Plan of the The BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (Russia).
Why Didn’t Russia’s Hypersonic Weapons Make a Cameo at the Victory Day Parade?
Every year, Russia conducts a Victory Parade on Moscow’s Red Square to mark the occasion, an event likely known for showcasing Russian military prowess.
Did Russia stop the Nazi invasion in World War II because of cold weather? An inability to reinforce supplies from the Western front? Or could it have actually been the tenacity, temperament and fighting spirit of Russian forces absorbing massive casualties to stop the German advance? Perhaps it was a combination of all of these factors, and many others, mingled into a complex set of interwoven variables sufficient to inspire historians for generations?
Whatever the ultimate reason, or reasons, the Nazis were stopped after making extended successful advances. It would surprise no one to learn that the anniversary of this victory is a cherished and celebrated moment in Russia, given that it enabled the continued existence, and ultimate ascent, of the country decades ago.
Every year, Russia conducts a Victory Parade on Moscow’s Red Square to mark the occasion, an event likely known for showcasing Russian military prowess. Of course, the parade included historic T-34 tanks at the front to honor their past performance, yet what may be most striking about the parade was the range of newer, cutting-edge platforms the Russians put on display.
Overall, the parade involved more than twelve thousand troops, 190 items of military and special hardware and seventy-six aircraft and helicopters, according to Russia’s TASS news agency.
While the armored vehicles of course incorporated classics such as the BMP-2 and BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle and modern Kurganets-25 combat vehicle, Su-35 jets and, of course, S-400 air defenses, the most significant elements of the parade may have been Russia’s newer platforms such as its Su-57, T-14 Armata tank. Interestingly, Russian T-72s, T-80s and T-90s were all featured alongside the Armata as what could be seen as testaments to the country’s sizeable and upgraded tank fleet.
The mechanized parade also included Iskander-M tactical missiles, Tornado-S multiple launch rocket systems, Msta-S self-propelled howitzers and various artillery systems, before concluding with Yars ICBM launchers.
The land parade was followed by an aerial formation of combat aircraft, Su-35 and Su-57 fighter jets, Tu-160 bombers and several helicopters, including Mi-26 military transport helicopters, Mi-8s and Mi-35 attack aircraft.
While Russia still has a fair amount of Cold War hardware, particularly armored vehicles, which has likely been upgraded to a great extent, several of its modern platforms may remain somewhat enigmatic and concerning to Pentagon leaders. Just how formidable is the Armata? Does that matter much if there are not very many of them? Does the Su-57 fighter aircraft rival U.S. fifth-generation jets in any capacity? Perhaps that’s not entirely clear. One interesting element of the parade may lie in what was not included, or at least not mentioned in the TASS report. Where were the hypersonic weapons so enthusiastically touted by Vladimir Putin?
Kris Osborn is the defense editor for the National Interest. Osborn previously served at the Pentagon as a Highly Qualified Expert with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army—Acquisition, Logistics & Technology. Osborn has also worked as an anchor and on-air military specialist at national TV networks. He has appeared as a guest military expert on Fox News, MSNBC, The Military Channel, and The History Channel. He also has a master’s degree in Comparative Literature from Columbia University.
BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (Infographics)
The BMP-3 infantry fighting is a Soviet amphibious infantry fighting vehicle. It entered production and was adopted to service with the Soviet Army in the late 1980s.
The BMP-3 has been exported to Azerbaijan, Kuwait, South Korea, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates and other countries. The vehicle is still being produced.
Click to see the full-size image
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Forgot to mention the BMP-3M and later variants:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rm8M33dQ20A — Episode aired in the mid-2000s before higher resolutions (720p, 1080, etc) came available. The black & white footage was shot in the mid-1980s during state testing for the vehicle before it first entered service with Soviet ground forces in 1987.
[The base model of the BMP-3 can be identified by a single hatch on the gunner
sight and a big infrared spotlight mounted to the left hand side of the
coaxial 30mm autocannon. The lack of a laser range finder on top of the guns
indicates that this vehicle uses the SOZh day/night sight with
integrated laser range finder. This is the most common variant of BMP-3
in service. There are only a few dozen BMP-3Ms upgraded with advanced thermal
sights in service. Note that BMD-4Ms use more advanced sensors, but this
vehicle is only in service with airborne troops.”]
BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle (Russia) - History
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
The BMP-3 is one of the most heavily armed infantry combat vehicles in service, original version of BMP-3 has a turret fitted with a low-velocity 2A70 100 mm rifled gun, which can fire conventional shells or 9M117 Bastion ATGMs (AT-10 Stabber). 40 100mm-rounds and 8 ATGMs are carried. A 2A72 30 mm dual feed autocannon with 500 (300 HEI and 200 APT) rounds and a rate of fire of 350 to 400 RPM, and a 7.62mm PKT machine gun with 2,000 rounds, all mounted coaxially in the turret. The main gun elevates from −5° to +60°. There are also two 7.62mm PKT bow machine guns, again with 2,000 rounds each. The BMP-3 is capable of engaging targets out to 5,000–6,000 meters with its ATGM weapon system 9K116-3 "Basnya". With conventional ammunition, such as the HE-Frag shell 3OF32, the 2A70 gun has a range of 4,000 meters. According to the manufacturer's web-site, all weapons can be fired from the halt, on the move, and afloat with the same effectiveness. The ability to hit targets on the move with missiles was successfully demonstrated during competitive evaluations in the UAE in 1991. The turret is fitted with the 2K23 system, which consists of an autoloader with 22 rounds (the remaining 18 rounds are stored in the hull), a 1V539 ballistic computer, a cross-wind sensor, a 2E52-2 stabilising system, a 1D16-3 laser range finder, a 1K13-2 gunner's sight/guidance device, a PPB-1 gunner's sight and an OU-5-1 IR searchlight. Optional autoloader for ATGM missiles is also available. The commander has a combined optical sight 1PZ-10, a day/night vision device TKN-3MB and an IR searchlight OU-3GA2. Since 2005, the BMP-3 can be fitted with a new fire control system from the "Peleng" Joint Stock Company from Belarus. This consists of a SOZH-M gunner's main sight with an integrated laser range-finder and missile-guidance channel, a Vesna-K targeting system with thermal imaging camera and automatic target tracker AST-B, an armament stabilisation system, a ballistic computer with data input sensors and a PL-1 IR laser projector. Since 2017, the BMP-3 is fitted with a new fire control system from the "Vologda Optical-Mechanical Plant" from Russia. This consists of a Sodema two-plane stabilized gunner's main sight with an integrated laser range-finder and missile-guidance channel plus a SOZH-M thermal imaging camera. Standard equipment includes five firing ports with associated vision blocks, an R-173 transceiver, an R-173P receiver, a GO-27 radiation and chemical agent detector, an FVU filtration system, an automatic fire extinguisher and six 902V "Tucha-2" 81 mm smoke grenade launchers. BMP-3M is equipped with Bakhcha-U turret, which has similar weapons to the original BMP-3 turret but with a new dual-channel FLIR gunner's sight, commander's panoramic thermal imaging device, vertical-storage conveyor, new autoloader, and a new sighting system. It also has a stronger armor on the turret, and two-axis stabilisation. The turret of the BMP-3 has been fitted to the Patria Armoured Modular Vehicle and on the Turkish-UAE RABDAN 8x8 IFV. In August 2017, a BMP-3M was presented with a new ATGM remote weapon station fitted on the standard turret carrying two 9M120 Ataka (AT-9 Spiral-2) missiles. In June 2018, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that BMP-3s would be fitted with the AU-220M combat module equipped with a 57 mm cannon. The module can carry 80 rounds and fire 80 rounds per minute including air burst, high-explosive, fragmentation, armor-piercing and guided munitions with a maximum range of , and can even punch through side armor of main battle tanks. * BMP-3 – Basic version, as described. * BMP-3M – KBP and Kurganmashzavod have upgraded the vehicle with a new engines and turret with a new ATGM system 9K116-3 Basnya. The upgraded vehicle is called the BMP-3M and the new Bakhcha-U turret which includes a new automatic fire control system with ballistic computer, new SOZH gunner's sight with laser rangefinder and an ATGM guidance channel, thermal imager, TKN-AI commander's vision device with laser illuminator and new ammunition loading system for ATGM. The BMP-3M is also able to fire various ammunition types, including new 100 mm laser-guided projectiles, new 100 mm HE-FRAG (high explosive fragmentation) rounds and new 30 mm APDS (armour piercing discarding sabot) rounds. Its additional auxiliary armour shields are effective against 12.7 mm armour-piercing rounds from a range of 50 m. Explosive reactive armour is available as an option. The new uprated engine is the UTD-32, which is rated at 660 hp. There are actually several different M models, some fitted with additional armour, "Arena-E" or "Shtora-1" active protection systems, air conditioner etc. * BMP-3M Ataka – BMP-3M version