Edward Louis Spears was born in Paris on 7th August, 1886, the only son and elder child of Charles McCarthy Spears (1858–1912), commission agent, and his wife, Marguerite Melicent Hack (1864–1927). He was educated privately, and at a boarding-school in Neuwied, Germany (1901–2).
Spears joined the 8th Hussars in 1906 and served in India. On the eve of the First World War he was in Paris, working at the French war office and in August 1914 he was made liaison officer between General Charles Lanrezac of the French Fifth Army and Sir John French, the British commander-in-chief.
In 1915 he won the Military Cross and was wounded four times before becoming head of the British military mission to the French war office. He became friends with Winston Churchill. According to Spears' biographer, Max Egremont: "Churchill admired Spiers's courage and ability and supported him against French and British jealousy and suspicion: Sir Henry Wilson saw Spears as an intriguer and Clemenceau thought he knew too many French secrets."
While at the Somme Spears met and fell in love with Mary Borden, who was running at her own expense a mobile hospital on the Western Front. Borden was married with three children. After she obtained a divorce they were married on 31st March 1918 at the British embassy in Paris. According to her biographer, Nicola Beauman: "There was much gossip that Spears was only marrying her for her money (which was in part true) and that he had broken up a happy home (also partly true)."
Spears retired from the British Army in 1920 and decided to go into business. He told Winston Churchill that he had received an attractive offer from "a big financial group interested in opening up Poland, the Ukraine and Rumania and in securing trade privileges in those countries for Great Britain". Spears recruited Sidney Reilly in 1921 because of his wide experience of Eastern Europe. Spears later recalled that "Reilly accompanied me in the capacity of an able businessman which I certainly was not myself at the time." Spears warned Reilly about "the danger of dealing with shady people & mixing politics with business". A number of business ventures instigated by Reilly were not successful and on 2nd August, 1922, Spears sacked him.
Spears business venture was not a success and with the encouragement of Winston Churchill in November, 1922, stood as the National Liberal candidate for Loughborough. Elected to the House of Commons he served until defeated in October, 1924.
In 1928 Mary Borden published the novel Flamingo. According to one critic, the novel "is a love story which should live as long as any woman believes in love". She followed this with The Forbidden Zone, an account of her experiences during the First World War. A novel about a nurse on the Western Front, Sarah Gay, appeared in 1931.
Spears followed Winston Churchill into the Conservative Party and was elected for Carlisle in the 1931 General Election. The couple moved to St Michael's Grange, Warfield, Berkshire. They also had a home at 12 Strathearn Place, Bayswater. The marriage was not a success. According to Nicola Beauman "her life became increasingly blighted by her domineering husband's blatant devotion to his mistress" and he "was abusive and cruel". Max Egremont argues that his mistress was Nancy Maurice (1901–1975), daughter of Major-General Sir Frederick Barton Maurice, who worked as Spears's secretary.
Spears wrote two books during this period: Liaison, 1914 (1930), on his experiences during the First World War and Prelude to Victory (1939), on the Nivelle Offensive of 1917. Mary Borden continued working as a novelist and wrote the controversial The Techniques of Marriage (1933), Mary of Nazareth (1933), The King of the Jews (1935), and a collection of short-stories, Passport for a Girl (1939), an account of English attitudes to the rise of Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany.
In the House of Commons Spears joined Winston Churchill in his criticisms of Neville Chamberlain and his policy of appeasement. When Churchill became prime minister, he appointed Spears as his personal representative to the French government of Paul Reynaud. Spears fled to London with Charles De Gaulle on 17th June 1940.
Spears continued to work for Churchill. However, as Max Egremont pointed out: "Tall, thick-set, and dark haired, with a prominent nose, narrow eyes, and a clipped moustache, Spears had charm, wit, an imposing manner, courage, and piercing intelligence but his aggression hid an acute sense of himself as an outsider in British life. He was not suited to the diplomacy that followed the victory over the Vichy forces in Syria by the allies in June 1941 when, as head of the British Mission to the Free French, he had to implement the agreement between Free France and Britain that the Levant states of Syria and Lebanon, hitherto French mandated territories, should get their independence: a promise to the local populations who detested the colonial regime."
Spears was appointed the first British minister to Syria and Lebanon in January 1942. However, he was not a successful diplomat and after Anthony Eden, Duff Cooper and Harold Macmillan complained that Spears was offending the French unnecessarily, Churchill forced him to resign in December 1944.
Spears lost his seat in parliament in the 1945 General Election. Later that year he became chairman of Ashanti Goldfields and was appointed chairman of the Institute of Directors (1948 to 1966). He published his account of the fall of France, Assignment to Catastrophe, in 1954. This was followed by Two Men who Saved France (1966), a study of Henri-Philippe Pétain and Charles De Gaulle. He also published an autobiography, The Picnic Basket (1967).
