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Contains photographs of the Salem Railroad station - History

Contains photographs of the Salem Railroad station - History



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Salem


Contains photographs of the Salem Railroad station - History

M.P. 261.5 - 5th Subdivision - Ns

The starting point for the French Lick Branch. Although trains for the French Lick Branch, post war era, originated at Bedford, it was here at Orleans that the French Lick mainline departed from the Fifth Subdivision. After the war, Bloomington served as the point of origin.

Named for Andrew Jackson’s victory in the battle of New Orleans and located in the northern section of the county, Orleans is the oldest town in Orange County. It was established in 1815, the same year in which the county was created. Just two years prior, Orleans claimed another first in being the initial community to build a school. Less than a half-century later, as the transportation needs of Orange County grew, Orleans again claimed a county first. In 1851, the New Albany and Salem Railroad completed the first rail line into the county via Orleans. The tie to Jackson is not the only link between this town and a military history. Orleans produced General William T. Spicely, and his 24th Indiana Regiment, assisted General Uylsses S. Grant in the capture of Vicksburg during the Civil War. Orleans claims the distinction of the “Dogwood Capital of Indiana” and received a significant endorsement for that claim from a former governor. In 1970, Edgar D. Whitcomb penned a resolution declaring from that time on Orleans would be entitled to that claim to fame.

At the north edge of Orleans, on the east side of State Road 37, stands the Freeman’s Corner historical marker. This point, 250 feet east, signifies the junction of three important Indian land cessions: the Treaty of Fort Wayne (1803): the Treaty of Grouseland (1805): and the Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809). The point was established by surveyor Thomas Freeman and the marker was placed in 1966, during Indiana’s 150th year celebration. The centerpiece of Orleans is its downtown Congress Square. This grassy park was on the original town plat, drawn in March of 1815. Set aside for whatever the territorial government, or town might deemed as right or needed, except a burial ground.

Southbound freight on the north side of Orleans, circa June 1971.

Alco C-628 on southbound, Orleans, Indiana 1966. -Linton Moss Photograph-

The back of the ? depot. Oh wait, the roof tells it all. This was a common practice. -Lloyd Kimble Collection-

Orleans Depot. This depot was one of the last New Albany & Salem Railroad's brick depots. As the junction point with the French Lick branch, it was an important transfer point when passenger traffic was heavy on the Monon.

Steam locomotive #82 at Orleans. Date unknown. It does indicate that at one time the Orleans depot may have been a "run through" type like Gosport.

Derailment near Orleans. June 21, 1951. Left: Sideswipe derailment at Orleans -Steve Dolzall Collection- Right: Another shot of the wreck at Orleans. -Lloyd Kimble Photograph-

Left and Right, Above and Below: More photos from the 1951 Orleans wreck. -Lloyd Kimble Photographs-

Left: A pair of RS 2's coming off one leg of the wye at Orleans, January 1959. Right: View of a local landmark, the Depot Tavern. The front of the establishment as seen through a locomotive window.

Left: Another view of local freight coming off the French Lick branch. Right: End of train at Orleans coming off the French Lick Branch.

Two views of the Orleans depot. -Dick Fontaine Photographs-

French Lick passenger at Orleans. August 3, 1949. RS2 #24 on Train #23 is backing up to head around the wye. The train is on the main and headed south. Train #23 would come in from Bloomington, stop at the depot to load and unload, then back up a little bit and head through the crossover down the French Lick branch. -Charles Herley Photograph, MRHTS Photo Archives Collection-

Northbound making a station stop at Orleans. No date listed. -Mahlon Eberhard Collection-

Local freight arriving at Orleans, circa early 1950's. Looking railroad south.

From time to time I get images that have become unknown as to where and when the original photograph was taken. The photo on the left is a good example. There was no information. We now know that is indeed Orleans, Indiana and was taken during the mid to late 1950's. Right: The same area, circa 2006. Minus some trees, a siding and a signal, it is obvious this is the same location. In both pictures, you are looking towards the railroad north, from just west of the former depot location.

Southbound freight coming around the curve towards the Orleans depot, May 1971.

Left: Orleans Indiana, date unknown. For many years, during the late 1940's before rail service was re-established, the Monon offered bus service between French Lick, Orleans and Mitchell. According to a 1947 timetable, the bus ran there round trips daily. Bus Number 2 meets the northbound Thoroughbred at Orleans. Exact date unknown.

Left and Right: Two more views of the Orleans depot, circa 1970.

Two additional pictures of the Orleans Depot. Left: The depot sits in the sunlight with some brand new Monon Hoosier Line boxcars in the background. Right: L&N on the former Monon. This picture, taken in 1977, shows four L&N locomotives working the mainline through Orleans. It is passing the brick depot. The French Lick branch is by the base of the water tower pictured.

Paoli Chair Company, Orleans, circa 1940's.

Left: Right of way shot and siding at the Wheeler-Foutch factory at Orleans. Unknown date. -Mahlon Eberhard Collection-

Right: Traveler Radio Corporation and mainline at Orleans, Indiana. Date unknown.

Orleans 1970. Looking south down the French Lick branch. The switch in the foreground is the south switch of the wye.Monon at where the French Lick Branch trackage begins. Trains originated in (pre war era) Bedford and (post war era) Bloomington, however it was at Orleans where they left the mainline.

Northbound freight coming off the French Lick Branch onto the mainline at Orleans.

French Lick Branch trackage at Orleans. You are looking north. This switch is on the south side of the town.

Orleans, circa 1979. Left: Looking at the mainline. Redi-Mix plant in the background. Right: The depot had been torn down by the time this photo was taken in 1979.

Another shot along the former mainline around town.

Orleans 2004 and 2006

Former mainline, north or town. Looking to the north along the former mainline.

Left and Right: May 2004. The Orleans depot is gone. Looking to the south at the spot where the depot once stood. The picture on the right would be approximately the same area where Lloyd Kimble took his photo (above) from.

Left: Looking back to the north from the area around the location of the former depot. Right: Area south of the depot where one leg of a "wye" and connection with the French Lick branch once was.

Left: Looking down what once was the right of way for the French Lick branch. Although the tracks and depot are no longer there, their locations are still visible. Right: Another look, from east of the depot location at the what was once a leg of a "wye" that connected with the French Lick Branch.

Looking along the former French Lick Branch. You are looking towards the north toward the depot location. The truck pictured is parked on the old right of way.

Looking to the south along the former French Lick Branch.

May 2003. Canadian National Kentucky Derby Special splitting the semaphores at Orleans, Indiana. Former Canadian Pacific F units on the point.

Left and Right: Southbound action at Orleans. Southbound with UP colors in the leads starts around the curve near where the depot once stood.

Extra to bring cars from St Louis Car Company for the 2003 Kentucky Derby Train at Orleans, April 30, 2003. Dean Francisco Photograph.

Freight action south of Orleans at County Road 100E. This road is also known as Harmon Road. The train is southbound.

Ex-Conrail GE C40-8W on lead of an Indiana Railroad southbound potash train at Orleans, February 2007.

Orleans area 2019

Pictures by Nathan Miles
click on map to view all pictures by number

Return To Home | Contact Us @2004-2014 Monon Railroad Historical-Technical Society, Inc. All rights reserved.


July 21,1970: Union Train Station Closes

On this day in 1970, the last passenger train from Winston-Salem to Asheville marked the closing of the Union Train Station.

Earlier in the month, the State Utilities Commission issued an order that eliminated Southern Railway passenger service from Greensboro to Asheville. Train service would be modified to originate from Salisbury, rather than Greensboro, thus ending passenger service to Winston-Salem after 97 years.

To commemorate the ending of passenger train service to Winston-Salem, more than 100 residents boarded the last train to Asheville.

Other came just to see the train enter and leave Union Station at Claremont Avenue.

Some riders brought picnic lunches, while others just brought their memories, which they shared with riders of all ages.

A few veteran trainmen came for a final ride, ending the era with a wave good-bye.


The depot railroad museum

We were just here for my grandfather’s birthday party. (Family rented the meeting room for the afternoon.) The whole place is filled with railroad memorabilia and local history, and even items that link Salem to other nearby places. Although — in my experience — we were a pretty tame and respectful group, we did have some kids running around and there was plenty of room to keep them occupied as well. At one point, when they found the Thomas the Train books, the kind lady on staff put in a Thomas DVD for them to watch while sitting on one of the old railroad benches.

After most of our group had finished eating, she also offered to give anyone who wanted it a tour of the museum, and several people took her up on it. While we cleaned up the rooms and kitchen after everyone left, she kept telling us all the things she could take care of so we didn’t have to.

The whole party was a breeze and it was nice to have the venue to ourselves for the afternoon (although I’m sure its busier when it’s warm out). Any questions about local railroad history can be answered here for sure! I’d even go so far as to say you might be able to find some family history if you have ties to the Monon. Awesome place.


The Year They Tore Salem Depot Down

We are lesser people for the disappearance of our architectural heritage. If Edmund Burke was correct that “to make us love our country, our country ought to be lovely,” then historical preservation takes on the same importance as land conservation. Both are inheritances to be held against the bulldozers of economic development.

Towering over Salem, Massachusetts for over a century, the castellated Salem Depot awed some with its neo-Gothic majesty and dismayed others who considered it a dreary monument to the past. “Some say the Salem railroad station is the most hideous structure in America,” the Boston Globe joked in 1938. “Some say its ugliness is enchanting, that all it needs is a coat of ivy – preferably poison ivy – to make it an antique of rare value. Some Salem commuters shudder at it daily. Others look upon it as an old friend, shelter of their fathers, grandfathers, and great-grandfathers.” The Depot, built in the era of horse, carriage, and President Polk, was deemed an inconvenience in the automobile age and, with the railroad’s blessing, razed in 1954. Today, the Depot remains an image in photographs and memories, and a striking example of the architectural vandalism of American post-war urban renewal.[1]

In 1846, stockholders of the Eastern Railroad (the dominant career on Boston’s wealthy North Shore) concluded that due to increasing passenger traffic, a new depot needed to be constructed in Salem, the railroad’s headquarters. All agreed that the current wooden depot could not handle the crowds and thousands of shares of ERR stock were sold to finance construction. David Augustus Neal, the Eastern Railroad’s president, determined to build a unique depot that would double as the railroad offices. Neal, a former China merchant and respected early railroad executive (he also served as president of the Reading Railroad and promoted development of the Illinois Central and Michigan Central in the 1850s) just returned from an extensive tour of Great Britain and came home greatly impressed with the architecture of British castles. He then hired Boston commercial architect Gridley J.F. Bryant to design the new depot. Bryant’s main customers were Boston merchants and his work dominated the Boston business district until the Great Fire of 1872 leveled his creations. His structures, however, dotted eastern New England. “He built or remodeled nineteen state capitals and city halls, thirty-six courthouses and jails, fifty-nine hospitals, reformatories, schools and other public institutions, eight churches, sixteen railroad stations, sixteen custom houses, post offices and other buildings for the United States government, and hundreds of building blocks and private houses,” one admirer calculated. Neal presented Bryant with sketches of the castles he admired overseas, and he responded with a stunningly unique design. “Whatever the source, Bryant developed this idea in his own dramatic fashion,” a Bryant biographer wrote. “The basic form of the Salem station derived from the gate of a medieval city. But instead of horse-drawn wagons, steam engines entered through the gates on this new, modern thoroughfare of commerce.”[2]

