Olympic Champions - London, England
Event: 100m Winner: Reginald Walker Country: SAF
Event: 200m Winner: Robert Kerr Country: CAN
Event: 400m Winner: Wyndham Halswelle Country: GBR
Event: 800m Winner: Melvin Sheppard Country: USA
Event: 1500m Winner: Melvin Sheppard Country: USA
Event: Marathon Winner: John Hayes Country: USA
Event: 110 Hurdles Winner: Forrest Smithson Country: USA
Event: 400m Hurdles Winner: Charles Bacon Country: USA
Event: 3000m Steeplechase Winner: Arthur Russell Country: GBR
Event: 4x400m Winner: USA
Event: High Jump Winner: Harry Porter Country: USA
Event: Pole Vault Winner: Edward Cooke Country: USA
Event: Long Jump Winner: Francis Irons Country: USA
Event: Triple Jump Winner: Timothy Ahearne Country: GBR-IRL
Event: Shotput Winner: Ralph Rose Country: USA
Event: Discus Winner: Martin Sheridan Country: USA
Event: Hammer Winner: John Managan Country: USA
Event: Javelin Winner: Erik Lemming Country: SWE
Event: Freestyle Javelin Winner: Erik Lemming Country: SWE
Event: 5 miles Winner: Emil Voigt Country: GBR
Event: 3 miles Team Winner: Great Britain
Event: Standing Hight Jump Winner: Ray Ewry Country: USA
Event: Standing Long Jump Winner: Ray Ewry Country: USA
Event: Discus, Ancient Style Winner: Martin Sheridan Country: USA
Event: Tug-of-War Winner: GBR
Event: 3500m Walk Winner: George Larner Country: GBR
Event: 10 mile walk Winner: George Larner Country: GBR
Event: 100m Freestyle Winner: Charles Daniels Country: USA
Event: 400 Freestyle Winner: Henry Taylor Country: GBR
Event: 1500m Freestyle Winner: Henry Taylor Country: GBR
Event: 100m Backstroke Winner: Arno Bieberstein Country: GER
Event: 200m Breaststroke Winner: Fredrick Holman Country: GBR
Event: 4x200mFreestyle Relay Winner: GBR
Event: Springboard Diving Winner: Albert Zurner Country: GER
Event: Platform Winner: Hjalmar Johansson Country: SWE
Winner: Great Britain
Event: Bantamweight Winner: A. Henry Thomas Country: GBR
Event: Featherweight Winner: Richard Gunn Country: GBR
Event: Lightweight Winner: Federick Grace Country: GBR
Event: Middleweight Winner: John Douglas Country: GBR
Event: Heavyweight Winner: Albert L. Oldham Country: GBR
Greco Roman Wrestling
Event: Lightweight Winner: Enrico Porro Country: ITA
Event: Middleweight Winner: Frithiof Martensson Country: SWE
Event: Light Heavyweight Winner: Verner Weckman Country: FIN
Event: Heavyweight Winner: Richard Weisz Country: HUN
Event: Bantamweight Winner: George Mehnert Country: USA
Event: Featherweight Winner: George Dole Country: USA
Event: Lightweight Winner: George de Relwskow Country: GBR
Event: Middleweight Winner: Stanley Bacon Country: GBR
Event: Heavyweight Winner: George Con OÕKelly Country: GBR/IRL
Event: Epee Individual Winner: Gaston Alibert Country: FRA
Event: Epee team Winner: FRA
Event: Sabre Individual Winner: Jeno Fuchs Country: HUN
Event: Sabre Team Winner: HUN Rowing
Event: Single Sculls Winner: Harry Blackstaffe Country: GBR
Event: Coxless pairs Winner: Great Britain
Event: Coxless Fours Winner: Great Britain
Event: Eights Winner: GBR
Event: 6m Winner: GBR
Event: 7m Winner: GBR
Event: 8m Winner: GBR
Event: 12m Winner: GBR
Event: 2000m Tandem Winner: France
Event: 4000m Team Pursuit Winner: Great Britain
Event: One Lap Race Winner: Victor L. Johnson Country: GBR
Event: 5000m track Winner: Benjamin Jones Country: GBR
Event: 20km Track Winner: Charles B. Kingsbury Country: GBR
Event: 100km Track Winner: Charles H. Barlett Country: GBR
Event: Free Rifle, 3 position Winner: Albert Helgerud Country: NOR
Event: Free Rifle Individual Winner: Jerry Millner Country: GBR
Event: Free Rifle Team Winner: Norway
Event: Small-Bore rifle Winner: A.A. Carnell Country: GBR
Event: Small-Bore Rifle Individual Moving Target Winner: J.F. Fleming Country: GBR
Event: Disappearing Target Winner: William Styles Country: GBR
Event: Miniature Rifle Team Winner: Great Bitain
Event: Pistol Rapid Fire Winner: Paul Van Asbroeck Country: BEL
Event: Clay Pigeon Shooting Team Winner: Great Britain
Event: Military Rifle Team Winner: USA
Event: Running Deer Shooting( Single Shot) Individual Winner: Oscar Swahn Country: SWE
Event: Running Deer Shooting(Single Shot) Team Winner: Sweden
Event: Running Deer Shooting( Double Shot) Individual Winner: Walter Winans Country: USA
Event: Revolver Team Winner: USA
Event: Mixed Shooting Winner: Walter Henry Ewing Country: CAN
Event: York Round Winner: William Dod Country: GBR
Event: Contintial Style Winner: E.G. Grisot Country: FRA
Event: National Round Winner: Queenie F. Newall Country: GBR
Event: Individual All aroundCompetition Winner: Alberto Braglia Country: ITA
Event: Team All around Competition Winner: SWE Football Winner: GBR Field Hockey Winner: GBR
Event: MenÕs singles Winner: Josiah Ritchie Country: GBR
Event: MenÕs singles(indoors) Winner: Arthur Gore Country: GBR
Event: MenÕs doubles Winner: GBR
Event: WomenÕs singles Winner: Dorothy Chambers Country: GBR
Event: WomenÕs singles (indoors) Winner: Gwendoline Eastlake-Smith Jeu de Paume Winner: USA Lacrosse Winner: CAN
Event: Open Winner: FRA
Event: 8m Winner: GBR
Event: Under 60Õ Winner: GBR Polo Winner: GBR Rackets
Event: MenÕs single Winner: MenÕs singles Country: GBR
Event: MenÕs doubles Winner: GBR Rugby Winner: AUS
RUTHERFORD, Lord ERNEST, Great Britain, Victoria University, Manchester, b. 1871 (in Nelson, New Zealand), d. 1937: "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"
EUCKEN, RUDOLF CHRISTOPH, Germany, b. 1846, d. 1926: "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"
The prize was divided equally between: ARNOLDSON, KLAS PONTUS, Sweden, b. 1844, d. 1916: Writer. Former Member of the Swedish Parliament. Founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League. BAJER, FREDRIK, Denmark, b. 1837, d. 1922: Member of the Danish Parliament. Honorary President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne.