Mary Borden died of heart failure on 2nd December 1968 at her home, St Michael's Grange, Warfield, Berkshire. The following year he married his long-term mistress, Nancy Maurice. According to Max Egremont: "Mary Borden had a life of her own as a writer whereas Spears was Nancy Maurice's whole existence and she worked ruthlessly to further his career, encouraging him in the pursuit of vendettas and strong dislikes. The second Lady Spears accompanied her husband regularly to the Asante goldmines in Ghana where he became increasingly out of touch with post-colonial Africa."
Edward Louis Spears died on 27th January 1974 of a haemorrhage and thrombosis at the Heatherwood Hospital at Ascot.
Boris Savinkov introduced Spears to the spy Sidney Reilly. Born Rosenblum of Jewish ancestry in Odessa, Reilly had worked as a businessman in St Petersburg. After the revolution, he showed courage on behalf of his British paymasters even if some of his ideas were impractical; one of these was to debag Lenin and Trotsky and parade the humiliated pair through the streets. Reilly worshipped Napoleon and was both intensely secretive and wildly boastful. He had been with Denikin's forces in south Russia and, when Spears first met him, supported Savinkov, Spears became cautious about believing a man who claimed to have been attached to the German staff during the war...
Sidney Reilly was a difficult associate. Spears now had an office in London which the spy used when he was there; in October the telephone was cut off because Reilly had not paid the bill, there were exorbitant claims for expenses and the spy was rude when these were challenged. "I won't stand cheek," Spears said. He warned Reilly of "the danger of dealing with shady people & mixing politics with business". Reilly had damaged his position in Prague by identifying himself with Savinkov, "who is now out of favour there". The disadvantage of the spy, he decided, was the company he kept: "he is not careful enough."
When the fourth is the first.
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Pop quiz, hotshot. The last King of England who went by the name of Edward was Edward VIII (1936). So, how many King Edwards has England had?
There were no fewer than three King Edwards before the Norman Conquest of 1066 who we, vexingly, do not bother to number. Exactly who is the first king of England is harder to pin down than one might think – but if you read any list of English monarchs chronologically, you will eventually arrive at a king who is referred to as Edward I, but who is at least the third, and more probably the fourth, king Edward you come to.
Nor are these early Teddy boys minor monarchs. Alfred the Great's son, Edward the Elder (899-924), was a key figure in England's early history, leading the fight back against the Viking invaders and helping to consolidate it into a single kingdom. He didn't quite finish the job, but he styled himself "King of the Anglo Saxons" and did rule for a quarter of a century. And yet, we don't number him.
Edward the Confessor (1042-1066) also ruled for nearly 25 years, and was for some time England's patron saint. What's more, unlike his great, great grandfather you've almost certainly heard of him because of the way he mucked up his own succession, cleverly snuffing it in such a way that he set the scene for the Norman Conquest. This was not ideal from a dynastic point of view, but it nonetheless strengthens his claim to being a proper King of England who we should probably count properly. And yet we don't number him either.
To be fair, the third forgotten Edward has the unpromising name of Edward the Martyr (975-978), which tells you everything you need to know about what his main achievement as king was. But we still number Edward V, who was never crowned, was "king" for a matter of weeks, and is also famous mostly for being slaughtered by a close relative. Why does the latter get a number while the former doesn't? Where's the justice, eh?
England didn't start consistently numbering its kings until some time in the Tudor era: for a long time, monarchs were distinguished by labels rather than numbers. William the Conqueror (or, less flatteringly, William the Bastard) was followed by his son William Rufus. Other early monarchs revelled in such names as Edgar the Peaceable, Edmund Ironside and, most famously, Athelred the Unready.
At some point, though, people seem to have started switching to numbers. The fact three Edwards ruled in turn between 1272 and 1377 meant that, even in some chronicles published in his own lifetime, the last of these was referred to as Edward III. (A matter, one assumes, of convenience.) These numbers stuck, when a standard numbering began to appear some time in the 16th century - though whether this was because they were already in use, or because the Tudor chroniclers consciously decided to start counting at 1066, is not exactly clear.
To make matters worse, at least if you're a slightly anal history nerd like me, some later writers decided to impose numbering on the other kings whose names appear more than once before the Conquest. There's an Edmund I (939-946) and an Edmund II (seven months in 1016) a Harold I (1035-1040) and a Harold II (10 months in 1066 second time was not, it seems, lucky). The result of this is that we have a standardised numbering scheme on either side of the conquest, except for the one minor point that there have been 11 kings of England called Edward and we only number eight of them.