Neal’s fascination with castles coincided with a trans-Atlantic rage for all things Gothic, resulting in a four-decade architectural movement called Gothic Revival, which reached its peak in the 1830s and 1840s. Literature inspired rediscovery of Gothic forms, as Sir Walter Scott novels spiked interest in medievalism. “The truth is that the service which Scott rendered to the cause of the Revival was to awaken popular interest in a style which had hitherto been associated, except by the educated few, with ascetic gloom and vulgar superstition,” one English Gothic enthusiast recalled. As Americans read, so too did they build in Neal’s case, as he visited the land of Scott, so too did he contract an architect to build. Salem’s new train depot would resemble something out of Ivanhoe. “Why were American architects, artists, and their clients so interested in medieval architecture? Their reading habits tell us a great deal,” historian Kerry Dean Carso explained. “Americans indulged in Scott’s brand of medievalism. Medieval architecture plays a crucial role in these texts, leading some curious readers to visit medieval and Gothic Revival architectural sites related to their favorite novels.” Most often seen in churches, universities, and public buildings, as well as cottages for the wealthy set, Gothic Revival was typified by use of battlements, turrets, and arched windows. Paired with the rise of American Gothic literary figures like Edgar Allen Poe and Salem’s own Nathaniel Hawthorne, Gothic Revival architecture like Salem Depot perfectly fit the high tide of nineteenth century Romanticism.[3]

The finished depot, unveiled and opened for service in 1847, must have exceeded the expectations of President Neal. The Depot’s façade, facing the southern portal of the 1838 Salem tunnel, was constructed entirely of nearby Rockport granite. Two eighty-one foot towers graced with Gothic windows and stone battlements guarded each side of a low arched entrance for trains. In the early years, gates guarded the arched entrance and “swung open at the ringing of a convent bell. The bell had been captured by Americans at the siege of Port Royal, S.C. in colonial times.” Seven tall arched windows perched above the entrance frequently remained open to ventilate the sooty interior. The majority of the structure was not constructed of granite but brick and wood, like the rear train shed. The caretaker of the first Salem Depot had been a one-legged Revolutionary War veteran named Corporal Joshua Pitman. When the Gothic towers went into service, he remained as an unofficial watchman. An 1848 local ballad proclaimed:

Who keeps the Depot clean and nice,
And drives away the rats and mice,
And checks the boys in every vice?
The Corporal.

President Neal and Eastern Railroad management moved into the Depot’s upstairs offices and made Salem their headquarters.[4]

Salem Depot was soon considered one of the finest railroad stations in New England and “perhaps the most remarkable building in Salem.” With its looming Gothic towers and stone arches, befitting a community haunted by the witch trials, it became a major tourist attraction, rivaling the old Custom House and Gallows’ Hill in visitors. In addition, before soot even soiled the granite, telegraph lines were installed in the Depot, but railroad employees never trusted the system. Their suspicions led to ofttimes comic results. In 1856, a freight train waited at Salem all night for a southbound passenger train that never arrived—fifteen miles away, the southbound waited all night for the freight train. The Depot had not been in service one year when it had a hand in metaphorically-rich railroad disaster. In 1848, the Whigs and Democrats battled for the presidency. In early November, the Democrat Caleb Cushing spoke to party members at a Salem rally, while several miles south the Whig Daniel Webster did the same for his party members in Lynn. When Cushing concluded, two hundred people boarded a train at the Depot southbound for Marblehead. Just south of Salem, it collided with a northbound passenger train loaded with Whigs from Lynn. Six people died and sixty-four were wounded, making it the worst railroad accident to date in New England.[5]

One early admirer of the depot was Hawthorne himself, who mentioned it in his 1851 romance House of the Seven Gables. Speaking of Clifford’s and Hepzibah’s retreat from the city, Hawthorne wrote:

Whether it was Clifford’s purpose, or only chance, had led them thither, they now found themselves passing beneath the arched entrance of a large structure of gray stone. Within, there was spacious breadth, and an airy height from floor to roof, now partially filled with smoke and steam, which eddied voluminously upward and formed a mimic cloud-region over their heads. A train of cars was just ready for a start the locomotive was fretting and fuming, like a steed impatient for a headlong rush and the bell rang out its hasty peal.

Visitors within the granite walls one hundred years later, covered with cinders and billowing steam, would recognize Hawthorne’s description of antebellum travel. As the portal to enter Salem, the Depot welcomed assorted dignitaries to town over its long life. Franklin Pierce frequented the Depot in his pre-presidential days, visiting his college friend Hawthorne. President Grant came through in 1871, Arthur in 1882, and ex-president Benjamin Harrison in 1893. William Howard Taft made a campaign stop at the depot in 1912 and Calvin Coolidge alighted often. The future King Edward VII briefly stopped at Salem Depot on his 1860 American tour. “When the Prince and the Duke of Newcastle stepped on the platform of the rear car,” historian Francis B.C. Bradlee wrote, “the whole square in front of the depot was packed with people, who cheered vociferously and waved hats and handkerchiefs amid great enthusiasm.”[6]

Destruction always loomed over the Depot. Its first flirtation with oblivion came in 1882. A can of fuses stored in one of the baggage rooms exploded and within minutes the entire depot was ablaze in “a fascinating though terrible spectacle.” Smoke covered most of the city and the neighborhood surrounding the Depot was singed with flying sparks. “[T]he fire leaped from one section to another as though the woodwork was saturated with some inflammable material,” the Salem Evening News reported. Fast thinking railroad workers hauled two passenger cars within the Depot to safety and rescued articles on the depot’s first floor, but all records stored in the upstairs offices were lost. The granite façade and towers were all that remained standing. Hearing rumors the railroad intended to demolish the Depot, residents circulated a petition to preserve it and the trainshed was soon rebuilt. More talk of demolition began a decade later, that the Depot was too ornate and not sensible enough for a practical railroad. Others squawked of the enormous flock of pigeons dwelling in the towers, and who with every train arrival (sometimes over one hundred daily) flapped around the vicinity and caked everything in droppings. Though a minority in the 1890s, the complainants would increase. Perhaps the more cynical believed 1914 brought the perfect opportunity for a new depot.[7]

On June 25, 1914, a fire broke out in one of Salem’s leather tanneries. With the aid of drought and a stiff breeze, the racing flames leveled one and half square miles of the city. In the early hours of the Great Salem Fire of 1914, the wind-swept conflagration headed straight for the Depot. Desperate firefighters rigged the building with dynamite, hoping the granite boulders from the blasted depot might halt flames from incinerating the downtown business district. Just when the firefighting squad readied to blow the Depot to pieces, however, the wind shifted and the fire headed east ravaging the waterfront. Salem Depot had now faced three existential threats. The fourth threat—the internal combustion engine and urban renewal—was too much to bear.[8]

The advent of the 1920s brought an economic boom and the most desirable consumer product of the decade was the automobile. Automobile ownership soared in the 1920s. In 1914, 1.3 million cars were registered in the United States by 1929, that number rose to 27 million. In 1929 alone, Detroit manufactured six million cars, production numbers that would not be reached again until the mid-1950s. With this ownership explosion, traffic problems on urban streets, particularly those in older East Coast cities, quickly grew. With grade crossings blocked every time a train entered or departed, the Depot became an annoyance for drivers. During rush hour, commuter traffic backed up into neighborhoods. Outspoken locals called for demolishing the old depot and constructing a less ostentatious, less intrusive station to accommodate automobiles. By the 1930s, the city and the Boston and Maine Railroad drew up plans to extend the tunnel and destroy the Depot, a $4 million-dollar project ($73 million in today’s dollars).[9]

The project took shape at the beginning of a period of urban “renewal,” intended to reshape American cities for the needs of automobiles, clean out perceived unhealthy “slums,” and rid urban America of the last remnants of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In practice, it bulldozed integral neighborhoods (almost always populated by the city’s poor), pretzeled cities around highway networks, and leveled countless historic structures that gave cities their unique beauty and identity. Railroad depots were frequent victims. The railroad companies did not complain, as they were faced with bankruptcy and hostile governments unwilling to deregulate or lessen railroads’ property tax burden, and wanted their big depots torn down to save money. The state and local governments did not complain because they wanted the economic boost and tax revenue from development of former railroad land. Thus, the buildings came down, replaced by high rises, super market plazas, condos, and parking lots. Instead of bending cars to the needs of proud historic cities, the cities bent to autos and destroyed their patrimony.

Every detail was set by 1939. Salem Depot would be torn down. “The railroad which owns it takes no pride in it,” the Boston Globe remarked. “There doesn’t seem to be any great opposition to the project which would indeed be the greatest public improvement in Salem’s long history.” Yet, like previous threats, events interceded to give the Depot a reprieve, this time World War Two. With labor and materials diverted toward the war effort, local authorities temporarily shelved plans.[10]

When the war ended, the complaints over traffic snarls resumed and depot removal took on the hue of public improvement and the rejuvenation of old Salem. The urban renewal impetus was there before World War Two, but something about 1945 intensified the impulse to destroy the old—the triumph of liberal democratic capitalism, the rise of the middle-class GI generation, the growing faith in science and technology to understand and solve all problems, the new internationalism of the post-war world (typified by the “International Style” of the new United Nations building), and the trust in government after the conquest of Nazism and Japanese Imperialism. Future-obsessed modernity faced few obstacles to remake the face of American cities. Destruction of the older city disposed of a backward past.

Salem city government wasted little time and evicted forty residents and businesses for tunnel extension and in October 1954 hosted a festive ceremony outside Salem Depot to celebrate its demolition. Major state dignitaries attended, including Massachusetts Governor Christian Herter (five years later, Dwight Eisenhower’s Secretary of State) and the State Transportation Commissioner John A. Volpe (later Richard Nixon’s Secretary of Transportation). A crane removed the first block from the Depot’s western tower and lowered it to street level. Governor Herter then presented small granite pieces to the attendees, declaring:

Today marks the beginning of the culmination of many years of efforts to rid the city of the Depot. Demolition of course means that a historic building has to come down. But it is a great consolation to know that it will solve Salem’s traffic problems and be of great economic benefit to Salem.