Physiology or Medicine
The prize was awarded jointly to: METCHNIKOFF, ELIE, Russia, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, b. 1845, d. 1916; and EHRLICH, PAUL, Germany, Gttingen University and Knigliches Institut fr experimentelle Therapie (Royal Institute for Experimental Therapy), Frankfurt-on-the-Main, b. 1854, d. 1915: "in recognition of their work on immunity"
LIPPMANN, GABRIEL, France, Sorbonne University, Paris, b. 1845 (in Hollerich, Luxembourg), d. 1921: "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
Figure skating has developed from a practical way to get around on ice into the elegant mix of art and sport it is today.
The Dutch were arguably the earliest pioneers of skating. They began using canals to maintain communication by skating from village to village as far back as the 13th century. Skating eventually spread across the channel to England, and soon the first clubs and artificial rinks began to form. Passionate skaters included several kings of England, Marie Antoinette, Napoleon III and German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Steel and Ballet
Two Americans are responsible for the major developments in the history of the sport. In 1850, Edward Bushnell of Philadelphia revolutionised skating when he introduced steel-bladed skates allowing complex manoeuvres and turns. Jackson Haines, a ballet master living in Vienna in the 1860s, added elements of ballet and dance to give the sport its grace.
Figure skating is the oldest sport on the Olympic Winter Games programme. It was contested at the 1908 London Games and again in 1920 in Antwerp. Men’s, women’s and pairs were the three events contested until 1972. Since 1976, ice dancing has been the fourth event in the programme, proving a great success.
Sonja Henie made her Olympic debut in Chamonix in 1924, aged just 11, and was so nervous she had to ask her coach what to do midway through her routines. However, she won gold in the next three Olympic Games and developed a huge legion of fans. She later moved into films, where she greatly increased the popularity of her sport.
Famous Deaths on May 17
1829 John Jay, US statesman and 1st US Chief Justice, dies at 83
1838 Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, French statesman, dies at 84
- René Caillé, French explorer and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu, dies at 38 Archibald Alison, Scottish author (b. 1757) Adriaan van Bevervoorde, Dutch journalist (Treason), dies at 31 Adolf Bernhard Marx, German composer, dies at 70 Isami Kondo, Shinsengumi Commander (b. 1834) Eduard Sobolewski, Polish-American violinist and composer, dies at 63 John C. Breckinridge, Vice President of the United States (b. 1821) Asa Packer, railroad magnate and founder of Lehigh Valley Railroad (b. 1805)
1886 John Deere, American blacksmith and manufacturer (founded Deere & Company) dies at 82
- Giacomo Zanella, Italian poet (b. 1820) William Roxby Beverly, artist, dies Marie of Prussia, Queen consort of Bavaria (1848-64), dies at 63 Gyorgy Klapka, Hungarian general/parliament leader, dies at 72 Dwijendralal Ray, Bengali poet, playwright and lyricist (Dwijendrageeti), dies of epilepsy at 49 Peter Leyten, Bishop of Breda (1885-1914), dies at 79 Gervais Salvayre, French composer (Calypso La Résurrection), and music critic dies at 68 Boris Borisovich Galitzine, Russian physicist (b. 1862)
1917 Charles Brooke, 2nd White Rajah of Sarawak (1868-1917), dies at 87
- Belva Ann Lockwood, American attorney (1st lady to argue in Supreme Court), dies at 86 Bohumil Pazdírek, Moravian composer, dies at 80 Guido von List, Austrian-German occultist and novelist (Jung Diethers Heimkehr), dies at 70 José Santos Zelaya, President of Nicaragua (1893-1910), dies at 65 Maitland Hathorn, South African cricketer (325 runs in 12 Tests South African 1901-11), dies at 42 Harold Geiger, U.S. Army aviation pioneer (b. 1884) Herbert David Croly, US founder (New Republic), dies at 61 Johan [Eliza J] de Master, art critic/writer, dies
2002 James Chichester-Clark, Irish politician, Prime Minister of Northern Ireland (1969-71), dies at 79
- Frank "Pop" Ivy, American and Canadian football coach (b. 1916) Jørgen Nash, Danish artist (b. 1920) Ezzedine Salim, leader of Iraqi Governing Council (b. 1943) Frank Gorshin, American comedian and impersonator (Riddler-Batman), dies at 72 Cy Feuer, American playwright (b. 1911) Eric Forth, British Member of Parliament (b. 1944) Captain Nichola Goddard, Canadian soldier (b. 1980) Laurence Shurtliff [Ram Rod], American music executive and roadie (the Grateful Dead), dies at 61 Lloyd Alexander, author (b. 1924) Mario Benedetti, Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and poet, dies from respiratory and intestinal problems at 88 Jung Seung-hye, South Korean film producer (b. 1965)
2012 Donna Summer [LaDonna Gaines], American disco and pop singer-songwriter ("Love to Love You, Baby" "On The Radio" "Last Dance"), dies from lung cancer at 63
Systematic study of radiation