England is not the only kingdom whose numbering has gone skew wiff, of course. In France, Louis XVI (1774-1792) was followed, after a fairly eventful gap, by Louis XVIII (1814-1824). The number XVII was reserved, rather pathetically, for the former King Louis's young son, who nominally ruled from a revolutionary prison cell for two and a half years before dying of scrofula.
With similar logic, there's an emperor Napoleon I (1804-1815), and a Napoleon III (1852-1870), but Napoleon II never got to rule anything, despite the fact his father spent three days pretending that he'd abdicated to let his son have a go (and not, as in reality, because of a massive coalition army that had twice now kicked the crap out of him).
Meanwhile, Scotland is today ruled by Elizabeth II (1952-), despite the fact she's the only Queen Elizabeth it's ever actually had. Scotland never had a Queen Elizabeth I, a monarch whose main achievement in Scotland was to imprison and execute its actual queen, in the form of her cousin Mary. (Nice girl.)
This looks at first like yet more evidence of English imperialism at work, but there is at least some logic in it. When Elizabeth came to the throne, Winston Churchill, then the Prime Minister, told the Commons that, in the event of a clash of numbers, we'd use the higher one, to prevent future historians from getting confused. This makes a certain sense I suppose, but it does mean that, in the event of a James somewhere down the line, England will jump from James II to James VIII, and that'll be incredibly irritating too.
While we're at it, the United Kingdom has had not one but two kings called Albert. Only we don't call them that, we call them Edward VII and George VI. Why do we do this strange thing? Because to do otherwise might upset the ghost of Queen Victoria. No, that's honestly the reason.
Anyway, to sum up, I think it's clear that this is the real cost of keeping the monarchy.
Don't even get me started on the Papacy.
This article is part of the New Statesman's Monarchy Week. Find more here.
The King Edward Hotel was designed by Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb and Toronto architect E.J. Lennox for developer George Gooderham's Toronto Hotel Company, and was granted its name by namesake King Edward VII.  The structure opened in 1903 with 400 rooms and 300 baths, and it claimed to be entirely fireproof. 
In 1922, an 18-storey tower with 530 additional rooms was added to the east of the original eight-storey structure. On the two top floors of the tower is the Crystal Ballroom, that until the late 1950s was the most fashionable in the city. The room was closed in the late 1950s due to stricter fire codes and was not restored during the 1979-81 renovation.  When the Omni Hotel chain invested in the hotel in 2013, restoring the ballroom was one of its announced goals.  The ballroom re-opened in April 2017 after a closure of 38 years. 
Throughout the years, the hotel has passed through the hands of a number of owners. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company became owners in 1933 when it foreclosed on the mortgage. Between 1941 and 1950, the hotel passed between C. A. Ripley and Vernon Cardy. Cardy's Hotel chain also owned the Mount Royal Hotel in Montreal, the Royal Connaught Hotel in Hamilton, Ontario, the General Brock Hotel in Niagara Falls, the Prince Edward Hotel in Windsor, Ontario and the Alpine Inn in Sainte-Adèle, Quebec. In 1950, Sheraton purchased Cardy's hotels and assumed management of the property, renaming it The King Edward Sheraton. 
The hotel dropped the Sheraton name in 1975, after the opening of the brand new Four Seasons Sheraton Hotel nearby, becoming the King Edward Hotel, but it remained part of Sheraton for another three years, until 1978. After a number of years of decline, Trans Nation, Inc. bought the hotel in 1979 for $6.3 million and closed it on September 2, 1979, for a $30 million restoration designed by Stanford Downey Architects Inc. The property reopened May 7, 1981, as part of Trusthouse Forte Hotels, which bought the hotel outright on December 23 of that year.  When Forte acquired Le Méridien hotels from Air France in 1994, the King Edward was rechristened Le Royal Méridien King Edward. The Le Méridien chain was involved in several other acquisitions and mergers between 1996 and 2003 when the brand came under the ownership of Lehman Brothers Holdings.
For the hotel's 100th anniversary, the Ontario Heritage Trust unveiled a commemorative plaque on May 8, 2003. 
Starwood purchased the brand from Lehman in 2005 and the hotel was renamed, dropping Royal, to become simply Le Méridien King Edward.  In 2009, a consortium purchased the structure but retained Le Méridien to manage it. The new owners announced a major restoration that included creating 140 condominiums on the third through fifth floors which had been unused for a number of years. In 2012, Skyline Hotels & Resorts, one of the owners, assumed management and marketing from Le Méridien and the hotel became The King Edward Hotel. 
Omni Hotels assumed management on August 1, 2013, when the hotel was renamed The Omni King Edward Hotel.  After managing the hotel for two years, Omni Hotels bought it outright on November 24, 2015. 