To rid the city of the Depot”—Herter’s words perfectly encapsulated the postwar American attitude toward the historic heart of its cities. Historical structures that shaped the identity of American cities took on secondary importance to “traffic problems” and “economic benefit.” Money and malls triumphed over memory.[11]

Contractors commenced their work removing the two towers before winter. By late spring 1955, the Depot was largely gone, its granite stones used to line the banks of a nearby river. The much-heralded improvement project did not progress smoothly. Demolition created a muddy quagmire around the site, making nearby streets nearly unfit for travel. “Windows were broken, plaster cracked, dust, and alternately, mud permeated everything,” remembered two railroad historians. Shoppers, normally eager to ride the train into town to browse the shops, decided the trip no longer pleasant and local businesses suffered. Traffic became worse, as the project proceeded “agonizingly slow.”[12]

After years of work, the project neared completion by 1958. The tunnel length doubled, dangerous grade crossings had been replaced, and a new Salem Station built. This cheaper, basic modern station (“an example of Spartan simplicity . . . It certainly left a lot to be desired”) was simply a narrow below-ground trench with stairs leading down to long concrete platforms. Many Salemites expressed disappointment at the final product. “The loss of the magnificent towers and the experience of the sheer mass of the building are still recalled by long-standing Salem residents, many of whom regarded the depot as a symbol of the city,” a local historian lamented decades later. In July 1958, the railroad’s president along with a medley of politicians rode through the tunnel and station inaugurating a new era in Salem history. The railroad, so visible in the town for one hundred and twenty years disappeared into the trench of modern convenient travel.[13]

Portland (Maine) Union Station, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Interior of Pennsylvania Station, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Though unique in design, Salem Depot was but one of many nettlesome depots that faced the urban renewal wrecking ball in the 1950s and 1960s. In New England, Concord Depot in New Hampshire came down in 1959 and was replaced by a shopping center. Portland Union Station in Maine, with its magnificent 138-foot high clock tower and designed in pink granite “to resemble a medieval French chateaux,” came down in 1961. A “low-slung strip mall” stands on the sight now. “It’s still unspeakably ugly, too, a wasteland of uneven parking spaces and generic storefronts,” a Maine newspaper columnist wrote in 2017. “It’s a black hole of charmless commerce, a far cry from the elegant, 19th century station that proceeded it.” Manchester, New Hampshire’s Union Station came down a year later. The most infamous of America’s depot demolitions, however, occurred in the mid-60s, when New York City’s Pennsylvania Station came down to make way for Madison Square Garden. History and beauty again gave way to economic redevelopment. One need only experience the miseries of subterranean Penn Station today to understand the loss.[14]

In George Scott-Montcrieff’s Burke Street, a paean to the disappearing “visible past that ruthless ‘developers’ efface,” he lamented the destruction of rootedness and sense of place when neighborhoods come down to suit the needs of economic growth and fashionable design. His little book spoke of a small Edinburgh street, its homes, and residents.

It is not simply because a French King dined in one of its handsome small houses or a President of the United States may have slept in another, that made Burke Street important. Those are only spotlights of history, recalling dynasties and potentates, making connexions in the mind. The importance of a handsome old street is partly aesthetic, but certainly also the substance of tradition that it contains, preventing us from being mere wandering tinkers in the world.

We are lesser people for the disappearance of our architectural heritage. If Edmund Burke was correct that “To make us love our country, our country ought to be lovely,” then historical preservation takes on the same importance as land conservation. Both are inheritances to be held against the bulldozers of economic development.[15]

The Imaginative Conservative applies the principle of appreciation to the discussion of culture and politics—we approach dialogue with magnanimity rather than with mere civility. Will you help us remain a refreshing oasis in the increasingly contentious arena of modern discourse? Please consider donating now.

[1] Boston Globe, December 4, 1938.

[2] New York Times, November 24, 1954 Henry Turner Bailey, “An Architect of the Old School,” New England Magazine 25 (November 1901), 334 Roger G. Reed. Building Victorian Boston: The Architecture of Gridley J.F. Bryant (Amherst, MA, 1997) 48 For information on Neal and his activities, see David A. Neal. The Illinois Central Railroad, its Position and Prospects. (1850) W.H. Bunting. Portrait of a Port: Boston, 1852-1914 (Cambridge, MA, 1994) 15 and A.J. Veenendaal. Slow Train to Paradise: How Dutch Investment Helped Build American Railroads (Palo Alto, 1996) 54.

[5] Arthur J. Krim, “Francis Peabody and Gothic Salem,” Peabody Essex Museum Collections (January 1994) 27 New York Times, November 24, 1954 Boston Globe, December 4, 1938.

[6] Nathaniel Hawthorne. House of the Seven Gables (New York, 1981) 255-256 Bradlee, Eastern Railroad, 65.

[7] Salem Evening News, April 7, 1882, April 10, 1882, April 17, 1882, April 20, 1882, and April 26, 1882 Boston Globe, December 4, 1938 New York Times, November 24, 1954.

[8] Boston Globe, December 4,1938 New York Times, 2 November 24, 1954.

[9] Richard W. Symmes and Russell F. Munroe, Jr., “The Great Salem Tunnel Relocation Project,” B&M Bulletin (Fall 1975) 5.

[10] Boston Globe, December 4, 1938 Symmes and Munroe, “Relocation Project,” 5.

[11] Symmes and Munroe, “Relocation Project,” 5-11.

[13] Symmes and Munroe, “Relocation Project,” 5-11 Krim, “Gothic Salem,” 32.

[14] Portland Press Herald, August 31, 2011 Bangor Daily News, June 26, 2017.

[15] George Scott-Montcrieff. Burke Street (New Brunswick, NJ, 1989) 69.

The featured image is a photograph of Salem Depot (c. 1897), courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

All comments are moderated and must be civil, concise, and constructive to the conversation. Comments that are critical of an essay may be approved, but comments containing ad hominem criticism of the author will not be published. Also, comments containing web links or block quotations are unlikely to be approved. Keep in mind that essays represent the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Imaginative Conservative or its editor or publisher.


Chapter IV. &mdash Public Buildings.

Among our public buildings the first to present itself is, of course, the Court House. This building is only partly finished, and is now receiving some large additions designed to accommodate the various courts that sit here, and the offices attached to them. The building, which is massive and durable as brick, stone and iron can make it, presents a front on four streets, Market, Chesnut, Fourth and Fifth, and will be, when completed, the finest building in the United States. The appearance of the different fronts is very imposing, and strikes the eye with fine effect. From the dome, one of the most beautiful of nature's panoramas is to be seen. The eye can take in at a glance the extent of territory spread out for miles upon every side. The city lies at your feet, with its busy and industrious population the river, with its dark bosom dotted by palatial steamers, flows by on the east the long trains of cars as they thunder along through the American Bottom the hills which rear their brows against the sky in the west &mdash all combine to render the scene lovely and picturesque. The cost of this building will be upwards of $1,000,000.

This building is in course of completion, and will probably be finished during the present year. It is built of Missouri marble, and is intended to be fire proof. When completed it will add much to the appearance of Third street and be an honor to the city.

This literary Institution, situated in an agreeable and airy part of the city of St. Louis, was founded in 1829 by members of the Society of Jesus, was incorporated by an act of the State Legislature in 1832, under the name and style of the "St. Louis UNIVERSITY," and empowered to confer degrees and academical honors in all the learned professions, and generally to have and "enjoy all the powers, rights and privileges exercised by literary institutions of the same rank." It has experienced uninterrupted prosperity, and has progressively improved so as to offer advantages not surpassed in the West.

The Institution possesses a valuable Museum, which contains a great variety of specimens both of nature and of art, collected from various quarters of the Globe, but especially from our own country also a, very beautiful and complete Philosophical and Chemical Apparatus. The Library belonging to the Institution numbers over 15,000 volumes, embracing almost every branch of literature and science, and containing many very rare and interesting works. The select libraries, open to the students, form a collection of over 3,000 volumes.

To improve the students in public speaking, debating societies have been organized, and for years have been in very successful operation. To add solemnity to the celebration of

Under the guidance of Father Koning, the polite and gentlemanly Professor of Chemistry, we spent a couple of hours in looking through the Library and Museum. We found many quaint and ancient volumes, some printed as long ago as 1542. We were shown a MS. that was written before the invention of printing. The execution of it was faultless, the characters being German text, the coloring being black, blue, pink and gold all of which, with the exception of the black, (which begins to fade,) looks as bright as new, while the parchment has the appearance of great age. In the Museum we were shown the dagger of Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico. This is a beautiful specimen of antiquarian mechanism. The blade, which is about fourteen inches long, is composed of two pieces nicely fitted together a spring secreted in the hilt causes the two divisions of the blade to separate, showing the reservoir wherein the poison was secreted. Take it for all in all, it is a formidable looking weapon.

No person should visit St. Louis without examining this institution, as it is one of the most attractive places in the city.

Few buildings anywhere can excel, in massiveness and beauty, the "Church of the Messiah," on Olive street, under the pastoral charge of Mr. ELIOT. This house and ground is said to have cost $100,000, and yet there is nothing gaudy about it it is built of brick and iron, of which metal there was used in the construction of this noble edifice some seventy tons of pig iron. It is of a very imposing appearance the material is the very best hard brick, with heavy grouted walls, on the construction

THE UNION PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

On Locust street towers up, in stateliness and solemn grandeur, the Union Presbyterian Church, under the pastoral charge of Rev. Mr. HOMES. This edifice is unlike in its style of architecture any other church in the city, indeed any we have ever seen. It is said to be the pure "Lombardic style," and its solemn appearance, with its internal beauty, produces a fine effect. This house was commenced in 1852, the Society having been organized in 1850, and dedicated to the worship of God in January, 1854. The building is about eighty feet wide by about one hundred and twenty feet deep, and the main church room is some sixty-three feet by one hundred. The pews, of which there are one hundred and seventy-six, are capable of seating some nine hundred persons on the main floor, exclusive of gallery for choir and organ, and the height from floor to ceiling is about sixty-two feet. This church has two towers, according to its style of architecture, one on either side &mdash the one is one hundred and four, the other one hundred and sixty feet high. The organ in this church is doubtless the finest insturment

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

This church, of which the Rev. Mr. NELSON is pastor, is situated on Lucas Place, and is probably the finest church in the Western States. The building is eighty-four feet front by one hundred and thirty feet deep, and has been built and furnished in the most artistic manner, with a tower and spire two hundred and twenty-five feet high. This is much the tallest spire in the city, independent of the consideration that the church is located on about the highest ground within the city limits. This spire is visible in every direction for many miles, and presents a splendid appearance. There are many novel, yet useful, improvements made in the construction and equipment of this noble structure, the cost of which, we have been informed, was over one hundred thousand dollars. This church was mainly erected through the exertions of the lamented Rev. Dr. Bullard, who lost his life in the Gasconade tragedy.

FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH.

Of which the Rev. SAMUEL PARSONS is pastor, is located on the corner of Eighth street and Washington avenue. This splendid church is sixty-five feet wide, one hundred and six in length, and seventy-four feet in height. The upper floor, or main audience room, is about sixty feet wide by one hundred long, having a height of about forty feet, and capable of seating from one thousand to twelve hundred persons. It is a plain but very substantial building, is handsomely finished, and is in every way well adapted to the purpose for which it is designed. While under the charge of the Rev. Mr. Parsons this church became a favorite resort of our church-going community.

This institution is now in course of erection, the corner stone having been laid in the summer of 1857. This is intended to be in the nature of a high school for boys and girls &mdash rather something between the ideal high school and the college. It is to be an institution of learning of a high order. The public are indebted to the Rev. Mr. ELIOT for his spirited efforts in establishing this institution. The grounds selected for the college buildings are at the head of Washington avenue. Connected with this, as a department, is to be "The O'Fallon Industrial Institute for Boys," where all who are unable to procure a good plain education may be boarded and taught gratis. The feature, however, of this department is, that every boy is to be also instructed in such mechanical branch as the bent of his mind or inclination may suggest. Here mechanism will be taught in all its branches, not only in theory but in practice. Proficients in the various branches will be employed, and shops erected for the various branches, and the whole will be a regular

This school is supported by the voluntary contributions of the ladies who have taken it in hand, and such donations as they may receive for the purpose. They take those little girls that may be found about the city, whose parents pay but little if any attention to them. They do not propose to interfere with the legitimate office of the "Orphan Asylums," but if the children taken there are orphans, they do the best they can to make provision for them, until other arrangements are made. The little ones are taken to the house &mdash they are cleaned, combed and neatly though plainly dressed, and all the morning is devoted to teaching them to spell and read and write at noon, they all partake of a good dinner together, and the afternoon is employed in teaching them all the household duties &mdash to sew, knit, wash, cook, &c., so that they may ultimately sustain themselves. At night, they all go to their various homes, except those few who, for certain periods, are required to remain in the

This enterprise has only been in operation for about four years, yet it has done wonders, and promises still further to grow and prosper in the good graces of the people. They are now occupying commodious buildings on Morgan street.

Which stands on the corner of Chesnut and Second streets, is a handsome brick edifice, and answers the purpose for which it is used very well, although it is not sufficiently large for the increasing business. As soon as the Custom House is completed the Post Office will be removed to apartments provided in that building. The present Postmaster has had a difficult task to perform, but has rendered pretty general satisfaction by the faithful manner in which he has discharged his duties.

MISSOURI INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND.

The buildings of this institution are situated on the corner of Twentieth and Morgan streets, and are handsome and commodious, the main building being a superior edifice, and is in every way creditable to the State. Although unfinished, they are occupied and contain now about forty inmates, with capacity for one hundred. The pupils generally seem to be as happy and contented with their lot as could be expected they possess

This is the largest church, in the city, of any denomination. It is a massive stone building, and has a truly ecclesiastical appearance. The front is of polished free stone, and fifty feet in height. It has a fine portico, supported by four columns of the Doric order, with corresponding entablature, frieze cornice and pediment. The spire rests upon a stone tower, which rises from the foundation to a height of forty feet above the pediment, and is twenty feet square. The shape of the spire is octagon, and is surmounted by a gilt ball and cross ten feet high. There is a splendid chime of bells, (the largest in the city,) consisting of three &mdash weighing severally 3,600, 1,900 and 1,500 pounds. In the tower is also a very large clock, which strikes the hours and quarters on the bells. The interior of the church, though not showy, evinces true ecclesiastical taste. The splendid altar piece, representing the Descent from the Cross (a copy from Rubens), first strikes the eye. This was painted by Mr. Pomerade, a St. Louis artist of the highest standing. The altar itself is very chaste and beautiful. On the west side is the throne of the Archbishop, over which is a large and splendid canopy. Opposite the throne, on the other side of the sanctuary, is a fine painting of St. Louis, presented by Louis XVIII, King of

Built, owned and sustained by the city &mdash is emphatically a charity it is in truth a home for all nations, and it is astonishing what a congregation of nationalities is there It shows, however, what apoint of concentration St. Louis is. It is curious to observe in the returns from this establishment made to the city officer who has the charge of, and who regularly publishes those returns, the various countries from which the persons come who are admitted there. Not only is almost every State in the American Union, but almost every country in North and South America, the various countries of Europe,

The city first built what we may call the old hospital some years ago, It was supposed to be amply sufficient it was one hundred and seven feet long by fifty feet deep, and three stories high, divided into suitable wards and apartments for the various classes of invalids. But in the rapid increase of population, and the flood of immigration, it has been found inadequate. The original plan contemplated enlargement, without disturbing the existing arrangements, and the City Council having passed an ordinance therefor, part of the enlargement is now progressing. When the new part, now building, is finished, the front will be two hundred feet, the new one being ninety-three feet long, three stories high and fifty feet deep and besides this, one of the wings is also constructing, with a depth of one hundred and seven feet by a width of fifty feet, also three stories high. This latter building fronts south, the

THE ST. LOUIS HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION,
(Under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, from Emmelsburg, Md..)

Is on the corner of Fourth and Spruce streets. The buildings are ample, and possess every requisite necessary to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. The Sisters' Hospital has been many years in operation, and was the first establishment of the kind west of the Mississippi. It has been judiciously managed, and has acquired, as it doubtless richly deserves, the confidence of the community. It is not, however, a public charity in the general acceptation of that term the public use it, but it is self-sustaining very many go there and pay for attendance, preferring it either to a public or private hospital and this is especially the case with strangers, and persons who have no homes of their own, and prefer good nursing and attention, and are able to pay for them. There, they can have their room, their attendant, their own physician, if they wish it, or, if they have no preference, the services of those (among the best) who are physicians to the Hospital.

Institutions of this kind are of a higher character than is generally conceded to them. The principal cities throughout Europe, and even in Constantinople, have one or more of them,

The present Hospital was established in this city in 1828, at which time there was no other institution of this class here. The ground on which this building stands was the gift of the late John Mullanphy, Esq. The family of the deceased holds the gift of four charity patients, which will continue through the life of the family of the donor.

Patients requiring private rooms are charged from five to seven dollars per week, exclusive of charge of their own physicians and medicines. A ward is also provided for the second class at three dollars per week, in which medical attendance and medicines are furnished gratuitously.

Separate apartments are appropriated for the blind, insane and cases of a chronic character. The number in this department varies from forty to sixty patients, most of whom are life patients, depending solely upon the benevolence of the Sisters.

At the request of the Most Rev. Archbishop Kenrick, other departments have been opened, to be devoted exclusively to the indigent sick. These will be considered the Thornton Ward.

The management is under the entire supervision of twenty-one Sisters, with one Superior, having also the assistance of male and female nurses, as may be deemed necessary for the separate wards.

The following are the names of gentlemen of eminence, and Professors of the St. Louis Medical College, who attend to the wards of the sick daily:

Surgeons &mdash Drs. Charles Pope and E. Gregory.

Physicians &mdash M. L. Linton, J. B. Johnson and T. Papin.

It should be here stated that the professional services of the above named gentlemen are administered to the poor of the Hospital gratuitously.

This Hospital was erected at the expense of the United States it is eligibly situated near the river, just south of the Arsenal the buildings are stately, and present a beautiful appearance. Here are treated, at the expense of the United States, those sick and disabled boatmen who have no home here, only on their boat, who pay their regular fee, or "hospital money," to the Collector of the port, and have a certificate thereof. Our best physicians are engaged to attend to the unfortunate sick here, and devote much time to this hospital.

The building heretofore known as Wyman's Hall, but latterly the "Odeon," is now used for the purposes of this institution. It is situated on Market street, opposite the Court house, and was erected in 1848, at a cost of some $28,000, including furniture, &c. It is a substantial yet ornamental building, of about forty-four feet front by some one hundred feet deep. The first story is arranged for stores, and is about twelve feet high in the clear the second story contains the concert hall, and is twenty-one feet high in the clear, is furnished with a small yet ornamental gallery all around, constructed of iron, and a neat stage furnished with splendid scenery. The whole room is tastefully fitted up, furnished with gas, &c., and capable of accommodating twelve or fifteen hundred people. It was in this room that Jenny Lind gave

We will mention a few prominent features of this beautiful resort, each of which is well worth the price of admission, viz: The great Zeuglodon, Gallery of Oil Paintings, superb Statues of Venus and Mercury, Egyptian mummies, Indian curiosities, &c., &c.

GEN. GREEN, the smallest dwarf in the world, is permanently engaged and holds daily levees &mdash while the THAYER FAMILY, the only Female Sax Horn Band in the world, are also permanently engaged. These ladies are beautiful, accomplished, and splendid musicians.

In the concert room each evening a splendid band of Minstrels hold their "Soirees d'Afrique," and convulse the audience by their side-splitting jokes, witticisms, &c. A performance is given every Saturday afternoon for the accommodation of family parties and children. The admission to the entire building is only fifty cents. Children and servants, twenty-five cents.

True delights are cheap, exhauatless, and ever at interest. False ones are costly and self-destructive. At few places may higher enjoyment be purchased than at the Museum. And yet, till the grave the sooner receive them, multitudes must spend hundreds to satiety and weariness, rather than dimes for purifying, revivifying and ennobling bliss. True pleasures alone increase by repetition. To children and youth and to those who still retain the priceless inheritance of unvitiated tastes, we say, visit the Museum. Visit it often, and there

This Institution was founded in 1840 by Professors Joseph N. McDowell, John S. Moore, and others not now identified with it, for the purpose of affording the medical student who designed practicing his profession in the West a practical knowledge of the diseases incident to the climate, as well as a thorough knowledge of medical science generally. From the time of its establishment until 1846 it was recognized as the medical department of Kemper College. This connection continued until it was deemed prudent to form a connection with the University of the State of Missouri. This step was taken at the earnest solicitation of the latter institution, and continued till 1856, when, by an act of the Legislature of Missouri, persons practicing any of the learned professions were prohibited from holding a position as professor in this State University! As all of the professors of the Medical Department were engaged in the practice of Medicine or Surgery, the continuation of the Medical Department of the State University became impossible.