with a two men turret armed with 30 mm 2A72 autocannon, and 9M120-1 Ataka ATGM. * BMMP (''bojevaya mashina morskoj pekhoti'') – Version for naval infantry, fitted with the turret of the BMP-2. * BMP-3K (''komandnyi'') – Tactical command variant, includes additional radio R-173, an intercom for seven users, an AB-R28 independent portable power unit, a navigation device TNA-4-6 and the "Ainet" air burst round detonation system. The BMP-3K lacks the bow machine guns and has its whip antennas mounted on the rear hull. Crew: 3+3. * BMP-3F – Armed with the standard 2K23 turret. Specially designed for operations at sea, with improved seaworthiness and buoyancy, capability to move afloat at sea state 3 and fire with the required accuracy at sea state 2. Compared to the basic model, the vehicle design features changes increasing floatability and vehicle stability: the self-entrenching equipment is omitted, a lightweight anti-surge vane and an air intake tube are introduced the BMP-3F turret is also protected by anti-surge vanes. Water jet propellers develop a speed of 10 km/h when afloat. The BMP-3F design allows the vehicle to come ashore under rough sea conditions and to tow the same-type vehicle. A new main sight, the SOZH, which has an integrated laser range finder and an ATGM guidance channel, is installed. This version can endure continuous amphibious operation for seven hours with the running engine. * BT-3F – Amphibious version based on BMP-3F with the original turret replaced by a smaller remote weapon station with either 7.62, 12.7 or 14.5mm machine gun. It can accommodate a crew commander, driver, gunner, and 14 troops, and can use optional ERA armor. * BRM-3K "Rys" (Ob.501) (''boyevaya razvedivatel'naya mashina'') – Surveillance and reconnaissance variant with 1PN71 thermal sight (3.7x/11x, 3 km range), 1PN61 active-pulse night vision device ( 3 km range), 1RL-133-1 ("TALL MIKE") I-band surveillance radar (3 km man, 12 km vehicle), 1V520 computer and a TNA-4-6 navigation system. The armament consists of the stabilized 30 mm autocannon 2A72 (600 rounds) and a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun (2,000 rounds) or AU-220M Baikal remote weapon station with 57 mm BM-57 autocannon and 7.62mm PKMT machine gun. Combat weight: 19 t, crew: 6. In 1993, Russia started quantity production of BRM-3K vehicles. * BMP-3 Dragoon – New IFV version with an unmanned turret which can be armed with a variety of combat modules, including standard BMP-3's Bakhcha-U turret with a 2A70 100 mm cannon, a 2A72 30 mm autocannon and a PKTM 7.62 mm machinegun, the AU-220M Baikal remote weapon station module with a 57 mm BM-57 gun and a module with a 125 mm 2A82-1M tank gun, the new 816 h.p. turbocharged UTD-32T engine and powerplant moved to the front, and a hydraulic ramp fitted to the rear. It is reported that its trials were finished in October 2017. * BREM-L "Beglianka" (Ob.691) (''bronirovannaya remontno-evakuatsionnaya mashina'') – Armoured recovery vehicle with five-tonne crane and 20/40 metric tonne capacity winch. * BMP-3 "Khrizantema-S" (9P157-2) – Self-propelled anti-tank version with 9M123 Khrizantema (AT-15) ATGM system with radar and laser guidance. The 9P157-2 carries two 9M123 missiles on launch rails, which are extended from a stowed position the radar is also stowed during transit. The missiles are re-loaded automatically from an internal magazine with 15 rounds (missiles are stored and transported in sealed canisters) and can also accept munitions manually loaded from outside the vehicle. The manufacturer claims that three 9P157-2 tank destroyers are able to engage 14 attacking tanks and destroy at least sixty percent of the attacking force. The dual guidance system ensures protection against electronic countermeasures and operation in all climatic conditions, day or night. NBC protection is provided for the crew (gunner and driver) of each 9P157-2 in addition to full armour protection equivalent to the standard BMP-3 chassis and entrenching equipment. The 9M123 missile itself is supersonic, flying at an average speed of and a range of between 400 and 6,000 meters. Entered service in 2005. More than 10 sets of new anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) complexes "Khrizantema-S" on the crawler, which replaced the complexes "Shturm", entered the artillery units of the Southern Military District, based in Ingushetia, in November 2012. Khrizantema vehicles are fielded with artillery units. * 9P163M-1 "Kornet-T" – Anti-tank version with Kornet (AT-14) missile system. Some sources call it the 9P162. The Kornet is similar in function to the Khrizantema missile system. The 9P163M-1 carries two 9M133 missiles on launch rails, which are extended from a stowed position during transit. Missiles are re-loaded automatically by the tank destroyer from an internal magazine with 16 