Notable dignitaries and luminaries housed in the hotel have included Mark Twain, Rudolph Valentino, Louis Armstrong, Elvis Presley, Margaret Thatcher, Britney Spears, and Ernest Hemingway who had lived in the hotel for a period.  The Beatles stayed at the hotel's royal suite during their first visit to Toronto, in 1964, and caused the hotel's biggest commotion to date, when 3,000 fans packed the streets and flooded the lobby. In 1969, John Lennon and Yoko Ono stayed in the same royal suite a day before their bed-in for peace began. In February 1964, "moralists picketed" when Liz Taylor and Richard Burton stayed in a suite together they were not married to one another at the time, causing a scandal. 
The King Edward has not only housed film stars but also film sets, from the mellow, Leonard Cohen’s 1983 musical I am a Hotel, to the melodramatic, Jamie Foxx’s film Bait, which, during a stunt mishap, caused an explosion that shook the building and shattered windows. [ citation needed ]
King Edward VII’s bizarre sex chair has confused everyone
Scandalous details of a British king’s sex life have been featured in a new doco — revealing the weird contraption a royal relied on to get laid.
It’s not hard to see that the royals are rich. But how much money do royals earn and where does it come from.
It’s not hard to see that the royals are rich. But how much money do royals earn and where does it come from?
Edward VII (aka “dirty Bertie”) apparently had his very own royal sex chair. Picture: The Smithsonian Channel Source:Supplied
When you write a lot about the royal family, there are some words you will find yourself typing pretty frequently. Fascinator. Gin. Dorgi. Primogeniture. However “sex” rarely if ever comes into it.
The last time we had a cracking regal rogering scandal was 25 years ago when the Prince and Princess of Wales were sneaking their respective side pieces into the palace whenever they took a break from their tat-for-tat campaign of media subterfuge.
But not today! Today, we are talking about a royal who just loved to get it on — baw chika wah wah. Not only that, such was his, err, appetite that a special piece of furniture was commissioned to help him get his freak on.
King Edward VII’s love seat has been featured in a doco — leaving people confused. Picture: Paul Popper/Popperfoto/Getty Images Source:Getty Images
But let’s start at the beginning shall we. Prince Edward was Queen Victoria’s eldest son and the Prince of Wales. He later became King Edward VII and is the current Queen’s great grandfather. Old Bertie (as he was known) loved two things in life: Eating and the ladies.
However, given it was the Victorian age, the Brits were (at least publicly) quite prudish so to satiate his lady lust, he would pop across the channel to Paris where he was a very, very regular patron of the most expensive and luxurious brothel, La Chabanais.
(His nicknames were Dirty Bertie and Edward the Caresser. His favourite mistress in London was Alice Keppel — who just happens to be Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall’s great great grandmother.)
Over time his penchant for pigeon pies, vast puddings and claret by the litre (I’m guessing) meant that in his later years he was something of a more rotund gentleman which made the fine act of lovemaking a wee bit difficult.
Enter the royal sex chair, or the “siege d𠆚mour” (love seat).
Edward VII’s, known as King Bertie's bizarre sex chair was shown in a new documentary called the Private Lives of Monarchs. Picture: The Smithsonian Channel Source:Supplied
The gilt-edged piece of bespoke furniture was designed to allow the future King (he didn’t ascend to the throne until he was 60-years-old) to more comfortably and easily enjoy his French excursions.
So, is it any wonder the internet is currently obsessed with it? See, not only is it very scandalous and titillating detail about an otherwise staid bunch of corgi-lovers, but it is deeply mystifying. But how the hell did this thing work?
Tracy Borman is a curator at Britain’s Historic Palaces and just happens to be the host of a new documentary called the Private Lives of Monarchs. To film the show, they were able to borrow a “very faithful replica” of said device, Borman told Jezebel.
However, despite the best efforts of the crew, they could not quite work out how the dang thing would have actually worked.
The host stands where Bertie would have. Picture: The Smithsonian Channel Source:Supplied
“What really perturbed me about the chair is that there was room on it for two ladies, one on top and one underneath — but exactly how he got to the one underneath we never managed to work out between the whole crew,” she said.
“So what she was doing down there, whether it was like a queuing system, she was just lying down there to wait, I don’t know.”
And so the internet has thrown up a raft of theories that are absolutely and utterly not safe for publication. Dr Kate Lister, who blogs at Whores of Yore, has some very handy illustrations as do some Twitter users ideas if you are feeling curious and are in private.
But people are baffled by the apparent space beneath for a third person, seemingly another woman. Picture: The Smithsonian Channel Source:Supplied
Other online commenters have been quick to point out that the delicate and pale fabric used would have, um, been less than suitable to stand up to some of the practical vicissitudes of lovemaking.