It was this event which caused the institution to assume its present name. A charter was granted to Dr. Jos. N. McDowell, Thomas Watson, Wm. Milburn, Archibald Gamble and John S. Moore, and their successors, as Trustees of the Missouri Medical College, in 1846, conferring upon them the privileges granted to all similar institutions, and under which they now confer degrees.

This institution is now one of the most flourishing in the country, and we are certain the Faculty have not their superiors in

Jno. S. Moore, M. D., Prof. Theory and Practice of Medicine Jos. N. McDowell, M. D., Prof, of Theory and Practice of Surgery Abner Hopton, M. D., Prof, of Chemistry and Pharmacy Jno. Barnes, M. D., Prof. Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Medical Botany Jno. T. Hodgen, M. D., Prof, of Anatomy and Physiology E. S. Frazer, M. D., Prof, of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children S. G. Armor, M. D., Prof, of Pathology and Clinical Medicine J. Drake McDowell, M. D., Adjunct Prof, of Surgery Jno. J. McDowell, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy.

The College building is large and commodious, situated in on of the most delightful portions of the city, at the corner of Eighth and Gratiot streets, and from the dome commands a beautiful view of the surrounding country.

The Laboratory Room is 45 by 70 feet, with elevated seats, in order that the audience may be able to witness every experiment of the lecturer. The Chemical and Philosophical Apparatus is one of the most complete in the country. The common lecture room is 45 by 70 feet and 15 feet high, and is neatly furnished, the walls being covered with splendid oil paintings appropriate for the place.

The Anatomical Amphitheatre is seventy-one feet in diameter, octagonal, with a ceiling fifty-two feet high light, airy, and has ample accommodations for one thousand persons. A large Dissecting Room, 45 by 85 feet, well ventilated, warmed and provided with tables, gas light, &c., is attached to this apartment. The Library Room is of the same size and shape as the Amphitheatre. It is elegantly furnished, and contains a superior collection of books, paintings, engravings, specimens, statuary, &c.

The general Museum contains an immense collection of fossils, illustrating the Geology of the Mississippi Valley in its various parts, admirably arranged by one of the best Geologists in the country a vast collection of minerals a magnificent collection of ornithological specimens, embracing all the birds of North America, with a considerable number from the Southern half of the Western Hemisphere, and many of the gay feathered representatives of Africa a good collection of fishes, reptiles and mammals many curious and interesting things as specimens of art and manufacture, with a larger number of Indian curiosities than can be found elsewhere in the Valley.

Visitors in the city can not spend a few days more pleasantly or profitably than in visiting this collection. The doors are always open, and visitors admitted free of charge, and afforded every facility for gratifying a worthy curiosity.

The medical lectures in this institution begin on the first of November of each year, and continue four months. Fees, as usual in other respectable institutions of a similar kind.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE ST. LOUIS COLLEGE.

This College was gotten up mainly through the instrumentality of Dr. G. A. Pope. It is a handsome brick building, with a front of some one hundred and thirty feet by a depth of one hundred feet, and is at least seventy-five feet high.

We have long thought St. Louis, as a point for prosecuting medical studies, was perhaps unrivalled, standing as it does in the centre of the great valley of the Mississippi, its entrepot, the place of concentration of the vast multitudes of immigrants which pour in here from all lands, and from hence radiate in every direction, to occupy these great western regions. Containing, as the city does, a great population from all climes, a heterogeneous multitude, afflicted with all kinds of diseases, what favorable opportunities must present themselves for the thorough analysis both of malady and remedy! If to these we add the casualties incident to rapid growth, and vast steamboat operations, with the great and very valuable hospital facilities, it must readily be perceived how great the facilities are here for thorough medical studies as well aa practice. To these causes, we presume, is attributable the fact, that these two institutions have grown up here in so short a period, and so early in our history, while their greatly increasing classes, show not only a proper appreciation of the skill employed in teaching, but is a sure index of the success of the enterprise, and the prosperity and greatness of its future.

Is connected with the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. The dispensary is called after one of our most wealthy and at the same time most benevolent and public spirited citizens for he not only originated the idea, but procured the ground and built the house &mdash a very beautiful and substantial one &mdash with his own means solely but besides, he has


Find out what's happening in Salem with free, real-time updates from Patch.

Suzanne Cherau, Archaeologist, and John Daly, Industrial Historian, from PAL will present the findings of the archaeological investigation at the site. Through a slide show and artifact display, the presenters will share the history of railroading in Salem, the evolution of the North River Railroad Roundhouse Site, and the results of the excavations. Historical maps, photographs, and artifacts relating to the site will be included.


Salem in 1870

In Salem
Transportation is a main fascination (both in big city daily life and in a popular novel) this year. Salem residents also look forward to extended opportunities for travel with the hoped-for arrival of Oregon and California Railroad service convenient to the business and residences around Commercial Street. However, the citizens of 1870 would not agree to pay the railroad an additional $30,000 for laying track to the center of town. So the first railroad station was built over a mile east of downtown on 12th Street. Citizens then complained about the distance they had to travel to deliver and pick up passengers and baggage. Fortunatel y, by 1888 Salem had its first horse-draw n street railway, The Salem Street Railway Company. It operated from the corner of State and Commercial , extending to 12th Street and eventually along 12th to the Southern Pacific depot. Electric trolleys quickly followed.

When you visit: Salem Railroad Station
The 1889 station, shown above, was the second. Just prior to World War I, this one also burned and was replaced by the present station at 500 13th St. SE. Once the focus of lively, bustling out-of-town travel before World War II, the station was also the scene of sad family departures when the Japanese-Americans were evacuated to relocation camps during 1942. After passenger travel declined, the station fell into disrepair. The station of now serves Amtrak passenger trains on a daily basis and the classic, 1930s lobby has been restored. It is a pleasure to visit, and you might even be there when the passenger train whistles in and the conductor escorts them onto the correct coach. All aboard!


Washington Coutny, Indiana

On December 21, 1813, the state legislature of Indiana passed the act creating Washington County. This act took effect on January 17, 1814, making this date the official birth date of the county. The governor commissioned Isaac Blackbird as the first clerk and recorder. Other commissions were sent to William Hoggart for sheriff William Lindley, surveyor Jeremiah Lamb, coroner and to Johnathon Lindley, Moses Hoggart, and Simeon Lamb as judges of the Washington County Circuit Court.

The commissioners appointed by the state to select a site for the county seat were Joseph Paddox, Peter McIntosh, and Ignatius Abel of Harrison County and Marston G. Clark and Joseph Bartholomew of Clark County. They were directed to meet on January 17,1814, at the home of William Lindley who lived near the geographical center of the new county. Only Ignatius Abel did not attend. The men examined Royse&rsquos Lick, Beck&rsquos Mill, Camp Spring, Mill Creek, Fort Hill, and other prospective sites. Mr. Lindley, their host and the county surveyor, accompanied the men on their journeys and never failed to point out the suitability of the site near his home at the fork of Blue River and Brock Creek. This site was finally chosen and 174 acres purchased to be laid out in lots. After long discussion about what the name of the town should be, Mrs. Lindley suggested Salem, in memory of her home town in North Carolina, All this was accomplished by February 2, 1814. John DePauw was appointed agent to lay out the town, advertise, and sell the lots. On February 14, the work was completed, the plat filed, and the sale of lots began the second Tuesday in April of 1814.

The town of Pekin, second largest in the county, was laid out by Christian Bixler November 15,1831, but it was not surveyed until 1837 by John I. Morrison. When the New Albany and Salem Railroad was built, the station for Pekin was built across Blue River from the town. A new town built up around the train station and was officially registered with the state government as New Pekin. At some point in time, the Pekin postmaster moved the post office across the river without officially changing the name. While it is all one town today, as far as the state of Indiana is concerned the name is New Pekin, but the U.S. Post Office and common usage is still Pekin. The town is known nationally as a site of the oldest consecutive Fourth of July celebration in the country! Campbellsburg, first known as Buena Vista, was started by John Pollard and named after the Battle of Buena Vista in the Mexican War. It was surveyed and platted on August 31, 1849, by John I. Morrison. In January 1838 Aaron Hardin planned a town in Posey Township and named it Hardinsburg. Fredricksburg was laid out in the year 1815 by Frederick Royse and named in his honor, Little York, so named because the families who lived there were from New York, was laid out by George Davison on August 3, 1831. There are other towns and villages in Washington County. but these are the ones still offering U.S. postal services.

Washington County has the distinction of participating in one of the only two forays by the Confederate troops into northern territory during the Civil War. General John Hunt Morgan, in his raid across southern Indiana, captured Salem and a fine meal was prepared by Salem ladies for Union troops who were due later. Some historians say that if Morgan and his men had not dallied in Salem a whole day to eat that meal, they might never have been caught. Morgan and his men were unsuccessful in their attempt to capture Thomas Rodman, a citizen of Washington County and inventor of the gun which bore his name. Rodman guns were considered the best field artillery pieces of the Civil War, and the South didn&rsquot have any.

The most prominent native son of Washington County is John Milton Hay. He was the private secretary and the biographer of President Abraham Lincoln. He served Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt as Secretary of State, being responsible for the open door policy with China and the purchasing of the Panama Canal. He later served as ambassador to the Court of St James in London, England. His birthplace has been preserved by the Washington County Historical Society and is part of the John Hay Center. The center also contains the Stevens Memorial Museum, a pioneer village, and a national award-winning genealogy library.

Other men who have lived in Washington County and attained prominence outside the county include Christopher Harrison, first Lieutenant Governor of Indiana Indiana Governor Winfield T. Durbin, who grew up in New Philadelphia Major General Jack Elrod, who was also Adjutant General of the State of Indiana Washington C. DePauw, founder of DePauw University Dr. Wilmer Souder, handwriting expert for the FBI on the Lindbergh baby kidnapping case and Everett Dean, coach of NCAA champions and author of &lsquothe book&rdquo on basketball.

Washington County, Indiana, has always been noted for its many churches and the high standards of its schools. Its citizens just dedicated an addition to the hospital making it a fine facility with state-of-the-art equipment and offering a wide variety of medical services. With its fertile cropland and the scenic beauty of its rolling hills, Washington County&lsquos location in the heartland of America is ideal.

Warder W. Stevens, Centennial History of Washington County, (lndianapolis: B. F. Bowen & CO., 1916).
History of Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties Indiana, (Chicago: Goodspeed Brothers & Co., 1884).
Carl Henn, Jr. ed., Here Is Your Indiana Government, (lndianapolis: Indiana State Chamber of Commerce, 1981).

by Marjorie Ann Martin Souder
(Mrs. Dawson C. Souder)


Louisville Business History : Manuscript Collections

Aluminum Home Products Records, 1958-1960
.75 linear foot
View Finding Aid
Aluminum Home Products, or Alhom, was a successor to an aluminum distributorship named ALSCO, established in Louisville in 1946. Created in 1953 with the addition of a manufacturing plant, the company sold aluminum screens, windows, doors, awnings, porch enclosures and siding. The collection contains sales records, product specifications, customer orders, price lists, and sample books. There are also forms used for home improvement loans from Louisville banks and photographs of the manufacturing process at the Alhom factory. The sales records and other material were generated by Alhom salesman John Ward.