At the end of 1895, Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X rays. Becquerel learned that the X rays issued from the area of a glass vacuum tube made fluorescent when struck by a beam of cathode rays. He undertook to investigate whether there was some fundamental connection between this invisible radiation and visible light such that all luminescent materials, however stimulated, would also yield X rays. To test this hypothesis, he placed phosphorescent crystals upon a photographic plate that had been wrapped in opaque paper so that only a penetrating radiation could reach the emulsion. He exposed his experimental arrangement to sunlight for several hours, thereby exciting the crystals in the customary manner. Upon development, the photographic plate revealed silhouettes of the mineral samples, and, in subsequent experiments, the image of a coin or metal cutout interposed between the crystal and paper wrapping. Becquerel reported this discovery to the Académie des Sciences at its session on February 24, 1896, noting that certain salts of uranium were particularly active.
He thus confirmed his view that something very similar to X rays was emitted by this luminescent substance at the same time it threw off visible radiation. But the following week Becquerel learned that his uranium salts continued to eject penetrating radiation even when they were not made to phosphoresce by the ultraviolet in sunlight. To account for this novelty he postulated a long-lived form of invisible phosphorescence when he shortly traced the activity to uranium metal, he interpreted it as a unique case of metallic phosphorescence.
During 1896 Becquerel published seven papers on radioactivity, as Marie Curie later named the phenomenon in 1897, only two papers and in 1898, none. This was an index of both his and the scientific world’s interest in the subject, for the period saw studies of numerous radiations (e.g., cathode rays, X rays, Becquerel rays, “discharge rays,” canal rays, radio waves, the visible spectrum, rays from glowworms, fireflies, and other luminescent materials), and Becquerel rays seemed not especially significant. The far more popular X rays could take sharper shadow photographs and faster. It required the extension in 1898 of radioactivity to another known element, thorium (by Gerhard Carl Schmidt and independently by Marie Curie), and the discovery of new radioactive materials, polonium and radium (by Pierre and Marie Curie and their colleague, Gustave Bémont), to awaken the world and Becquerel to the significance of his discovery.
Historical Events on October 24
- Treaty of Westphalia ends The Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire Switzerland's independence recognized Treaty of Vilnius: Russia & Poland sign anti-Swedish covenant Earl of Shaftesbury accused of high treason in London 3rd Partition of Poland, between Austria, Prussia & Russia
Battle of Interest
1812 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow, French army then forced to retreat through the snow towards Smolensk
1818 Felix Mendelssohn, aged 9, performs his first public concert in Berlin
- Earliest American patent for a phosphorus friction match by Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts William Lassell discovers Ariel & Umbriel, satellites of Uranus
Statue of Liberty
1881 Levi P Morton, US ambassador to France drives first rivet in Statue of Liberty
- Johann Strauss' operetta "Zigeunerbaron (Gypsy Baron)" premieres in Vienna "World Championship" Baseball Series, Cincinnati Base Ball Grounds: St. Louis Browns beat Chicago White Stockings, 13–4 in Game 7 disputed series tied at 3-3-1 Softball rules adopted by Mid Winter Indoor Baseball League Battle at Rietfontein, South Africa: Boers vs British army General Redvers Buller returns to England First woman to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel (Anna Taylor) Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala erupts, killing 6,000 people and becoming one of the three largest eruptions of the 20th century First trotter to run a mile under 2 minutes (Lou Dillon 1:58.1) George Sutton becomes billards champion Billy Murray hits the charts with "Take Me Outto the Ball Game" Italy and Russia sign the Racconigi Pact in which both nations promise to support the status quo in the Balkans
1911 Captain Robert Falcon Scott's expedition leaves Cape Evans for South Pole
Event of Interest
1911 Orville Wright remained in the air 9 minutes and 45 seconds in a glider at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina setting a new world record that stood for 10 years.
Event of Interest
1926 Harry Houdini's last performance, at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit, Michigan
Another Panic, Another Market Crash
1929 "Black Thursday", start of stock market crash, Dow Jones down 12.8%
- Rudy Vallee's "The Fleishmann's Yeast Hour" begins broadcasting on NBC radio Belgian princess Marie-Jose & Italian crown prince Umberto get engaged, assassination attempt on Umberto fails
1930 A bloodless coup d'état in Brazil ousts Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, the last President of the First Republic. Getúlio Vargas then installed as "provisional president."
