234 » 20 May 2005, 00:45

Admiral Yi wrote: Dear Gentlemen,

The Betty was faster, had a better range and service ceiling. But it only had a bomb-load of 800 kg and was known as flying lighter.

Re: Focke Wulf FW 200 vs. Mitsubishi G4M1

Post by varjag » 20 May 2005, 01:09

Admiral Yi wrote: Dear Gentlemen,

The Betty was faster, had a better range and service ceiling. But it only had a bomb-load of 800 kg and was known as flying lighter.

Re: Focke Wulf FW 200 vs. Mitsubishi G4M1

Post by Huck » 20 May 2005, 02:00

Admiral Yi wrote: Dear Gentlemen,

The Betty was faster, had a better range and service ceiling. But it only had a bomb-load of 800 kg and was known as flying lighter.

Post by Simon Gunson » 20 May 2005, 02:08

I have read somewhere and I am uncertain now where, but that one Fw200 was either sold or gifted to Japan and sat out much of the war in Manchuria in Japanese markings (ie red Hinomaru).

It could be that this was a source of direct comparison between both aircraft ?

Re: Focke Wulf FW 200 vs. Mitsubishi G4M1

Post by Karl234 » 20 May 2005, 12:18

Admiral Yi wrote: Dear Gentlemen,

The Betty was faster, had a better range and service ceiling. But it only had a bomb-load of 800 kg and was known as flying lighter.

Re: Focke Wulf FW 200 vs. Mitsubishi G4M1

Post by Huck » 24 May 2005, 22:06

There was a Fw-200 that completed 6000km in a 24h flight to US, before the war. The type was called Fw-200S and was registered as D-ACON. There was nothing standard about this machine. It was the first that was fitted with fuselage fuel tanks (that later will cause so much trouble to Fw 200 structure), unfortunatelly we don't know how much fuel it carried in those tanks. It was lost in equally mysterious circumstances near Manilla after a journey to Japan (a short clip with the plane landing in Japan was a posted here a few weeks ago).

I'm not sure about the range of the initial types, but it was certainly less than 4900km, probaly somewhere around 3500 km. The later types (C-3 and later) were much less cleaner aerodynamically, carried much larger payload (not only bombs, but also defensive armament and ammunition and other equipment like radars, navcoms etc), had heavier, reinforced structure and significantly more powerful engines (which of course consumed more fuel). So despite that fuel load doubled in late Fw 200 models, to 9000l with fuselage tanks, raising from 4300l in early models, the range did not improve much, to about 4500km.

Post by Admiral Yi » 08 Aug 2005, 18:59

[quote="Simon Gunson"]I have read somewhere and I am uncertain now where, but that one Fw200 was either sold or gifted to Japan and sat out much of the war in Manchuria in Japanese markings (ie red Hinomaru).

It could be that this was a source of direct comparison between both aircraft ?[/quote]

Following a widely reported goodwill flight in November of 1938 to Japan by a Focke-Wulf Fw 200S-1, the Allies figured the Japanese may acquire it for bombing use and so codenamed it Trudy the Japanese were interested in the plane but no action was taken to get it.


Battleship Killer: Why the Allies Rightly Feared Japan's "Betty" Bomber

Key point: Imperial Japan's bombers killed many ships. In fact, they took out two large battleships, shocking the British.

The two types of aircraft responsible for sinking the Prince Of Wales and Repulse represented the best of Japanese aviation in 1941. The older, more numerous type consisted of Mitsubishi G3M twin-engine aircraft, known simply as “Nells” to Allied pilots. (The Allies gave boys’ names to Japanese fighters and float planes, girls’ names to Japanese bombers and recon planes.) Manned by a crew of five, the Nell first flew in July 1935 and went into widespread production the following year.