Associated Cooperage Industries of America Records, 1929-1974
25.75 linear feet, 1760 slides
View Finding Aid
The Tight Stave Association, the Tight Barrel Stave Manufacturers, the National Coopers Association, and the National Slack Cooperage Manufacturers Association merged in 1915 and 1916 to form the Associated Cooperage Industries of America. This collection includes correspondence, reports, and reference materials generated or compiled by the association. There are also many photographs, primarily created in the 1930s. In addition to the printed photographs, the collection contains 1760 photographic slides depicting barrel-making and associated subjects. A nearly complete run of the industry's monthly publication The Wooden Barrel, dating from 1932 to 1974, is also present. Other printed material includes the association's weekly bulletin and miscellaneous booklets and pamphlets. Scrapbooks comprise the final series of the collection.

Avery Insurance Inc. Records, 1889-1948
9.75 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Avery Insurance was an offshoot of the B. F. Avery and Sons Company, one of the foremost manufacturers of plows and other farm implements in the United States. B. F. Avery also managed the Avery Savings and Loan Association. This collection contains account ledgers and packets of correspondence. The account ledgers cover the time from 1889 to 1936. The correspondence dates from the 1930s and 1940s and reflects the work of W. H. Williamson, an agent for Avery&rsquos in the 1930s and general correspondence of the 1940s.

Belknap, Inc. Records, 1847-1985 (bulk 1880-1970)
25 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Belknap was a large national hardware distribution company headquartered in Louisville from 1840 to its closing in 1985. The company was a leading Louisville firm from the 1880s to the 1970s. Included in this collection are minutes of the board of directors, stockholder ledgers, annual reports, financial records, newsletters, photographs, employee manuals, and catalogs. Among the photographs are images of periodic Ohio River floods taken near the company's riverside plant.

Isaac W. Bernheim Papers, 1852-1971
6.5 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Isaac Bernheim, a native of Germany, immigrated to the United States in 1867, followed within two years by his brother, Bernard. Isaac and Bernard established the Bernheim Brothers Distillery in Paducah, Kentucky. In 1888 they moved the company to Louisville. Isaac became known as a civic leader in the local Jewish community and in the city of Louisville. His philanthropic works included the donation of statues of Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln to the city and the establishment of Bernheim Forest, a nature preserve south of Louisville.

Blue Grass Cooperage Co. Records, 1948-1971 (bulk 1948)
.5 linear foot
View Finding Aid
Blue Grass Cooperage Company was a subsidiary of Brown-Forman Distillers Corporation. This collection consists of two volumes of job analyses compiled in 1948 (job descriptions and areas of responsibility) for all employees and a folder of company photographs mostly dating in the 1970s.

Bourbon Stockyards Records, 1887-1962
30.325 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Bourbon Stockyards was the oldest stockyards in the United States, having its start in 1834 as an offshoot of the Bourbon House, a hotel for farmers bringing livestock to town for slaughter. In 1864, the owner built a new facility, and in 1875 incorporated as Bourbon Stock Yard Company. Ownership passed to the Lincoln Finance Company in 1968, and closed in 1999. These records include general correspondence, records of cattle shows, shipping records, American Stockyard Association material, cattle sales and other business records.

Brown Bros. & Walker Distillery Records, 1893-1896
.25 linear foot
Account book maintained by William H. Willett, a Bardstown accountant, for a local distillery includes a record of whiskey made, sold, purchasers, and expenses. Other significant records are the business settlement statement and a copy of a portion of a contract between F. G. Walker, C. Brown and John J. Brown.

William Little Brown Papers, 1810-1957
.25 linear foot
View Finding Aid
William Brown was a Kentucky grist mill operator, Transylvania University student, and early 19th century attorney. Brown's materials were collected by Randle Truett, a historian, lecturer, restorationist and philatelist who served as chief historian for the National Park Service in the Washington, D. C. area. From 1805-1814 Brown kept a diary where he discussed his youth in Tennessee, mill operations, student days at Transylvania, the books he read, his trips, and monetary matters. Only the second volume of the Brown diary is in the collection a typescript copy of both volumes is included in the collection along with Truett's biographical and historical notes.

Business and Professional Women of Kentucky Records, 1921-2000
23.25 linear feet
The National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs was founded in 1919 as an outgrowth of wartime organizing in 1917. Throughout the years, three major issues shaped BPW's legislative agenda: elimination of sex discrimination in employment, the principle of equal pay, and the need for a comprehensive equal rights amendment. The BPW Ky is a state federation of the national group that promotes equity for all women in the workplace through advocacy, education and information. The Kentucky federation is divided into 5 regions and the local organizations are the basic units of the state federation and BPW/USA. This collection of 23.25 linear feet documents the history and work of the BPW Ky and many of its regional and local chapters, as well as the organization&rsquos foundation, from its founding in 1920 to 2007. There are notes and minutes, financial records, and membership records covering the annual meetings, the work of the Executive Committee of the statewide organization, and reports from local affiliates. The publication series contains most issues of the state magazine, The Cardinal, from 1927 through 1992, along with other of the organizations manuals and published reports.

Business First Collection 1984-1999
.375 linear foot
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Business First: The Top 25 list, 1984-1991 Business First: The Lists, 1992-1994 Business First: The Book of Lists, 1995-1998 Business First supplements: The Metro 100, [1992], 1998 5th Anniversary Section, August 1989 Minority Enterprise: February 1999

M.J. Carnahan Company Records, 1905-1913
.10 linear foot
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M.J. Carnahan Company began as a sawmill in 1881 and was incorporated as Carnahan Manufacturing Company of Loogootee and Shoals, Indiana, in 1904. This collection consists of a small amount of miscellaneous incoming and outgoing business correspondence, including orders and invoices, the overwhelming bulk of which relates to orders placed with Louisville&rsquos Belknap Hardware and Manufacturing Company. A few items concern the Reynolds-Brooks Hardware Company of Loogootee, a retailer, as well as other wholesale suppliers. These records complement the records of the Belknap Hardware and Manufacturing Company.

Carrollton (KY) Business and Professional Women&rsquos Club Records, 1982-1984
.375 linear foot
This is one scrapbook documenting the activities the Carrollton Business and Professional Women&rsquos Club for a two-year period.

B.F. Cawthon Papers, 1875
1 item (.10 linear foot)
Ben F. Cawthon was a manufacturer of wholesale furniture. This one item is a letterpress book of business correspondence of Cawthon.

Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad Company Records, 1921
4 volumes
Collection contains organization record Plan and agreement dated March 31, 1921 Kuhn, Loeb & Company reorganization managers Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railway Company to the Equitable Trust Company of New York, trustee prior lien mortgage, dated, May 1, 1921 Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railway Company to United States Mortgage and Trust Company, trustee. General mortgage dated, May 1, 1921.

Commerce, Business & Labor Publications Collection, 1888-c.1954 (bulk 1900-1954)
5.5 linear feet
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The collection consists of pamphlets and publications concerning commerce, business, labor, and international relations. Included are titles such as Cloth Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers International Union Report of Proceedings, Illinois State Federation Labor Proceeding of Annual Convention, and United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America: Proceedings.

Consumers' League of Kentucky Records, 1901-1951
2 reels microfilm
Two reels of microfilm from the Consumers' League of Kentucky: it includes records of the league's activities. Originals and copyright held by Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts.

Cooperative Welfare Association Records, 1920-1944
.25 linear foot
The Cooperative Welfare Association served as the "company" union for the Louisville Railway Company, a private holder of Louisville's major street rail franchise. These records are minutes kept by that association. The Louisville Railway Company was renamed the Louisville Transit Company in 1950. The private company was succeeded by the Transit Authority of River City (TARC), a public agency, in 1974. An incomplete series of company annual reports are found in the ephemera collection under "annual reports." Other reports and some material on rate hearings are in the city municipal reference file. Other transit company records are housed at the University Archives in the Elmer G. Sulzer Collection and at The Filson Club Historical Society.

H.W. Coyte, &ldquoHistory of Kentucky Distilleries,&rdquo 1987
1 item, 151 pages
Louisville native Henry W. Coyte (1907-1987) graduated from Male High School and worked for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, but his hobby was the history of distilling. This is a typescript, researched and written by Coyte from the 1940s-1987, on the history of more than 180 distilling operations in thirty-one counties in Kentucky.

Craik-Lord-Stitzel Family Papers, 1818-1950s
10 linear feet
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The collection contains letters, business and legal documents, genealogies and clippings, which document the lives of descendants of eighteenth century physician James Craik, and nineteenth century president of Dartmouth College Nathan Lord. Most of the collection concerns Craik's grandson James Craik, who served as rector of Christ Church in Louisville from 1844 to 1881. Another series relates to Nathan S. Lord (1831-1885), the son of the Dartmouth president. A later series contains rail fan publications issued from the 1940s to the 1970s, collected by the donor. The Lord-Stitzel subgroup contains materials relating to phosphate mining in Tennessee and World War I. Some of the records concern activities of the Lord and Stitzel families in operating the Stitzel Distillery.

James N. Cunningham Papers, 1918-1968
1 linear foot
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This is a collection of personal papers which include correspondence, financial material, photographs, and news clippings. Cunningham was a member of the Louisville city police and owner of Cunningham's restaurant and a small amount of the collection pertains to this business.

Delta Pi Epsilon, Gamma Mu Chapter Records, 1980-2001
1.25 linear feet
Records of the University of Louisville&rsquos chapter (minutes, newsletters, photographs, miscellaneous reports) of a national honorary fraternity for business educators. The UofL chapter became inactive in 2001.

Doe-Anderson Scrapbooks, 1919-1928
3 linear feet
Elmer Doe was a recognized and successful figure in the field of advertising and gained many of the leading firms in his region as clients. Doe, formerly creative director for the J. Walter Thompson agency in New York, opened his independent firm in Louisville in 1915. The firm, ultimately known as Doe-Anderson, is the seventh oldest continuously operating advertising agency in the United States. The nine Doe advertising scrapbooks contain ad copy generated by the Doe firm for mostly Louisville area clients during the 1920s and 1930s.