rounds (missiles are stored and transported in sealed canisters). Nuclear, biological and chemical protection is provided for the two crew members (gunner and driver) in addition to full armour protection equivalent to the standard BMP-3 chassis. The guidance system of the 9P163M-1 allows two missiles to be fired at once, the missiles operating on different guidance (laser) channels. The first Kornet-T missile carriers were delivered in 2003 to replace the Shturm-S, and the first batch of 20 vehicles entered service in 2012. The Kornet-T is used by motorized units. * 2S18 "Pat-S" (Ob.697) – Self-propelled version of the 152 mm howitzer 2A61 "Pat-B". This was only a prototype, further development led to the 2S31 Vena. * DZM "Vostorg-2" (''dorozhno-zemlerojnaya mashina'') – Combat engineer vehicle with a dozerblade and excavating bucket. Prototype. * UR-07 (''ustanovka razminirovaniya'') – Mine clearing system. The UR-07 might replace the UR-77 "Meteorit". It has the same chassis as the BMP-3 but a bigger steel hull with two launch ramps in the rear. The ramps are used to fire rockets towing hose-type mine-clearing line charges to clear mine fields. * UNSh (Ob.699) (''unifitsirovannyj shassi'') – Basic chassis for specialised variants. * KhTM (''khodovoj trenazhor'') – Driver trainer. * Hermes or TKB-841 – Air-defence vehicle with high-velocity missiles and radar system. Prototype. * 2S31 Vena – Self-propelled mortar carrier equipped with a 120 mm mortar based on BMP-3 chassis. It entered production in 1996 and service in 2010. * 2S38 ZAK-57 Derivatsiya-PVO – Self-propelled air defense vehicle based on BMP-3 chassis fitted with a 57 mm autocannon and passive reconnaissance and target tracking equipment. It is designed to shoot down unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), cruise missiles, air-to-surface missiles, aircraft, helicopters, and MLRS rockets. 2S38 is equipped with a TV/thermal-imaging system with automatic target lock-on and tracking capabilities, a laser rangefinder and a laser guidance system. The optical and electronic target acquisition system can spot an aircraft at and using sectoral observation can detect aircraft over out. The cannon is fast enough to destroy targets traveling . Laser-guided, air burst and specialized anti-drone munitions for ZAK-57 are in development. Its guided projectiles have four wings folded in the casing and controlled by the actuator in the projectile’s nose section, using the energy of the airflow to steer themselves to the target. Planned to complete state trials in 2022. * UDAR UGV – Unmanned ground vehicle based on the tracked chassis of the BMP-3 with the center hull raised to fit the DUBM-30 Epoch armed with 2A42 autocannon, 7.62mm PKMT machine gun, and Kornet-M ATGM. * Vikhr UGV – Unmanned ground vehicle based on BMD-3 equipped with a smaller turret armed with 2A72 autocannon, 7.62mm PKMT coaxial machine gun and six anti-tank guided missiles 9M133M Kornet-M, three on each side of the turret. It can carry separate aerial and ground drones. * Prokhod-1 – Unmanned mine-clearing vehicle based on the BMP-3 chassis. It is equipped with the anti-mine TMT-C trawl, and a remote weapon station turret with a 12.7mm machine gun. * – 100 BMP-3M. * – 43 delivered in 1995–1996. Jane's Armour and Artillery 2003-2004 * – 54 BMP-3F & 1 BREM-L currently in service, with another 22 BMP-3F ordered in 2019 along with 21 BT-3Fs. (17 BMP-3F arrived in 2010 and another 37 BMP-3F & 1 BREM-L were received in 2014.) * – Application for 500. Iraq and Saudi Arabia plan to acquire BMP-3 armoured infantry fighting vehicles from Russia
– Armyrecognition.com, 30 September 2015 Iraq has purchased several hundred new BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles. About three hundred combat vehicles will be delivered to Iraq in the period 2018 to 2022. * – 118 delivered in 1995–1996. A new contract was signed in 2013. Contract was executed on September 30, 2015. Currently it has about 200 in service. * – 14 9P157-2 tank destroyers in service. * – 60 BMP-3 ordered from Russia to supplement the T-72BV.
– http://fedpress.ru , 11 September 2015 * * – 720. Russia's Defense Ministry has ordered and received 200 new BMP-3s. Many under modernization. 200 more in production with Sodema sight and 168 with enhanced protection. * - 45 used by Sri Lanka Army's Sri Lanka Armoured Corps. * – 33 delivered in 1996–1997 to pay off Russian debt, and another 37 in 2005. Moscow is currently seeking their return. * – 4 * – 4 in service. * – 250 for Abu Dhabi and 402 for Dubai (of which 391 delivered in 1992–1997 ) with "Namut" thermal sight and other modifications. They are under further upgrade with modular armour "Kaktus" and UTD-32 engine. * – 130 BMP-3M, 10 BREM-L and some BMP-K ordered, first deliveries in 2011, completed in 2012.
The BMP-3 has a base armour value of 300.