Defensive armament consisted of three 7.7mm machine guns. Early versions were able to obtain a maximum speed of 188 knots and had an exceptional range of over 2,200 miles—improvements later in the war considerably extending both. Although chiefly a high-level bomber, the G3M was adapted to carry an 800-kg torpedo in an antishipping role. G3Ms were little known in the West, being used chiefly by the Japanese against the Chinese, although they achieved a notable distinction on August 14, 1937, when a force of them based in Formosa attacked targets in mainland China 1,250 miles away, thus realizing the first transoceanic air attack in history.

G3Ms remained in service throughout the war, though by 1943 they were mostly employed in second-line duties or used as transports. In all, 1,048 were eventually produced, 636 by Mitsubishi and an additional 412 under license by Nakajima.

It was Nell’s successor—the Mitsubishi G4M or “Betty”—that went on to become one of the most famous Japanese aircraft ever produced. Serving in almost every Pacific battle in every role imaginable, the G4M became a powerful symbol of Japanese strength and airpower second only to the vaunted Zero.

Re-Imagining The Aerial Bomber

Charged by the Imperial Navy in September 1937 to develop a new, more modern twin-engine bomber, Mitsubishi was faced with challenges that pushed the limits of both speed and range. It more than rose to the challenge and produced what was then considered the best land-based naval bomber in the world. The G4M won its honors through a combination of high-powered engines, a clean low-drag airframe, and minimal weight. Because long range was essential, the wings were designed to include fuel tanks but to hold down weight in favor of range, the designers omitted armor or a self-sealing feature for the tanks. Similarly, there was no armor protection for the crew, and defensive weapons were severely restricted. The fuselage, basically a circular tube, was of a diameter sufficient to accommodate an uncluttered bomb bay beneath the center wing-section, intended to make it easier for the crew to move about the aircraft during long, over-water flights.

The Betty first flew in October 1939 and was manned by a crew of seven. Early versions of the aircraft as deployed against Force Z could fly at up to 230 knots (265 mph) with a maximum range of 3,250 miles. It carried one 20mm cannon and four 7.7mm machine guns. It could hoist either one 800kg torpedo or 1,000kg of bombs.

Despite the G4M’s speed and exceptional range, it’s fatal flaws were the lack of armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, thus making the plane especially vulnerable to enemy fire—often one or two bursts were all that were required to set it aflame. In fact, it became known derisively to Allied pilots as the “Flying Cigar.” Ironically, as the war continued and the Japanese were pushed back closer to their homeland and interior Pacific bases, the need for range diminished.

The Betty’s most outstanding success came in the early days of the war with the sinking of the Prince Of Wales and Repulse, the first capital ships ever to be sunk by air attack while at sea. In fact, only three other battleships have ever been destroyed under such conditions: Japan’s own Yamatoand Musashi late in the war, and the Italian battleship Roma in the Mediterranean in 1943.

In all 2,416 Bettys were produced by Mitsubishi and saw action in almost every engagement in the South Pacific. They also served as transports and special-attack aircraft. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was aboard a Betty when it was shot down in 1943. Late in the war Bettys were used as Kamikazi aircraft. Indeed the Betty, which was there at the very start of the conflict, was also there at its end, being used as special transport aircraft for the Japanese delegation who arranged Japan’s surrender to the Allies in August 1945.


[7] COMMENTS, SOURCES, & REVISION HISTORY

* The Allies created a codenaming system for Axis aircraft during the war, assigning names to different types. The codename for the G3M was "Nell" -- transport variants were codenamed "Tina" -- while the "G4M" was famously codenamed "Betty". However, on inspection, use of the codenames is a bit treacherous: they really weren't in widespread use until late in the war, and it's unclear they were ever universal -- German aircraft were assigned similar codenames, but they have been forgotten. Under the circumstances, it seems best to just mention that these codenames were assigned and otherwise forget about them.


* As concerns copyrights and permissions for this document, all illustrations and images credited to me are public domain. I reserve all rights to my writings. However, if anyone does want to make use of my writings, just contact me, and we can chat about it. I'm lenient in giving permissions, usually on the basis of being properly credited.


Watch the video: Isoroku 2011 Yamamotos Death (December 2021).