LaVal T. Duncan Papers, 1957-1965
.25 linear foot
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LaVal T. Duncan was born in Louisville on October 2, 1907. After attending Simmons University and Ohio State he joined the staff of Mammoth Life Insurance Company in 1934. Through the years he held the positions of field auditor, cashier, assistant Treasurer, Treasurer and Vice President-Treasurer. He also served on the Board of the Red Cross, later Community Hospital and as its chair for three years. This collection of personal papers contains correspondence, board minutes, and other material relating to Red Cross Hospital. Also included are miscellaneous materials gathered from other organizations.

Falls City Brewing Company Records, 1905-1990
13.5 linear feet
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Falls City Brewing Company was started in 1905, with a small brewery and ice house. Within a year the company began to produce bottled beer. The company continued with modest growth even through Prohibition, when it sold ice and soft drinks. After Prohibition the company resumed its sales of beer in the Midwest. The company closed in the late 1980s. The collection consists of corporate minute books, annual reports, financial, personnel records, scrapbooks and photographs.

Arthur Younger Ford Papers, 1876-1983 (bulk 1883-1926)
2.125 linear feet
Arthur Younger Ford was the seventh president of the University of Louisville, serving from 1914 to 1926. This collection contains the letters, clippings, scrapbooks, speeches, and diaries concerning the life of Ford, beginning with his student days at Brown University (circa 1883), and covers primarily his work as a Louisville journalist, businessman, and university president.

Green Farms Records, 1831-1965 (bulk 1890-1960)
61 linear feet
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What started as a small farm developed into a major mercantile enterprise with the Green Farms involved in farming, lumbering, milling, banking, and stock breeding enterprises in Grayson County, Kentucky. Its records are a microcosm of marketing and distribution methods and other developments in Kentucky agriculture in the late 19th and early 20th century. Chiefly business correspondence, account books and other administrative records, and legal documents relating to loans, investments, and land purchases together with personal correspondence and photos of the Green family.

S.A. Griffin Papers, 1971
.25 linear foot
S.A. Griffin was a native of Castalian Springs, Summer County, in rural Tennessee. This is a typescript autobiography by Griffin written in two parts: A Country Bo, and My Fifty Year Service with the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company (1910-1960), also named Working on the Railroad.

H.C. Griswold Papers, 1889-1931
5.125 linear feet
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H.C. Griswold was an employee of the Louisville and Nashville railroad engineering department and later a steel rail salesman. The collection includes iron and steel publications, coal industry material, and trackman's manuals. There is also personal correspondence and materials relating to Griswold's brother-in-law, Henry Clay Bretney, and Bretney's father, Captain Henry C. Bretney, who served in the Dakota Territory from 1863 to 1865.

Maurice Grossman Papers, 1917-1972
1.75 linear feet
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Maurice Grossman was born in Louisville on December 23, 1903. After graduating from high school in 1920 he went to work for YMHA, now the Jewish Community Center. In 1935 he opened a department store in Lexington. In 1937 he returned to Louisville for health reason and opened a department store in Louisville in 1943, which he operated until 1965. From 1965 until his retirement in 1970 he worked for the county government. He was active in the Boy Scouts, and in B'nai B'rith. The papers include material relating to Grossman's work with B'nai B'rith, the Boy Scouts of America, and newspaper clippings and pamphlets written about his career, his son's career, important historical events, and Middletown, Kentucky, the location of his business.

William L. Grubbs L&N Railroad Collection, 1869-1975
2.625 linear feet
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William L. Grubbs was a Vice President and General Counsel of the L&N Railroad. He joined the Law Department in 1919 and retired from the railroad in 1970. The collection includes publications, reports, and articles collected by Grubbs during his tenure at the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and most relate to the L&N Railroad.

Christine Hesse Papers, 1932-1989
.375 linear foot
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Christine Hesse worked as a secretary for Dun and Bradstreet for forty-five years. The collection contains diaries, photographs, literary productions, and incoming correspondence. The latter was written by soldiers serving during World War II.

International Association of Administrative Professionals Records, 1943-1996
25.5 linear feet
This record group includes secretaries' records for the organization from 1943 to 1979 membership files dating from 1946 to 1981 presidents' files, 1973-1974 newsletters, 1975-1982 board minutes, 1974-1978 Secretaries' Week records, 1965-1980 and financial records, 1978-1982. The organization was formerly known as the Professional Secretaries Association and the National Secretaries Association. The group changed its name to Professional Secretaries International in 1981 and became the IAAP in the 1990s. Local members formed the Louisville chapter in 1952.

Iota Phi Lambda Sorority, Sigma Chapter, Records, 1932-1993
.25 linear foot
Membership lists, agendas, bylaw, newsletters, Journal, and workbook of local chapter of an African American women&rsquos business and professional organization.

Jennings Family Papers, 1855-1884
.867 linear foot
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The records of the Jennings family of Oldham County, Kentucky, consist largely of business records from various family enterprises in the town of Westport. Spanning the years 1855-1884, most of the ledgers, account books and receipts belonged to T. W. Jennings, proprietor of the Westport Wharf Boat and a large grocery and dry goods store. One of the ledgers records merchandise received by Jennings from 1878 to 1884 via river packet. The steamer Maggie Harper of the Madison and Louisville Packet Company appeared to carry the most goods to Jennings, but he occasionally dealt with other boats. There are also two books, covering the period 1863-1864, which list the receipts of Anchor Mills, apparently a local grist mill in which Jennings was involved. A scrapbook, presumably kept in the 1870s by one of Jennings' children, was fashioned from a used receipt book.

Kentucky Child Labor Association Records, 1899-1925
.75 linear foot
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A group of concerned citizens formed the Kentucky Child Labor Association as a corporation, in Louisville, in 1906. Membership was comprised of citizens from throughout Kentucky who were elected by the executive committee and who paid the annual fee of one dollar. The purposes of the KCLA were to promote the welfare of society with respect to the employment of children in money-making occupations, to investigate facts concerning child labor, to educate the public, and to protect children by promoting suitable legislation. The KCLA also wanted to aid in enforcing these laws and to secure for children opportunities for elementary education. The records collection includes a bound volume of the articles and minutes of the KCLA, dating from December 12, 1906 through November 18, 1925 (this providing the most detailed account of the KCLA of all the material) by-laws of the Juvenile Court, including an "Adult Responsibility Law" and addresses on the topic of child labor by various individuals.

Kentucky Federation of Business and Professional Women Records, 1920-1987
16.5 linear feet
View Finding Aid
When representatives from local Business and Professional Women&rsquos clubs around the state met in 1921, the Kentucky Federation of Business and Professional Women was formed. The objectives of the Federation were to elevate standards and promote interests of all business and professional women. They did this by providing opportunities for women through education in industrial, scientific, and vocational activities. These records document the activities of the federation and include legal and financial records, organizational records, membership information, publications, public relations materials, and memorabilia.

Kentucky Report and KEN, 1954-1965
2 linear feet
Kentucky Report was a newsletter of Kentucky business, economic and political affairs, originally published bimonthly. In 1956 it became a weekly, then ceased publication in 1965. Many issues included a special quotation sheet of Louisville over-the-counter stocks.

Walton King Papers, 1930s-1970s (bulk 1961-1979s)
9 linear feet
View Finding Aid
These papers include studies, reports (some involving King or generated by King), to improve L&N operations, as well as proposals made by railroad equipment suppliers.

Douglas Krawczyk Papers, 1978
1.25 linear feet
The papers consist of research materials gathered by Krawczyk for his master's thesis, "The City of Louisville and the L & N RR Co." Included are photocopies of laws, charters, railroad annual reports, and excerpts from L & N histories. There are also copies of meeting minutes created by city government and the railroad.

Sara Landau Papers 1893-1986 (bulk 1910-1986)
38 linear feet
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Sara Landau was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1890, the daughter of Polish immigrants. She attended high school in Louisiana, and moved to Louisville with her family around 1914. She received her bachelor's degree (1920) and master&rsquos degree (1921) from the University of Louisville, both in economics. She helped found and served as the first president for the university&rsquos chapter of Pi Beta Phi. She joined the faculty as an undergraduate, then became an Assistant Professor of Economics in 1926, and also served as Assistant Dean of Women. She pursued doctoral studies at the Universities of Pennsylvania and Chicago, and taught at several other institutions, including Berea College in Eastern Kentucky. She retired from Berea in 1964, at the age of 72, and died in 1986. The collection documents Sara Landau's life as a teacher, world traveler, economist, and enthusiast for life. It includes research and reference materials focusing on economics, as well as materials relating to her teaching. There are also diaries, scrapbooks, photographs, and two audio recordings, including an oral history.

Levy Brothers Records, 1883-1950
.15 linear foot
View Finding Aid
Bills, correspondence, and photographs concerning M. Levy and Brothers, Men&rsquos and Boys Furnishings store, Louisville, Kentucky.

Louisville Bridge and Iron Co. Records, 1865-1986 (bulk 1920-1970s)
50 linear feet
View Finding Aid
This collection contains a sampling of the records of the Louisville Bridge and Iron Company, including photographs, books, papers, and blueprint drawings. The records are technical, financial, and legal.

Louisville Chamber of Commerce Records, 1862-1991
16 linear feet
View Finding Aid
This collection contains the records of the Chamber of Commerce and some of the organizations that merged to form it in 1950. It includes the Louisville Area Development Association, the Louisville Board of Trade, and the Louisville Retail Merchants Association. This collection also contains the records of the Louisville Commercial Club and the "Committee of 100" which recommended merger of Louisville and Jefferson County in 1957. Also contains pamphlets.

Louisville & Nashville Railroad Records, 1829-1981
255 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Chartered in 1850 and also known as the L & N Railroad, it was a small regional railroad until after the Civil War when it underwent expansion into a major Midwestern and Southern area railroad stretching from Louisville, to Atlanta, to Louisiana and northward to Chicago. The railroad played a major role in the rise of Southern industry. The growth of the steel industry and the development of the eastern Kentucky coal fields were dependent upon the services and financial support of the railroads. Since the 1960s it has undergone a series of mergers until finally becoming part of the CSX Transportation system. The collection contains executive correspondence (1902-1961) board minutes (1859-1976) of the railroad and its subsidiaries annual and other company reports (1856-1980) leases, deeds, equipment trust contracts, and other records (19th century) of the law department financial records indexed company magazines (1925-1981) timetables, brochures, scrapbooks, architectural and mechanical drawings, maps, audio discs, films, land photos. There are also minutes, annual reports, and legal documents from nearly 100 early Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and other southern railroads. Topics covered include real estate transactions in southern and midwestern states, construction and maintenance of track, bridges, and terminals, relations with shippers, suppliers, and financiers, manufacture of locomotives and rolling stock, state and national regulation, wartime nationalization, transition from steam to diesel power, decline of passenger service The collection documents the relationship between the railroad and the city of Louisville, and industrialization of the New South, including north Alabama steel manufacture and eastern Kentucky coal mining.