Event of Interest
1931 Gangster Al Capone is sentenced to 11 years for tax evasion
Event of Interest
Event of Interest
Meeting of Interest
1940 Adolf Hitler meets the Head of the French State Marshal Philippe Pétain
- Japan eliminates US terms (strike, play ball) from baseball Protestant churches protest against dismissal of Jew civil servants Second day of battle at El Alamein: British infantry Anti-nazi Clandestine Radio Soldatsender Calais begins transmitting Rotterdam Passage fight frees 46 prisoners US air raid on Japanese battleships and cruisers in Sibuya Sea: Musashi sinks US aircraft carrier Princeton sinks at Philippines US Captain David Mccampbell shoots down 9-11 Japanese planes in Gulf of Leyte
United Nations Charter
1945 Charter of United Nations comes into effect
- In France PC/PS/MRP win parliamentary election (25/24/23%) Netherlands & Indonesia sign cease fire A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket, launched from Whites Sands US, takes the first photograph of earth from outer space. Series of forest fires burn over $30 million of timber across the New England States Bernard M Baruch introduces term "Cold War" Francis Poulenc's "Sinfonietta" premieres
1948 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical In Multiplicibus Curis
- WJBK TV channel 2 in Detroit, MI (CBS) begins broadcasting Construction begins on the United Nations headquarters in New York
Event of Interest
1954 Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges United States' support to South Vietnam
- Britain's Mike Hawthorne wins season ending Spanish Grand Prix at Pedralbes Argentine Maserati driver Juan Manuel Fangio takes second Formula 1 World Drivers Championship by 17 points from countryman José Froilán González AP names Cin manager Birdie Tebbets as NL Manager of the Year Soviet troops invade Hungary, Imre Nagy becomes Prime Minister of Hungary Margaret Towner becomes first woman to be ordained into the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) Cincinnati Redlegs decline to move to Roosevelt Stadium in Jersey City The USAF starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar program. USSR lends Egypt 400 million rubles to build Aswan Dam
1959 US premier of Dmitri Shostakovich's 1st Cello concert
- Disaster on USSR's Baikonoer launch pad, kills missile expert Nedelin & team (165 die-unconfirmed) USSR claims killed in plane crash "Evening with Yves Montand" opens at John Golden Theatre, NYC for 55 performances
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet ships approach but stop short of the US blockade of Cuba
1962 "The Manchurian Candidate", directed by John Frankenheimer, starring Frank Sinatra and Laurence Harvey, is released
- "110 in the Shade" opens at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 330 performances KRO shows first episode of Bonanza
Event of Interest
1963 Sandy Koufax is unanimous winner of Cy Young Award
- "Cambridge Circus" closes at Plymouth Theater NYC after 23 performances Belgian paratroops liberate 1,000 white hostages in Stanleyville Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) gains independence from Britain (National Day) with Kenneth Kaunda becoming President Test cricket debut of Pakistani standouts Asif Iqbal, Majid Khan and Khalid Ibadulla in drawn 1st Test vs Australia in Karachi Khalid "Billy" Ibadulla scores 166 on debut
Event of Interest
- Jim Clark in a Lotus is forced to retire from season-ending Mexican Grand Prix at Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez with engine trouble American Richie Ginther is race winner and Clark claims his second F1 World Drivers Championship
Event of Interest
1968 Mick Jagger & Marianne Faithful busted for pot, released on £50 bail
- The People's Democracy (PD) stage a protest demonstration at Stormont Parliament buildings, Belfast, Northern Ireland 16 year old American swimmer Debbie Meyer wins the inaugural women's 800m gold medal in 9:24.0 at the Mexico City Olympics first swimmer to win 3 individual gold medals at a Games (200/400m) Australian swimmer Michael Wendon wraps up the Mexico City Games sprint double when he wins the men's 200m freestyle gold medal in Olympic record 1:55.2 Pakistani cricketing brothers Hanif, Mushtaq and Sadiq Mohammad start their only Test together drawn 1st Test v NZ in Karachi Nancy Walker creates Ida Morgenstein role on "The Mary Tyler Moore Show"
Election of Interest
1970 Marxist Salvador Allende elected President of Chile by the Chilean Congress
- Harry Drake sets longest arrow flight by a footbow (1 mile 268 yds) Texas Stadium opens-Cowboys beat Patriots 44-21 President of Sinn Féin Ruairi O'Brady, addresses a party conference in Dublin and proclaims that the North of Ireland must be made ungovernable as a first step to achieve a united Ireland A member of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) is shot dead by undercover Royal Ulster Constabulary officers during a bomb attack in Belfast 2 Catholic men are found dead at a farm at Aughinahinch, near Newtownbbutler, County Fermanagh - British soldiers carry out the killings Heavy fog causes 65 car collision killing 9 on New Jersey Turnpike
Event of Interest
1973 John Lennon sues US government to admit FBI is tapping his phone
Event of Interest
1974 Billy Martin named AL Manager of Year (Texas Rangers)
- Turkish diplomat shot dead in Paris 1st Jewish film & TV festival New York City Marathon: American Bill Rodgers wins his first title in 2:10:10 Miki Gorman takes out women's race in 2:39:11 Sadiq & Mushtaq Mohammad score hundreds in same Test Cricket innings v NZ
Event of Interest
1976 English McLaren driver James Hunt finishes 4th in the season ending Japanese Grand Prix at Fuji Speedway to win his first Formula 1 World Drivers Championship by 1 point from Niki Lauda
Event of Interest
1978 Keith Richards convicted of heroin possession in Toronto
- NHL Toronto Maple Leafs set own team record of 28 pts vs NY Islanders Billy Martin punches a marshmallow salesman, puts job in jeopardy
Event of Interest
1979 Guinness Book of Records presents Paul McCartney with a rhodium disc as all-time best selling singer-songwriter