Either way, the personal collection of one of Queen Elizabeth’s relatives included a very fancy gold contraption so he could have more comfortable threesomes. And that is a sentence I never thought I would write.
Daniela Elser is a royal expert and freelance writer with 20 years’ experience who has written for some of Australia’s best print and digital media brands | Continue the conversation @DanielaElser
Theater and Television
After obtaining a bachelor&aposs degree, Edward trained as a University Cadet in the Royal Marines. However, three months into his cadet training, he decided he was better suited to work in theatrical production. For close to a decade, Edward maintained a successful career in both theatre and television production. He worked for two different theatrical production companies, including Andrew Lloyd Webber&aposs Really Useful Theatre Company.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Photo: Gary Gershoff/WireImage
In 1993, under the name Edward Windsor, Edward formed his own independent television production company, Ardent Productions. Ardent Productions focused primarily on documentaries, many of which focused on life as a member of the British Royal Family. As a result, critics accused Edward of using his royal connections to garner his own personal success. In 2002, he stepped down from his role as managing director of Ardent Productions so he could concentrate his attention on his royal duties.
Birth of Rock &aposn&apos Roll
In the mid-1950s, Berry began taking road trips to Chicago, the Midwest capital of Black music, in search of a record contract. Early in 1955, he met the legendary blues musician Muddy Waters, who suggested that Berry go meet with Chess Records. A few weeks later, Berry wrote and recorded a song called "Maybellene" and took it to the executives at Chess. They immediately offered him a contract within months, "Maybellene" had reached No. 1 on the R&B charts and No. 5 on the pop charts. With its unique blend of a rhythm and blues beat, country guitar licks and the flavor of Chicago blues and narrative storytelling, many music historians consider "Maybellene" the first true rock &aposn&apos roll song.
Berry quickly followed with a slew of other unique singles that continued to carve out the new genre of rock &aposn&apos roll: "Roll Over, Beethoven," "Too Much Monkey Business" and "Brown-Eyed Handsome Man," among others. Berry managed to achieve crossover appeal with white youths without alienating his Black fans by mixing blues and R&B sounds with storytelling that spoke to the universal themes of youth. In the late 1950s, songs such as "Johnny B. Goode," "Sweet Little Sixteen" and "Carol" all managed to crack the Top 10 of the pop charts by achieving equal popularity with youths on both sides of the racial divide. "I made records for people who would buy them," Berry said. "No color, no ethnic, no political—I don&apost want that, never did.&apos&apos
Berry&aposs soaring music career was derailed again in 1961 when he was convicted under the Mann Act of illegally transporting a woman across state lines for "immoral purposes." Three years earlier, in 1958, Berry had opened Club Bandstand in the predominantly white business district of downtown St. Louis. The next year, while traveling in Mexico, he had met a 14-year-old waitress𠅊nd sometimes prostitute𠅊nd brought her back to St. Louis to work at his club. However, he fired her only weeks later, and when she was then arrested for prostitution, charges were pressed against Berry that ended with him spending yet another 20 months in jail.
When Berry was released from prison in 1963, he picked up right where he left off, writing and recording popular and innovative songs. His 1960s hits include "Nadine," "You Can Never Tell," "Promised Land" and "Dear Dad." Nevertheless, Berry was never the same man after his second stint in prison. Carl Perkins, his friend and partner on a 1964 British concert tour, observed, "Never saw a man so changed. He had been an easygoing guy before, the kinda guy who&aposd jam in dressing rooms, sit and swap licks and jokes. In England he was cold, real distant and bitter. It wasn&apost just jail, it was those years of one-nighters, grinding it out like that can kill a man, but I figure it was mostly jail."
Berry released one of his last albums of original music, Rock It, to fairly positive reviews in 1979. While Berry continued to perform into the 1990s, he would never recapture the magnetic energy and originality that had first catapulted him to fame during the &apos50s and &apos60s.
Photo: Horstmann/ullstein bild via Getty Images
Tulsa Objects in the NMAAHC Collection
Welcome to the National Museum of African American History and Culture’s Tulsa collection online.
In late May 1921, the thriving African American community of Greenwood in Tulsa, Oklahoma, suffered the deadliest racial massacre in U.S. history. It was one in a series of actions of racist violence that convulsed the United States in towns and cities beginning with the period of Reconstruction in the late 19 th century. In Tulsa, as in all of these massacres, white mobs destroyed Black communities, property, and lives. A century after the riot, the people of Tulsa and the nation continue to struggle to reckon with the massacre’s multiple legacies.