Successful strikes to any of the following highlighted sections will inflict full damage to the component:
Green = Body
Orange = Engine
Light blue = Treads
Maroon = Turret
The BMP-3's hull can withstand up to 300 points of damage.
The BMP-3's engine is able to take 105 points of damage. At least 20% of damage is always transferred onto the BMP-3's main "health" pool.
A damaged engine will severely diminish power output and prevent the BMP-3 from attaining its top speed. While traversing over water, it is possible for the vehicle to become trapped and unable to move depending on tidal strength.
The BMP-3's treads are able to incur up to 45 points of damage before breaking.
Disabling either will impede the BMP-3's mobility but will not prevent it from moving either on land or in water. Destroying both however, will render the vehicle immobilised on rough terrain and make it almost impossible to turn - even if the engine remains functional.
The BMP-3's turret can take 300 points of damage.
Disabling the turret will prevent the gunner from rotating it but does not stop its weapons from being fired.
The main gun can withstand up to 90 points of damage before failing.
Disabling the cannon will stop the gunner from being able to adjust its elevation/depression. The weapon itself can still be fired, however.
Weaponry and optics
The BMP-3 is one of the most heavily armed infantry combat vehicles in service, fitted with a low-velocity 2A70 100 mm rifled gun, which can fire conventional shells or 9M117 ATGMs (AT-10 Stabber). 40 100mm-rounds and 8 ATGMs are carried. A 2A72 30 mm dual feed autocannon with 500 (300 HEI and 200 APT) rounds and a rate of fire of 350 to 400 RPM, and a 7.62mm PKT machine gun with 2,000 rounds, all mounted coaxially in the turret. The main gun elevates from −5° to +60°.  There are also two 7.62mm PKT bow machine guns, again with 2,000 rounds each. The BMP-3 is capable of engaging targets out to 5,000–6,000 meters with its ATGM weapon system 9K116-3 "Basnya". The minimum engagement distance, flight time and vulnerability of the launcher are typical of command-guided, rather than fire-and-forget, ATGM systems. With conventional ammunition, such as the HE-Frag shell 3OF32, the 2A70 gun has a range of 4,000 meters.
According to the manufacturer's web-site, all weapons can be fired from the halt, on the move, and afloat with the same effectiveness. The ability to hit targets on the move with missiles was successfully demonstrated during competitive evaluations in the UAE in 1991. 
The turret is fitted with the 2K23 system, which consists of an automatic loader with 22 rounds (the remaining 18 rounds are stored in the hull), a 1V539 ballistic computer, a cross-wind sensor, a 2E52-2 stabilising system, a 1D16-3 laser range finder, a 1K13-2 gunner's sight/guidance device, a PPB-1 gunner's sight and an OU-5-1 IR searchlight. The commander has a combined optical sight 1PZ-10, a day/night vision device TKN-3MB and an IR searchlight OU-3GA2.  Since 2005, the BMP-3 can be fitted with a new fire control system from the "Peleng" Joint Stock Company from Belarus. This consists of a SOZH-M gunner's main sight with an integrated laser range-finder and missile-guidance channel, a Vesna-K targeting system with thermal imaging camera and automatic target tracker AST-B, an armament stabilisation system, a ballistic computer with data input sensors and a PL-1 IR laser projector.   
Standard equipment includes five firing ports with associated vision blocks, an R-173 tranceiver, an R-173P receiver, a GO-27 radiation and chemical agent detector, an FVU filtration system, an automatic fire extinguisher and six 902V "Tucha-2" 81 mm smoke grenade launchers.
The vehicle has an unconventional layout. The engine is in the back of the vehicle to the right (unlike most other IFVs, which have the engine located forward in the hull). As a result, the driver is seated forward in the hull (in the center) together with two infantrymen (one on each side of the driver). The vehicle has a double bottom and the engine is located under the floor of the vehicle (troops enter/leave the vehicle over the engine).  The remaining five infantrymen are seated aft of the two-man turret. 
Early models were powered by a 450 hp engine UTD-29, but most BMP-3s are now equipped with the 500 hp UTD-29M version. The engine was developed at the Transmash Diesel Engine Plant in Barnaul.  The BMP-3 has a range of 600 km, an altitude of operation of up to 3,000 m and it is transportable by train, truck, sea, and air. The BMP-3 engine is a diesel four-stroke, liquid-cooled design. The transmission is a four-speed hydromechanical power unit, with power takeoff to its water jets. The suspension is independent, with a torsion bar and six hydraulic shock absorbers. Steering is by gear differential with hydrostatic drive. The track adjusting mechanism is remotely controlled from the driver's station, with tension force indication. The water-jet propulsion unit is single-stage, axial, auger-type. 