- Great Britain performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site Iraqi troops occupies Khorramshar John Lennon releases "(Just Like) Starting Over" in UK Polish government legalizes independent labor union Solidarity
Event of Interest
1981 Pablo Picasso's 1937 painting Guernica goes on display in Madrid Spain to celebrate the centenary of the artist's birth
- "Rock 'n Roll!: The 1st. " opens at St James Theater NYC for 9 performances 12th NYC Women's Marathon won by Grete Waitz in 2:27:14 13th NYC Marathon won by Alberto Salazar in 2:09:29
Event of Interest
1982 Steffi Graf plays her 1st pro tennis match
- 11 members of Colombo crime family arrested Intelsat 5 re-enters Earth's atmosphere 5 months after it failed Dodgers' Bill Russell, 38, announces his retirement Great Britain drops diplomatic relations with Syria Bork's supreme court nomination rejected by senate NBC technicians accept pact, end 118 day strike
Event of Interest
1988 NY Islander's & NHL high scorer, Mike Bossy retires
- Typhoon Ruby sinks Philippine ferry hundreds drown After a weeks delay due to earthquake, World Series game 3 is played France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll
Event of Interest
1989 American televangelist Jim Bakker is sentenced to 45 years in prison for fraud but the sentence is later reduced to eight years on appeal
- USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR "Dancing at Lughnasa" opens at Plymouth Theater NYC for 421 performances Larry Ryckman purchases CFL Calgary Stampeders World Series Baseball: Toronto Blue Jays beat Atlanta Braves, 4-3 in Game 6 at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium to win their first-ever title MVP: Toronto catcher Pat Borders 10th Rugby League World Cup: Australia beats Great Britain 10-6 "Wonderful Tennessee" opens at Plymouth Theater NYC for 9 performances Bomb attack on opposition in Sri Lanka, 55+ killed Total solar eclipse in SW/S Asia (2m09s)
2002 Wuxia film "Hero" directed by Zhang Yimou, starring Jet Li released in China (US release 2004)
- Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, D.C. Concorde makes its last commercial flight
2003 Walt Disney Concert Hall, new home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, designed by Frank Gehry, opens in downtown Los Angeles, California
- 10 people including NASCAR driver Ricky Hendrick and 4 family members are killed in a plane crash near Martinsville Speedway in Virginia plane owned by NASCAR team Hendrick Motorsports
Event of Interest
2004 German Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher finishes 8th at season-ending Brazilian F1 Grand Prix at Autódromo José Carlos Pace his 5th straight World Drivers Championship, record 7th career world title Ferrari's 6th straight Constructors title
- Manchester United beats Arsenal, 2-0 at Old Trafford ends Gunners' English Premier League record 49-game unbeaten streak Justice Rutherford of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice struck down the "motive clause", an important part of the Canadian Anti-Terrorism Act MESSENGER spacecraft performs a Venus flyby "Bloody Friday" saw many of the world's stock exchanges experienced the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices. Iceland receives a £1.3 billion bailout package from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), 1st European country to require an emergency loan as a result of the financial crisis Breeders' Cup Horse Racing, Santa Anita Racetrack Day 1 winners: Ventura, Maram, Stardom Bound, Together Forever, Zenyatta First International Day of Climate Action, organized with 350.org, a global campaign to address a claimed global warming crisis. Libyan militias capture Bani Walid resulting in 130 civilian deaths 3 people are shot dead and two critically wounded after being shot by an unknown gunman in Downey, California Hurricane Sandy makes landfall in Jamaica killing 1 person and causing over $50 million in damage
Event of Interest
2017 Crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman vows to return Saudi Arabia to moderate Islam after announcing 500bn independent economic zone
Event of Interest
2017 Albert Einstein's "Theory of Happiness", written as a note for a bellboy instead of a tip in Tokyo in 1922 sells for $1.56 million
Event of Interest
2018 Pipe bombs sent to prominent US Democrats including the Obamas, Clintons, John Brennan and CNN, but safely defused
Event of Interest
2018 Kenyan marathon runner Eliud Kipchoge named UN Person of the Year for setting a new marathon world record and for his work with AIDS/HIV in Kenya
- Scientists confirm East Island in Hawaii, half a mile long, has been wiped out after contact with Hurricane Walaka EU directive bans single-use plastics by 2021
Event of Interest
2018 Indian cricketer Virat Kohli becomes the 12th and the fastest-ever to score 10,000 runs in one day international matches, taking just 205 innings
- Bangladesh sentences 16 men to death for the murder of Nusrat Jahan Rafi, who was set on fire after accusing a teacher of inappropriate behavior
Event of Interest
2019 Remains of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco removed from mausoleum in Valley of the Fallen and reburied in private family vault in Madrid
Experiments and Discoveries
In 1895, as the first research student at the University of Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory in London, Rutherford identified a simpler and more commercially viable means of detecting radio waves than had been previously established by German physicist Heinrich Hertz.
Also while at Cavendish Laboratory, Rutherford was invited by Professor J.J. Thomson to collaborate on a study of X-rays. German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen had discovered X-rays just months before Rutherford arrived at Cavendish, and X-rays were a hot topic among research scientists. Together, Rutherford and Thomson studied the effects of X-rays on the conductivity of gases, resulting in a paper about dividing atoms and molecules into ions. While Thomson went on to examine what would later be called an electron, Rutherford took a closer look at ion-producing radiations.