The National Museum of African American History and Culture collects materials to help fill the silences in our nation’s memory around events such as the Tulsa Race Massacre and its reverberations, preserving and sharing wider stories of Black communities in Oklahoma, and centering the testimonies of survivors and their descendants.
This portal is a platform for exploring NMAAHC’s objects related to Tulsa, which give voice to stories of violence and destruction often only through fragments – small objects, images, and testimonies – that can illuminate the fuller lives of people who suffered tragic loss, rebuilt their lives and community, and strove for resolution and repair. Through the lens of Tulsa, these collections illustrate the history and continuing impact of racial violence in the United States as well as the potential and power of reckoning, reconciliation, and repair. Confronting this past through its material provides us opportunities to understand our present and better shape our future.
"Riot pennies" charred during the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre. Owned by George Monroe.
SEARCHING ONLINE RECORDS
Use this guide to search the NMAAHC collection for objects relating to Tulsa and the Tulsa Race Massacre.
African Americans in Oklahoma and the History of Greenwood
The Greenwood District of Tulsa was one of more than 50 all-Black settlements formed throughout Oklahoma between 1865 and 1920. Black communities in what would become Oklahoma began in the mid-19th century with the forcible removal of over 100,000 Native Americans along with the African Americans they enslaved and free Black relatives who traveled with them along the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory. After Emancipation, these African Americans settled together for mutual security. Economic opportunities with the Land Run of 1889 brought more African American settlers and Black communities like Greenwood began to grow. Explore Greenwood before 1921 or learn about other Black Oklahoman communities in the NMAAHC collection, such as Muskogee, and the all-Black settlements Rentiesville, Boley, Langston, and Tatums.
Tulsa Race Massacre
Examine artifacts and images related to the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921, which destroyed the thriving community of Greenwood, leaving several hundred dead and thousands homeless. Photo postcards of the Tulsa Race Massacre were widely distributed following the massacre in 1921. Like postcards depicting lynchings, these souvenir cards were powerful declarations of white racial power and control. Decades later, the cards served as evidence for community members working to recover the forgotten history of the massacre and secure justice for its victims and their descendants.
The Tulsa Race Massacre was not an isolated incident. Episodes of racialized violence occurred with systematic routineness across the United States after Reconstruction. Learn more about these events through objects in the collection related to the 1908 Springfield Race Riot, the 1917 East Saint Louis Race Riot, and the 1923 Rosewood Massacre. Beyond these mass incidents, this time period saw an overall system of terror and extra-legal acts of violence, primarily through lynching.
Please note some of the images are graphic and disturbing, but we include them as important evidence in the historical record.
America’s Black Wall Street
Dubbed “Black Wall Street,” Greenwood was one of the most prominent and prosperous African American communities in the United States with churches, schools and community organizations as well as around 200 Black businesses by 1921. Virtually all of Greenwood was destroyed in the massacre. Black Tulsans worked hard to successfully rebuild, with B.C. Franklin leading the fight against city zoning laws designed to limit reconstruction following the devastation. Greenwood suffered another setback with the city’s decision to bisect Greenwood Avenue with an interstate bypass that dismantled the concentrated community in the 1970s. Explore businesses in Greenwood before and after 1921.
The Legacy of the Massacre
At the heart of this history are stories of strength, spirit, and perseverance as life continued in Tulsa following the 1921 massacre. Explore collections relating to life in Tulsa in the mid-to-late 20th century. In particular, churches in Greenwood served as sites of refuge and resilience amidst the trauma, silence, and racism faced by the community.
As life continued, so did the fight for justice. In 2001, after an in-depth investigation, the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 released a report calling for reparations to be made to the massacre survivors, their descendants, and the larger Greenwood community. Explore objects relating to the Tulsa Reparations Coalition and the legal fight for reparations and economic justice. An interracial movement in the city for education, justice, truth, and reconciliation persists a century after the massacre.
Power of Place: Riot and Resilience in Tulsa, Oklahoma
In the Power of Place exhibition, the museum tells the story of the Tulsa Race Massacre and its aftermath is told through objects, images, and first-hand accounts of survivors.
He and other pirates plagued shipping lanes off North America and throughout the Caribbean in the early-eighteenth century: an era commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Piracy."
From Anonymity, a Life of War and Roguery
Despite his legendary reputation, little is known about the early life of Blackbeard. Even his true name is uncertain, though it is usually given as some variation of Edward Thatch or Teach.
He is reported to have served as a privateer during Queen Anne's War (1701 - 1714), and turned to piracy sometime after the war's conclusion.
In Pursuit of a Famous Pirate
The earliest primary source document that mentions Blackbeard by name dates to the summer of 1717. Other records indicate that by the fall of 1717 Blackbeard was operating off Delaware and Chesapeake bays in conjunction with two other pirate captains, Benjamin Hornigold and Stede Bonnet.