The hull and turret are made of a high-strength aluminium alloy, with the front of the hull being provided with an extra steel plate welded over it plus spaced armour from the trim vane. The turret is also provided with a thick steel spaced armour shield over its frontal arc. Over the frontal, the vehicle is protected against 30 mm gun rounds at a range of 200 m.  In addition to "hard" protection, the BMP-3's self-healing fuel tank is located in front of the driver, directly behind the front armour plating. It is specially constructed to act as armour, effective against shaped charge warheads as well as any autocannon shells that managed to go through the front armour.
The BMP-3 can lay its own smoke screen by injecting fuel into the exhaust manifolds.   A chemical agent detector, an FVU filtration system, an automatic fire extinguisher and six 902V "Tucha-2" 81 mm smoke grenade launchers are standard.
At least two distinct sets of explosive reactive armour kit are currently available, giving the BMP-3 protection from less advanced rocket propelled grenades. One of them is the Kaktus ERA kit, which has a unique design that creates minimal acoustic and kinetic backlash to the armour behind it upon detonation, thus ensuring that the occupants will not be harmed by shockwaves from the ERA block. The ERA blocks will completely disintegrate after detonation. According to Kurganmashzavod, the BMP-3 may also be fitted with additional side armour tiles, which can resist .50 caliber armour-piercing ammunition perpendicularly at close ranges. They give the BMP-3 added side protection from autocannon fire as well.
The BMP-3 also has the ability to carry a Shtora electro-optical jammer that disrupts semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora is a soft-kill, or passive-countermeasure system.
Standard weight of the vehicle is 18.7 tonnes. If additional armor overlay (metal sheet of armor and Kaktus ERA) is installed, weight will reach to 22.2 tonnes. The body covered from the sides and the top. In such kit, it is protected against 12.7 mm machine gun rounds in the range of 100–200 m. 
Russia's Five Most Lethal Land Weapons of War
What Ukraine and NATO should fear the most if the unthinkable happens.
Purists may argue whether they are better or worse than comparable U.S. or NATO equipment. In many cases, we can't and won't know unless there rival weapons meet in battle. But what is clear is that the Russian Army has weapons far more sophisticated than anything the West has encountered in places like Iraq and Afghanistan. It has been decades since even the Israelis fought advanced Russian tanks.
What lethal weapons can Russia bring to bear in Ukraine? Here are five:
The T-90 tank is the latest iteration of the T-72/T-80 family. Smaller and lighter than the U.S. M-1, it weighs about 46 tons versus 60 tons for the Abrams. But it is heavily armed with advanced fire control equipment and a 125-millimeter smoothbore cannon capable of firing armor-piercing depleted-uranium rounds as well as laser-guided AT-11 anti-tank missiles that can destroy targets out to 2.5 miles away.
Besides the expected thick armor, the T-90 is protected by Kontakt-5 explosive armor to destroy incoming anti-tank rockets. Its Shtora-1 defensive system contains laser warning receivers plus a suite of countermeasures that jam missile guidance frequencies, and even smoke grenades to blind infrared sensors.
However they would stack up against the U.S. Abrams, British Challenger or German Leopard, the T-90 is certainly more advanced than the decrepit T-80s, T-72s and T-64 fielded by the Ukrainian Army.
BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle:
Though the motto for the BMP-3 and its American counterpart the M-2 Bradley should be "We Are Not Tanks," these infantry fighting vehicles are still quite powerful. The BMP-3 is the descendant of the famous BMP-1, whose appearance in the 1960s shocked Western observers with the idea that an infantry carrier could be a weapons platform as well as a battlefield taxi.
That the 19-ton BMP-3 can carry seven infantrymen behind an inch-and-a-half of armor tends to get lost. More attention is paid to its main armament, a 100-millimeter low-velocity cannon that can fire AT-10 Stabber anti-tank missiles. It can also be fitted with explosive armor and the Shtora countermeasures system.
Used as a light tank, the thinly armored BMP-3 might have problems even against Ukraine's aging anti-armor arsenal. But used as an infantry transport capable of generating heavy firepower, the BMP-3 is a potent weapon.
Tornado Multiple Launch Rocket System:
For heavy fire support, Russian troops can rely on the 9A52-4 Tornado. A lighter and more advanced replacement for the BM-30 Smerch, the Tornado features six tubes for launching heavy 300-millimeter rockets at targets up to 60 miles away.
Launched from a flatbed 8x8 truck, the Tornado is more or less the Russian counterpart to the U.S. Army's High-Mobility Artillery Rocket System. The Tornado's rockets can carry high-explosive, cluster or thermobaric warheads. A battery can deluge a large area with heavy fire.
RPG-30 Anti-Tank Rocket:
What modern Russian army would be complete without rocket-propelled grenades? The Russian/Soviet RPG has a long history of enabling infantrymen to destroy tanks and other vehicles, as well as bunkers, buildings and lots of other targets.