Focusing on uranium, Rutherford discovered that placing it near foil resulted in one type of radiation being easily soaked up or blocked, while a different type had no trouble penetrating the same foil. He labeled the two radiation types 𠇊lpha” and ta.” As it turns out, the alpha particle was identical to the nucleus of a helium atom. The beta particle was, in fact, the same as an electron or positron.
Rutherford left Cambridge in 1902 and took up a professorship at McGill University in Montreal. At McGill in 1903, Rutherford and has colleague Frederick Soddy introduced their disintegration theory of radioactivity, which claimed radioactive energy was emitted from within an atom and that when alpha and beta particles were emitted at the same time, they caused a chemical change across elements. Rutherford and Yale Professor Bertram Borden Boltwood went on to categorize radioactive elements into what they called a y series.” Rutherford was also credited with discovering the radioactive gas radon while at McGill. Achieving fame for his contributions to the understanding of radioelements, Rutherford became an active public speaker, published numerous magazine articles and wrote the most highly regarded textbook of the time on radioactivity.
In 1907, Rutherford returned to England, transferring to a professorship at the University of Manchester. Through further experimentation involving firing alpha particles at foil, Rutherford made the groundbreaking discovery that nearly the total mass of an atom is concentrated in a nucleus. In so doing, he gave birth to the nuclear model, a discovery that marked the inception of nuclear physics and ultimately paved the way to the invention of the atom bomb. Aptly dubbed the ther of the Nuclear Age,” Rutherford received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908.
With the advent of World War I, Rutherford turned his attention to antisubmarine research. By 1919 he had made another monumental discovery: how to artificially induce a nuclear reaction in a stable element. Nuclear reactions were Rutherford’s main focus for the rest of his scientific career.
Arrhenius’s scientific career encompassed three distinct specialties within the broad fields of physics and chemistry: physical chemistry, cosmic physics, and the chemistry of immunology. Each phase of his career corresponds with a different institutional setting. His years (1884–90) as a doctoral and postdoctoral student pioneering the new physical chemistry were spent at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences in Stockholm and at foreign universities his work in cosmic physics (1895–1900) was carried out at the Stockholms Högskola (now the University of Stockholm) and his studies in immunochemistry (1901–07) took place at the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen and the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry (established in 1905) in Stockholm.
Arrhenius’s main contribution to physical chemistry was his theory (1887) that electrolytes, certain substances that dissolve in water to yield a solution that conducts electricity, are separated, or dissociated, into electrically charged particles, or ions, even when there is no current flowing through the solution. This radically new way of approaching the study of electrolytes first met with opposition but gradually won adherents through the efforts of Arrhenius and Ostwald. The same simple but brilliant way of thinking that inspired the dissociation hypothesis led Arrhenius in 1889 to express the temperature dependence of the rate constants of chemical reactions through what is now known as the Arrhenius equation.
Cosmic physics was the term used by Arrhenius and his colleagues in the Stockholm Physics Society for their attempt to develop physical theories linking the phenomena of the seas, the atmosphere, and the land. Debates in the Society concerning the causes of the ice ages led Arrhenius to construct the first climate model of the influence of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), published in The Philosophical Magazine in 1896. The general rule that emerged from the model was that if the quantity of CO2 increases or decreases in geometric progression, temperature will increase or decrease nearly in arithmetic progression. Linking the calculations of his abstract model to natural processes, Arrhenius estimated the effect of the burning of fossil fuels as a source of atmospheric CO2. He predicted that a doubling of CO2 due to fossil fuel burning alone would take 500 years and lead to temperature increases of 3 to 4 °C (about 5 to 7 °F). This is probably what has earned Arrhenius his present reputation as the first to have provided a model for the effect of industrial activity on global warming.
Arrhenius’s work in immunochemistry, a term that gained currency through his book of that title published in 1907, was an attempt to study toxin-antitoxin reactions, principally diphtheria reactions, using the concepts and methods developed in physical chemistry. Together with Torvald Madsen, director of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, he carried out wide-ranging experimental studies of bacterial toxins as well as plant and animal poisons. The technical difficulties were too great, however, for Arrhenius to realize his aim of making immunology an exact science. Instead, it was his spirited attacks on the reigning theory in the field of immunity studies, the side-chain theory formulated by the German medical scientist Paul Ehrlich, that attracted attention. This, however, was of short duration, and Arrhenius gradually abandoned the field.
Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1908 - History
March is designated as Women's History Month, a month to highlight the many contributions of women to events in history. Women in the field of social work have been highly influential in their fearless activism as champions of change, and breaking social norms. Below are a few examples of influential social work pioneers who have shown passion and courage in their work and paved the way for a better tomorrow through their actions and commitment.
If you have any other additional influential women in social work history that you'd like us to add, email [email protected]
Jane Addams (1860–1935)
Jane Addams was a famous activist, social worker, author, and Nobel Peace Prize winner, and she is best known for founding the Hull House in Chicago, IL. Hull Housewas a progressive social settlement aimed at reducing poverty by providing social services and education to working class immigrants and laborers (Harvard University Library, n.d.).