Blackbeard served an apprenticeship under Hornigold before becoming a pirate captain in his own right.
Learn More About Stede Bonnet
A Queen in the Caribbean
Late in the fall of 1717, the pirates made their way to the eastern Caribbean. It was here, off the island of Martinique, that Blackbeard and his fellow pirates captured the French slaveship La Concorde -- a vessel he would keep as his flagship and rename Queen Anne's Revenge.
After crossing the Atlantic during its third journey, and only 100 miles from Martinique, the French ship encountered Blackbeard and his company. According to a primary account, the pirates were aboard two sloops, one with 120 men and twelve cannon, and the other with thirty men and eight cannon.
With the French crew already reduced by sixteen fatalities and another thirty-six seriously ill from scurvy and dysentery, the French were powerless to resist. After the pirates fired two volleys at La Concorde, Captain Dosset surrendered the ship.
From La Concorde to Mauvaise Rencontre
The pirates took La Concorde to the island of Bequia in the Grenadines where the French crew and the enslaved Africans were put ashore. While the pirates searched La Concorde, the French cabin boy, Louis Arot, informed them of the gold dust that was aboard. The pirates searched the French officers and crew and seized the gold.
The cabin boy and three of his fellow French crewmen voluntarily joined the pirates, and ten others were taken by force including a pilot, three surgeons, two carpenters, two sailors, and the cook. Blackbeard and his crew decided to keep La Concorde and left the French the smaller of the two pirate sloops.
The French gave their new and much smaller vessel the appropriate name Mauvaise Rencontre (Bad Encounter) and, in two trips, succeeded in transporting the remaining Africans from Bequia to Martinique.
Sailing, Slaving, and Piracy
Learn about La Concorde's journeys prior to its capture by Blackbeard.
View Artifacts: Tools and Instruments
Examine some of the tools and instruments Blackbeard and his crew used to navigate and survive at sea.
An Increasingly Dangerous Pirate Force, 1717-1718
Leaving Bequia in late November, Blackbeard cruised the Caribbean in his new ship, now renamed Queen Anne's Revenge, taking prizes and adding to his fleet. From the Grenadines, Blackbeard sailed north along the Lesser Antilles plundering ships near St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Nevis, and Antigua, and by early December he had arrived off the eastern end of Puerto Rico.
From there, a former captive reported that the pirates were headed to Samana Bay in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic).
By April 1718, the pirates were off the Turneffe Islands in the Bay of Honduras. It was there that Blackbeard captured the sloop Adventure, forcing the sloop's captain, David Herriot, to join him. Sailing east once again, the pirates passed near the Cayman Islands and captured a Spanish sloop off Cuba that they also added to their flotilla.
Blackbeard Terrorizes Charleston, 1718
Turning north, they sailed through the Bahamas and proceeded up the North American coast. In May 1718, the pirates arrived off Charleston, South Carolina, with Queen Anne's Revenge and three smaller sloops.
In perhaps the most brazen act of his piratical career, Blackbeard blockaded the port of Charleston for nearly a week. The pirates seized several ships attempting to enter or leave the port and detained the crew and passengers of one ship, the Crowley, as prisoners.
As ransom for the hostages, Blackbeard demanded a chest of medicine. Once delivered, the captives were released, and the pirates continued their journey up the coast.
Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates, p. 73
Mishaps Off the North Carolina Coast
Soon after leaving Charleston, Blackbeard's fleet tried to enter Old Topsail Inlet in North Carolina, now known as Beaufort Inlet. During that attempt, Queen Anne's Revenge and the sloop Adventure grounded on a sandbar and were abandoned. Research has uncovered two eyewitness accounts that shed light on where the two pirate vessels were lost.
According to a deposition given by David Herriot, the former captain of Adventure, "the said Thatch's ship Queen Anne's Revenge run a-ground off of the Bar of Topsail-Inlet." Herriot further states that Adventure "run a-ground likewise about Gun-shot from the said Thatch".
Captain Ellis Brand of HMS Lyme provided additional insight as to where the two ships were lost in a letter (July 12, 1718) to the Lords of Admiralty. In that letter Brand stated that: "On the 10th of June or thereabouts a large pyrate Ship of forty Guns with three Sloops in her company came upon the coast of North carolina ware they endeavour'd To goe in to a harbour, call'd Topsail Inlet, the Ship Stuck upon the barr att the entrance of the harbour and is lost as is one of the sloops."
See Artifacts in Beaufort
Visit the North Carolina Maritime Museum in Beaufort's popular exhibit featuring a huge selection of artifacts from Queen Anne's Revenge.