Louisville Board of Realtors Records
Meeting Minutes, 1910-1975, 6 reels microfilm
Reference Collection, 1979, .25 linear foot
The Louisville Board of Realtors, formerly named the Louisville Real Estate Board, came into being in 1913 with the merger of the Real Estate Exchange of Louisville and the Louisville Real Estate Association. The board assumed its present name in 1966. The microfilm contains the meeting minutes of the Real Estate Exchange of Louisville from 1910 to 1914, and the meeting minutes of the Louisville Real Estate Board, later the Louisville Board of Realtors. Included are both the board's regular meeting minutes and the minutes of the special meetings of its board of directors. A brief history of the board is included in the introduction to reel one. The reference collection contains materials use for researching a history of the Board of Realtors in 1979.

Louisville Gas & Electric Company Records, 1954-1966
.25 linear foot
The collection contains copies of a newsletter, "Light, Heat, Power," issued by LG&E for consumers. The newsletters documented technological developments, provided employee news, promoted new appliances, and included household hints and recipes.

Louisville, Henderson, & St. Louis Railway Records, 1887-1891
.25 linear foot
The Louisville, Henderson and St. Louis was chartered in 1882 and became a subsidiary of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad in 1905. It was sometimes called the Texas line as its original name was Louisville, Henderson and Texas. The collection contains 2 folders of business correspondence for the period 1887-1891 between W.V. McCracken, builder of the Louisville, Henderson, & St. Louis Railroad Co., and James P. Helm, an attorney for the company.

Louisville Jr. Board of Trade Scrapbooks, 1946-1947
The scrapbook contains newspaper clippings and photographs of activities of the Louisville Junior Board of Trade.

Louisville Paint and Varnish Production Club Records, 1917-1953
.25 linear feet
The club was founded in 1917 as the Louisville Superintendents Club and was known from 1929 to 1932 as the Louisville Production Men's Club. The group met bi-monthly to socialize and hear a paper concerning some aspect of coatings production. The papers were to offer practical technical information and experience and to discuss technical research aimed to solve problems in the area.

Louisville Railway Company (TARC) Records, 1920-1970
.25 linear foot
Annual reports from the Louisville Railway Company. The Louisville Railway Company was a private holder of Louisville's major street rail franchise. Founded in 1890 as a merger between Louisville City Railway and the Central Passenger Railway, the company changed its name to the Louisville Transit Company in 1950. In 1974, public transit became the purview of the Transit Authority of River City (TARC), a public agency. This collection contains reports for 1920, 1929, 1935-1939, 1940-1941, 1943, 1947-1957, 1964, 1966, 1968-1970 only (a total of 26 reports).

John Manning Papers, circa 1940s-1977
3.5 linear feet
Manning's teaching career spanned forty years from the mid-1920s to the mid-1960s. He taught at the University of Kentucky, the University of Louisville, and Vanderbilt University during his career. The collection includes Manning's master's thesis and doctoral dissertation as well as his lecture notes for classes in American economic history, public finance, and political science.

John Marshall, Jr. Papers, 1810-1977, bulk 1930-1960
3.75 linear feet
View Finding Aid
John Marshall was the son of John Marshall, a former lieutenant governor of Kentucky. A native of Anchorage, Kentucky, the younger Marshall attended Williams College, and graduated from Harvard Law School in 1922. He went into practicing law and in 1934 he was appointed standing master in the chancery of the U.S. District Court for Western Kentucky. From 1945 to 1947 he served as special judge for the Kentucky Court of Appeals. Marshall died on September 12, 1977. The collection documents his sports interests and his extensive business interests which included the First National Bank in Louisville. Also included are papers relating to the Marshall family personal correspondence, diaries, logs and clippings.

Monon Railroad Records, 1863-1953
8.85 linear feet
View Finding Aid
The Monon's earliest predecessor, the New Albany and Salem Railroad Company, was organized in 1847, making it one of the pioneer lines of the Midwest. In 1859 the line was reorganized as the Louisville, New Albany and Chicago Railroad. The line developed into a distinctive x-shaped pattern across Indiana. In 1897 it reorganized again as the Chicago, Indianapolis and Louisville Railway Company. The line changed its name to Monon in 1956. In 1902 the Louisville and Nashville acquired a controlling portion of the line's stock and finally absorbed the line in 1971. The collection includes 14 scrapbooks of company circulars and news clippings (1880-1953) miscellaneous business ledgers and journals (1864-1901) and a centennial song (sheet music - 1947).

Frank L. Moorman, Sr. Scrapbook, 1879-1976
1 reel of microfilm
Frank L. Moorman, Sr., grandson of a slave, was born in Daviess County, Kentucky. He established the Central Drug Company at the corner of Sixth and Walnut (now Muhammad Ali Boulevard) in Louisville with Dr. J.C. McDonald in 1932. They also opened the F&M Service Station at the corner of Eighth and Walnut Streets in 1937. The station eventually became Frank&rsquos Super Station as a franchise of Standard Oil Company.
The microfilm is of an eighty-seven page scrapbook that included photographs, newspaper clippings, and correspondence. The bulk of the material concerns Moorman&rsquos business career and property ownership in Louisville, African American life in Louisville from the 1930s to the 1970s, and the Urban Renewal Project for the West Walnut St. area in the early 1960s. There is also some family information and correspondence about Moorman's grandmother, Dora Moorman, who claimed to be the founder of the Buckhorn Community in Daviess County.

Nashville, Chattanooga, & St. Louis Railway Records, 1845-1960
9.5 linear feet
View Finding Aid
This historically important railroad was chartered by Tennessee in 1845 as the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad Company and was known popularly as "The Nashville". It was reorganized only once in 1873, renamed the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway and operated successfully thereafter in an era when many railroads failed. It never reached St. Louis, but stretched from Paducah, Kentucky, to Atlanta, with branches crisscrossing Tennessee. The railway was bought by the Louisville and Nashville in 1880 and was finally merged with that company in 1956. The collection includes charters, bylaws and financing records of the early company legal records, annual reports, and company magazines from the late 1890s until 1956. Also included are collections of historical files and files relating to other rail lines.

Professional Secretaries International SEE International Association of Administrative Assistants

Proof, Joseph E. Seagrams and Sons, 1941-1952
1 linear foot
Proof was a monthly newsletter published by the Louisville-based distilling company, Joseph E. Seagrams and Sons from at least 1941-1952. Initially it was only a four-page publication, but later issues were expanded and some are much as thirty pages in length. Contents include articles about the company&rsquos production and sales and the beverage alcohol industry and related industries, as well as general interest stories of general interest. This set of bound issues of Proof includes Volumes 1&ndash9 and 11-12.

Purchasing Agents Association Records, 1956-1962
.10 linear foot
View Finding Aid
The association was affiliated with the National Association of Purchasing Agents. It was organized in 1924. The association was affiliated with the National Association of Purchasing Agents. It was organized in 1924. Four volumes of pictorial rosters for the years 1956-1957 1959-1960 1960-1961 and 1961-1962. Included are the organization's constitution and the standards for the profession.

Archie M. Quarrier Letterbooks, 1841-1900
2.5 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Archie M. Quarrier, a native of West Virginia, moved to Louisville during his adolescence. He joined the L&N in 1858 and became second vice president for finance in 1884, holding that position until his death in 1900. When the railroad&rsquos corporate headquarters relocated to New York City in 1891, Quarrier moved there. These are four letterbooks of Quarrier's letters spanning the years 1891 to 1900 during his tenure as second vice president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Most of the letters discuss personal and family matters but some letters especially to his brother Cushman, who was the L&N's controller, mention railroad business.

Rebecca and Mary Shoppe Records, 1942-1947
.5 linear feet
View Finding Aid
These papers contain the business records of the Rebecca and Mary Shoppe, a women's clothing store.

Smith-McGill Family Papers, 1897-1978
9.25 linear feet
View Finding Aid
James Edward Smith (1883-1969) and his family were influential members of Louisville&rsquos African American community. Smith co-founded the Domestic Life and Accident Company in 1920 and served as president of the National Negro Insurance Association upon retiring in 1962, he founded a loan company, the Fidelity Industrial Plan. He was a member of the Falls City Chamber of Commerce, the Urban League, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Politically active, he served on the Jefferson County Kentucky Democratic executive committee, as a delegate to the 1964 Democratic national convention, and as State Representative from Kentucky&rsquos 42nd District (in Louisville) from 1964 to 1968. Like her husband, Verna Smith (1889-1966), was an active in the Democratic Party on the local and national levels. Charlotte Smith McGill ([1919]-1988) shared her parents&rsquo participation in government and politics, filling out a term in the state legislature upon the death of her husband, Hughes McGill, and consequently being elected to her own three full terms. For many years she was vice-chair of the Louisville-Jefferson County Democratic Executive Committee. This collection of family papers includes personal and business correspondence, financial and legal documents, printed material, scrapbooks, and photographs dating from 1879 to 1978 that document the family&rsquos commitment to their church and community. James Edward Smith&rsquos papers are the strongest portion of the collection, with information about his personal and business interests.

Frank L. Stanley Papers, 1936-1974
41.75 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Frank L. Stanley, Sr. (1906-1974) was editor, general manager, and publisher of the African American newspaper, the Louisville Defender for thirty-eight years. He was also involved with the National Newspaper Publishers Association, Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, the Kentucky Human Rights Commission, and twice inspected troop conditions overseas for the U.S. government. This collection consists of Stanley&rsquos personal papers while he was editor of the Defender, as well as the office records of the newspaper, including his correspondence, speeches, scrapbooks, photographs, and memorabilia. The 25,000 photographic images from this collection are preserved at the Photographic Archives.

Elmer Sulzer Papers, 1839-1978
110 linear feet
View Finding Aid
Elmer Griffith Sulzer had a distinguished career as a college professor at the University of Kentucky and Indiana University. He was a multifaceted individual with interests from jazz to geology. As he grew older his writing more and more reflected his life-long love of trains and their history. Sulzer collected railroadiana everywhere he went, both domestically and internationally, and wrote five books and more than fifty articles on rail topics for railroad specialized journals. He was a leading expert on abandoned rail lines. This collection consists of both the reference library on the subject of American and foreign railroads he assembled and work he himself generated. The collection contains: correspondence, literary productions, photographs and illustrations, railroad business records including pay books, ledgers, rule books, reports, timetables, maps, diagrams, surveys and other operating records, books, railroad periodicals, reprints of articles and excerpts from books, pamphlets and brochures, newspaper clippings, and memorabilia. Some of the railroads included are: Monon Illinois Central Louisville and Nashville Louisville Railway Company Southern Railway Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific Penn Central Pennsylvania and Chesapeake and Ohio.


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