Mary Church Terrell (1863–1954)
Mary Church Terrell was a charter member of the NAACP and an early advocate for civil rights and the suffrage movement. She was the co-founder and the first president of the National Association of Colored Women. Being one of the first Black women to earn a bachelor's and master's degree (1884 and 1888), she was also the first Black woman appointed to a school board and admitted to the Washingston D.C. Branch of the American Assoiciation of University Women. During her tenure as president of the NACW, from 1896 to 1901, Terrell became a well-known speaker and writer in the United States and overseas. After World War II, Terrell joined the burgeoning efforts to end legal segregation in Washington, D.C.
Grace Abbott (1878 - 1939)
Abbott served as a political activist and social reformer whose pioneering contributions were in the areas of child labor legislation, child welfare issues, protection of immigrants' rights, women's rights, and social security. In 1908, she was appointed as Director of the Chicago Immigrants' Protective League. From 1917 to 1919, Abbott worked as an administrator with the Children's Bureau where she undertook the task of ensuring child labor protection. After this position, Abbott returned to Chicago and was appointed by the governor to be the director of the newly-established Illinois Immigration Commission. By 1921 Abbott returned to the Children's Bureau as the director. At the Bureau, she undertook the task of enforcing and administering the controversial Sheppard Towner Act. Although considered to be "a concession to communism," the Act ensured the establishment of health care for children and prenatal women, and provided grants-in-aid to the states to develop health care programs.
Frances Perkins (1880 – 1965)
Serving as Secretary of Labor under Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frances Perkins was the first woman to be a Presidential Cabinet member. A lifetime champion of labor reform, Perkins helped pass a minimum wage law and was one of the drafters of the National Labor Relations Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Social Security Act. The Department of Labor’s headquarters in Washington, D.C. is now named after her. Following her tenure as Secretary of Labor in 1945, President Harry S. Truman asked her to serve on the U. S. Civil Service Commission, which she did until her retirement in 1952.
Jeanette Rankin (1880–1973)
Jeannette Rankin was the first woman to serve in the U.S. Congress. She helped pass the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote, and was a committed pacifist. In 1917 Rankin proposed the formation of a Committee on Woman Suffrage, of which she was appointed leader. Rankin made a return to politics in 1939. Running for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, she won the election in part based on her antiwar position. She was the only member of Congress to vote against entering World Wars I and II.
Grace Coyle (1892-1962)
Most famous for developing and popularizing group work as a social work practice, Coyle served as the president of the National Conference of Social Work in 1940, the president of the American Association of Social Workers in 1942 and the Council on Social Work Education from 1958 to 60. Some of her most influential writings include Social Process in Organized Groups (1930), Group Experiences and Democratic Values (1947) and Social Science in the Professional Education of Social Workers (1958), among many others.
Harriet Rinaldo (1906 - 1981)
Harrier Rinaldo worked as another pioneer of standardizing the social work profession. Her work with the Veteran's Administration Social Work Service produced personnel standards, rating procedures, and recruitment procedures that became a model for the federal government and other social work agencies. These standards were then adopted by the federal government. She was the first to identify "clinical social work" as a specialty standard within personnel specifications.
Frances Lomas Feldman (1912 - 2008)
Frances Feldman had a great focus in Social policy and administration during her professional career. In addition to years as a social worker, administrator in the public welfare and the family service fields, and professor at the School of Social Work at the University of Southern California in 1954, she has made several pioneering contributions to the profession. Feldman conducted a groundbreaking study in the 1970s that showed cancer patients faced discrimination in the workplace. Her research provided the first systematic evidence that employers and co-workers often imposed harsh, even illegal conditions on cancer survivors. According to the National Association of Social Workers, several states modified fair employment legislation because of the study. Numerous awards and honors have been bestowed on her. She has served on a number of state and national committees and commissions, including chairing the Governor's Advisory Committee on Mental Health.
Dorothy Height (1912–2010)
Dorothy Height was a civil rights and women's rights activist focused primarily on improving the circumstances of and opportunities for African-American women. Height worked closely with the Harlem YWCA where she was directing the integration of all of its centers in 1946. She also established its Center for Racial Justice in 1965. In 1957, Height became the president of the National Council of Negro Women. Through the center and the council, she became one of the leading figures of the Civil Rights Movement. Height worked with Martin Luther King Jr., A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, Whitney Young, John Lewis and James Farmer—sometimes called the "Big Six" of the Civil Rights Movement—on different campaigns and initiatives. Here tireless activism and other efforts continued even after retirement, as she organized the first Black Family Reunion, a celebration of traditions and values which is still held annually in 1986.
Good News in History, May 2
Happy 49th Birthday to Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson, the actor, producer, and former WWF wrestler regarded as one of the greatest pro wrestlers of all time. After following in his father Rocky Johnson’s footsteps to become the youngest WWF Champion, a 10-time world champion, and Triple Crown champion, he left the sport in 2004, to pursue an acting career.
His films, like the Fast & Furious series, San Andreas, and several Jumanji movies, have grossed over $10.5 billion worldwide, making him one of the world’s highest-grossing and highest-paid actors.
More recently, Johnson produced and starred in the successful HBO comedy-drama Ballers (2015–2019), wherein he played a retired NFL player who must navigate his new career as a financial manager of other NFL players. His new NBC comedy series Young Rock is an autobiographical look at his early years, and moral lessons learned traveling with his dad and other pro wrestlers like Andre the Giant, and his college football days.
In 2020, his first daughter Simone announced she was entering the WWE, making her the first fourth-generation pro wrestler. And, don’t be surprised if The Rock runs for president—he has said, “If that’s what the people want, I would do it.” WATCH a new candid interview about Young Rock, his childhood, and his family life… (1972)
– 2014 photo by Eva Rinaldi, CC license (and childhood photo)
Johnson’s 2000, autobiography The Rock Says, became a New York Times bestseller, and in recognition of his service to the Samoan people (he is a descendant of Samoan chiefs on his mother’s side) Johnson had the noble title of Seiuli bestowed upon him in 2004.