However, the RPG-30 is designed to defeat a special kind of target, namely tanks protected by active defenses such as Israel's Trophy system, which launch projectiles to intercept incoming rockets. The RPG-30 gets past this by firing two rockets the launcher has a main tube that fires the anti-tank round, plus a side tube that fires a decoy projectile to fool the active defense system into intercepting the wrong rocket.
6B43 Body Armor:
Body armor might seem out of place on a list of powerful Russian weapons. But in today's limited conflicts where even small casualties can generate big headlines, any gear that can protect soldiers is an enormous asset.
6B43 body armor, which contains plates composed of titanium and hard carbide boron ceramics, may be resistant to NATO 5.56-millimeter ammunition or the 5.45-millimeter bullets fired by Ukrainian Army AK-74s. This could give Russian special forces and infantry an edge in firefights.
Michael Peck is a contributing writer at Foreign Policy and a writer for War is Boring. Follow him on Twitter:@Mipeck1.
The main armament of the BMP-3 is a 100mm 2A70 semi-automatic rifled gun / missile launcher, which is stabilised in two axes and can fire either 3UOF HE-FRAG rounds or 3UBK10 anti-tank guided missiles. Effective range for the HE-FRAG round is 4,000m. Muzzle velocity is 250m/s. 22 HE-FRAG rounds can be carried in the automatic loader, total ammunition load being 40 rounds. Rate of fire is ten rounds a minute.
The gun fires the 3UBK10 anti-tank guided missile round, which consists of the 9M117 laser beamriding missile and container. This missile is used in the Bastion missile system (Nato designation AT-10 Stabber). It can engage tanks with explosive reactive armour as well as slow, low-flying targets such as helicopters.
Its range is 100m to 4,000m. Hit probability is given as at least 0.8 with armour penetration of 600mm. Ammunition load is eight rounds.
Armament also includes a 30mm 2A72 automatic gun, stabilised in two axes, which fires 3UOR-6 and 3UOR-8 rounds. Ammunition load is 500 AP (Armour-Piercing) or HE-FRAG rounds. Rate of fire is more than 300 rounds a minute and range is 1,500m to 2,000m. There is also one 7.62mm PKT coaxial machine gun and two 7.62 bow machine guns.
BMP-3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle
The BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicle is an apt illustration of the achievements of the Russian military industrial complex that received recognition on the global arms market. Russian designers and manufacturers have made it possible to develop a fighting vehicle that combines excellent mobility, unmatched firepower, and reliable protection.
The vehicle was designed and put in full-scale production at Kurganmashzavod PJSC and it remains one of the best infantry fighting vehicles, well suited both for special and combined-arms operations.
During this period, over a thousand of vehicles were already exported to different countries of the world, including United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, South Korea, Republic of Cyprus, Azerbaijan, and Indonesia.
The transportation of the BMP-3 IFV by cargo planes and landing crafts ensures its strategic mobility. The vehicle can enter and leave the landing crafts unaided. The tactical mobility is ensured by adequate cruising range, perfect cross-country performance, and high maximum and average movement speeds. It takes no extra time for the vehicle to be adapted to the changes in the combat theatre.
The impressive fire power is ensured by the armament system (a 100-mm gun-launcher, 30-mm automatic cannon, and three 7.62-mm machine guns), automaed fire control system, and highly effective ammunition. The BMP-3 IFV with broad capabilities of its armament system and variety of ammunition is able to deliver equally effective fire against diverse targets in daytime or at night when afloat or when coming ashore using all possibilities of the system of weapons and wide range of ammunition allowance for destruction of targets of different types. Using the fire control system equipped with the Sodema sight-guidance rangefinder allows identifying targets and conducting a long-range aimed fire at fast movement speeds, reduces time of target destruction and also considerably enhances fire efficiency in water.
The BMP-3 armoured hull and turret are made of aluminium alloys. The most vulnerable areas are additionally protected by spaced armour, which provides the ballistic protection level of the vehicle in compliance with modern requirements to the vehicles of this class. The vehicle is fitted with the NBC protection system ensuring protection against radiation and other destructive effects of mass destruction weapons. To provide camouflage smoke setting, the vehicle is fitted with the smoke generating equipment (SGE) and smoke grenade launching system. The BMP-3 IFV is equipped with two fire fighting systems providing fire extinguishing inside the vehicle.
The BMP-3 IFV features rear location of the power plant compartment. It enables to reinforce armour protection in the front section of the hull and to enlarge operating space in the manned compartments. As a result, the troopers and crew are transferred to a more comfortable front and medium sections of the hull.