Was the Loss of QAR Blackbeard's Gambit?
In his deposition, Herriot claims that Blackbeard intentionally grounded Queen Anne's Revenge and Adventure in order to break up the company, which by this time had grown to over 300 pirates. Intentional or not, that is what happened as Blackbeard marooned some pirates and left Beaufort with a hand picked crew and most of the valuable plunder.
Blackbeard's piratical career ended six months later at Ocracoke Inlet on the North Carolina coast. There he encountered an armed contingent sent by Virginia Governor Alexander Spotswood and led by Royal Navy Lieutenant Robert Maynard.
In a desperate battle aboard Maynard's sloop, Blackbeard and a number of his fellow pirates were killed. Maynard returned to Virginia with the surviving pirates and the grim trophy of Blackbeard's severed head hanging from the sloop's bowsprit.
In 2015, historian Baylus Brooks examined official government records in Jamaica and Church of England records to gain new insight into the possible identity of Blackbeard. Brooks assembled the immediate lineage of an Edward Thache, a respected resident of Spanish Town, Jamaica.
Because of this work, it may be possible to place Blackbeard's actions in an appropriate historical context. Brooks's intriguing genealogical research and the Thache family tree contained in his book, Blackbeard Reconsidered: Mist's Piracy, Thache's Genealogy, offer a possibility for Blackbeard's mysterious background. Is the Edward Thache Brooks unearthed in Jamaica the same Edward Thache who assumed the alias of Blackbeard and terrorized the Caribbean? You decide!
-Lusardi, Richard and Mark Wilde-Ramsing. 2001. "In Search of Blackbeard: Historical and Archaeological Research at Shipwreck Site 003BUI," Southeastern Geology 40(1): 1-9.
Britney Spears' Medications Triggered Her Mental Health Crisis
Britney Spears is at the tail end of her 30-day stay at a mental health facility . and we've learned more about how she landed there in the first place.
As we reported, Britney has had a rough time dealing with her dad's recent illness. Jamie and Britney are super close -- he's been her conservator for nearly a dozen years -- and his health battles have taken a big toll on her.
We're told at the same time, Britney's doctors were adjusting her meds which had lost their efficacy. Britney's mental health issues were stabilized with a cocktail of medicines that were designed specifically her. Over time, those meds were increasingly ineffective and doctors needed to create a new cocktail.
We're told there were problems. First, they had to wean Britney off the existing meds. This cannot be done quickly and there's a risk of suicide if it's not done right -- it's that serious.
As doctors weaned her off the meds, they created a new cocktail, but it's all trial and error, and there were errors that made Britney unstable and ultimately unwilling to cooperate with doctors.
She was admitted to the mental health facility and we're told doctors think they've now found the right mixture of drugs.
Britney got a day pass Sunday to spend time with her boyfriend, Sam Asghari, in Bev Hills. She went back to the facility the same day.
One other thing . there have been reports the conservatorship has forced meds on Britney against her will. Not true. The conservatorship Britney is under does not permit the conservator to force drugs on the person for whom the conservatorship was created.
On that note, there have also been reports Jamie Spears forced Britney into the mental health facility. The type of conservatorship Britney has -- through the probate court -- does not allow a conservator to force someone into a mental health facility.
What's more, we're told Jamie is adamant -- he did not want his daughter to go to the facility because he thought it would leak out to the media and he felt there were better ways of solving her problems. We're told Britney is the one who said she wanted to go.
A Guide to Royal Family Titles, from the Queen's Specific Styling to Prince Harry's Scottish Moniker
Depending on where they are in the U.K., members of the British royal family go by different titles. Here's the full list.
The royals, quite literally, go by many names. They accumulate honors and knighthoods on the regular, but it really gets confusing when they travel around the U.K. and seem to assume a new title. (Understandably, it's easy to be thrown after hearing Prince William referred to as Baron Carrickfergus.)
There is also the question of surnames. While the royal family generally doesn't use last names, when required on official documents and the like, the Queen's children can use the last name "Mountbatten-Windsor," a hybrid of the royal House of Windsor and the name Philip assumed when he became a naturalized British citizen. The Queen's grandchildren will sometimes use part of a parent's title hence Prince William and Prince Harry going by "William Wales" and "Harry Wales" from their father's title, the Prince of Wales, while serving in the military.
It's made all the more confusing by the fact that most royal family members "have several titles, most of which are rarely used in public life," explains Wendy Bosberry-Scott, a spokesperson for Debrett's, the company behind the comprehensive Peerage & Baronetage. They do, however, each have a relatively simple way to style their respective titles&mdashand that's what's described below. Here, an exhaustive guide to all of the royal family members' titles, and which places they use them.