MORE Good News on this Day:
- The first science fiction film was released, A Trip To The Moon (1902)
- Arthur Miller won a Pulitzer Prize for Death of a Salesman (1949)
- The Beatles recorded the new George Harrison song Something in 36 takes, with Billy Preston on piano, for the Abbey Road LP (1969)
- Pink Floyd’s Another Brick in Wall (Part II) was banned in South Africa, showing its potential to influence people (1980)
- President Bill Clinton announced that accurate GPS access would no longer be restricted to the United States military (2000)
- 1,876 guitarists gathered in Wroclaw, Poland to play Jimi Hendrix’s ‘Hey Joe’ and set a new Guinness World Record by gathering in the city’s market square to play in the biggest guitar ensemble in recorded history (2007)
- The opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, under house arrest for years, was sworn in to Myanmar’s parliament (2012)
85 years ago today, the classical symphony for children, Peter and the Wolf premiered in Moscow. With both music and text by Sergei Prokofiev, this musical piece has for decades cultivated musical tastes in children, even those in the first years of school. Check out Peter and the Wolf on Amazon.com… (1936)
On this day 101 years ago, the first baseball game was played in the Negro National League. In Indianapolis, the home team, the ABCs, beat the Chicago American Giants in the new league that was initially composed of eight teams including the Chicago Giants, the Cuban Stars, Dayton Marcos, Detroit Stars, St. Louis Giants, and the great Kansas City Monarchs.
A former pitcher by the name of Andrew “Rube” Foster was named the league president and he controlled every aspect of the league. 11 years later, the famed pitcher Satchel Paige made his first appearance—notable for his longevity, playing until age 47, and attracting record crowds wherever he played. Josh Gibson, his catcher, was an athlete consider by baseball historians to be among the very best power hitters and catchers in the history of any league—including Major League Baseball. (1920)
Happy 46th Birthday to David Beckham, the star midfielder who became the first British soccer player to compete in 100 Champions League matches as well as the first to win league titles in four countries. He led Manchester United to six Premier League titles before moving to Real Madrid and the Los Angeles Galaxy, and, finally, retirement. (1975)
Happy 69th Birthday to Christine Baranski, the award-winning Broadway, TV, and film star known for her beloved roles in The Bird Cage, Mama Mia, and Dr. Seuss’ How the Grinch Stole Christmas. Her 2017 project was a sequel to the acclaimed TV courtroom drama, The Good Wife–a streaming series from CBS called, The Good Fight. (1952)
Lennon home by scott preece Dylan in 2008 by Xavier Badosa, CC licenses
And, 12 years ago today, Bob Dylan signed up to take a minibus tour to John Lennon’s childhood home in Liverpool, England. He attended the historic site with 14 other Beatles tourists to examine photos and documents at the home where Lennon grew up with his aunt Mimi and Uncle George. Making a visit during a stop on his European tour, the 67-year-old Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winning musician paid £16 for the public tour to the 1940s house in Woolton and remained unrecognized. A spokeswoman for the National Trust who operates the property said Dylan appeared to enjoy himself. “He could have booked a private tour but he was happy to go on the bus with everyone else.” (2009)
And 113 years ago today, Take me out to the Ball Game was registered for a U.S. copyright. Written by Jack Norworth and Albert Von Tilzer, who had never attended a baseball game prior to writing the song, the iconic chorus became the unofficial anthem of Major League Baseball across stadiums throughout North America. (1908)
Take me out to the ball game,
Take me out with the crowd
Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack,
I don’t care if I never get back.
Let me root, root, root for the home team,
If they don’t win, it’s a shame.
For it’s one, two, three strikes, you’re out,
At the old ball game.
Ernest Rutherford (1871 - 1937)
Lord Ernest Rutherford, c.1920 © Rutherford was a New Zealand-born physicist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his pioneering work in nuclear physics.
Ernest Rutherford was born on 30 August 1871 in Nelson, New Zealand, the son of a farmer. In 1894, he won a scholarship to Cambridge University and worked as a research student under Sir Joseph Thomson. In 1898, he became professor of physics at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. There, working with chemist Frederick Soddy, he investigated the newly-discovered phenomenon of radioactivity. Rutherford and Soddy proposed that radioactivity results from the disintegration of atoms.
In 1907, Rutherford returned to England to become professor of physics at Manchester University. In 1908, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1914, he was knighted, but the war interrupted his work. He helped to develop methods of dealing with the new menace of submarine warfare, as well as studying underwater acoustics.
In 1917, he returned to physics and a long series of experiments in which he discovered that the nuclei of certain light elements, such as nitrogen, could be 'disintegrated' by the impact of energetic alpha particles coming from some radioactive source, and that during this process fast protons were emitted. This was the first artificially induced nuclear reaction. Rutherford had virtually created a new discipline, that of nuclear physics.
In 1919, Rutherford became professor of experimental physics and director of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge, succeeding Thomson. Many of his students at the Cavendish Laboratory went on to become pioneering scientists. From 1925 to 1930 he was president of the Royal Society (to which he had been elected in 1903). In 1931 he was awarded a life peerage and died on 19 October 1937. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. In 1997, the 'rutherford', a unit of radioactivity, was named in his honour.