The UTD-29T multi-fuel diesel engine rated at 450 hp ensures excellent mobility and manoeuvrability of the BMP-3 IFV. In combination with the hydromechanical transmission of original design, the engine enables the vehicle to develop speed of up to 70 km/h.
The BMP-3 features excellent swimming capability due to introduction of the original small-size water-jet propellers. High speed in water of 9.5 km/h and perfect manoeuvrability enable the vehicle to negotiate water obstacles in wave-beating conditions and to stay in water for a long time without additional preparation.
Alongside with high combat performance, the BMP-3 IVF features relatively low operation costs, simple design, easy serviceability and maintainability. Thus, it provides for fast and effective crew training in the vehicle operation and repair.
With its high characteristics of fire power, mobility, and protection, extraordinary performance and serviceability, the BMP-3 IFV appears to be the best choice for the army of any country in the world.
The BMP-3 chassis can be used for mounting various weapon systems such as artillery, air-defense, multipurpose missile systems, etc., either of Russia’s or foreign manufacture.
BMP3-BMD4 infantry fighting vehicle
The BMP-3 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2. The abbreviation BMP stands for Boevaya Mashina Pehoty (Боевая Машина Пехоты, literally "Infantry Combat Vehicle").
The design of the BMP-3 or Obyekt 688M can be traced back to the Obyekt 685 light tank prototype with 100 mm gun 2A48-1 from 1975.This vehicle did not enter series production, but the chassis, with a new engine, was used for the next-generation infantry combat vehicle Obyekt 688 from A. Blagonravov's design bureau. The Ob. 688 weapons configuration—an externally mounted 30 mm gun and twin Konkurs ATGM launcher—was rejected instead the new 2K23 armament system was selected. The resulting BMP-3 was developed in the early 1980s and entered service with the Soviet Army officially in 1987. It was shown for the first time in public during the 1990 Victory Day parade and was given the NATO code IFV M1990/1.
The BMP-3 is designed and produced by the Kurganmashzavod ("Kurgan Machine Building Plant") some variants however are built by the Rubtsovsk Machine Building Plant (RMZ), for example the BRM-3K.
In May 2015, the Russian Defense Ministry signed a three-year contract to receive "hundreds" of BMP-3 vehicles to maintain its armored vehicle force until its replacement, the Kurganets-25, completes research and development. In the process of the BMP-s serial production, the vehicle's design underwent 1,500 amendments.
In the Army-2017 show, the Russian Defence Ministry signed a contract covering the first deliveries of an unspecified number of BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) fitted with the Epocha turret.
The BMD-4 (Russian: "Боевая Машина Десанта-4" Boyevaya Mashina Desanta-4 literally "Combat Vehicle of the Airborne") is an amphibious infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) originating from post-Cold War Russia. Originally designated as the BMD-3M, the chassis of the BMD-4 is the same as that of the BMD-3, because it was developed on the same basis. This armored fighting vehicle is one of the lightest and one of the most heavily armed in its class, possessing a substantial amount of firepower in comparison to its counterparts. The vehicle was designed to transport Russian Airborne Troops (VDV) increasing its mobility, armament, and protection on the battlefield.
Many components of the vehicle, such as the ergonomics and positioning of the passengers, remain relatively unchanged. Primary differences between the BMD-4 and its predecessors lie in its armament. The vehicle is fitted with the Bakhcha-U turret which consists of: a 100 mm 2A70 low-pressure rifled gun, a 30 mm 2A72 coaxial autocannon, and a 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun. The 2A70 rifled cannon is capable of firing high explosive fragmentation rounds and laser guided anti-tank missiles. It also features secondary weapons designed to engage and destroy enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles. The automated fire control system of the vehicle is advanced with new features that simplify the use of the vehicle's armament by the gunner and commander.
TypeInfantry fighting vehicle
Place of originRussia
Service historyIn service 2004–present
ManufacturerVolgograd tractor factory
Weight 13.6 t (15.0 short tons 13.4 long tons)
Length 6.36 m (20 ft 10 in) (gun forward)
6.1 m (20 ft 0 in) (hull)
Width 3.11 m (10 ft 2 in)
Height 2.45 m (8 ft 0 in)
Armor Turret: Steel
Hull: Aluminum alloy
100 mm 2A70 rifled cannon gun
30 mm 2A72 autocannon
7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun
5.45 mm RPK machine gun
Engine BMD-4: 2V-06-2 water-cooled diesel engine
BMD-4M: UTD-29 multi-fuel diesel engine
BMD-4: 450 hp (331 kW)
BMD-4M: 500 hp (368 kW)
Power/weight BMD-4: 33.1 hp/tonne (24.3 kW/tonne)
BMD-4M: 37.0 hp/t