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Prof. Giovanni Pastore

Prof. Giovanni Pastore

Professor Giovanni Pastore (1954, Rotondella - Basilicata, Italy), received his degree in mechanical engineering at Turin Polytechnic University in 1978. Even before graduating he was offered a contract at Fiat Mirafiori in Turin, where for the following five years he worked at the automotive design office, dealing with structural calculations.

He was a reserve officer with the Army Corps of Engineers at the plant of ex-combat vehicles STAVECO at Nola (Naples, Italy), appointed with the task of the revision and testing of tanks (Leopard and M113). Some years later he was recalled to duty, at the same plant, for technical updates and degree advancements.

He has lived and worked in Policoro (Basilicata, Italy) since 1982, where he works as a freelance engineer and Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at several Italian universities.

He has published numerous scientific articles and books: in Italian, Gli infortuni domestici. Come prevenirli (ISBN 9788890471506), Antikythera e i regoli calcolatori (ISBN 9788890471513), Il Planetario di Archimede ritrovato (ISBN 9788890471520), Pitagora nel mondo contemporaneo. Influenze della filosofia scientifica pitagorica nel mondo moderno e contemporaneo (ISBN 9788890471537) and in english The Recovered Archimedes Planetarium (ISBN 9788890471544).

Website: http://www.giovannipastore.it/index_english.htm

The Recovered Archimedes Planetarium

Science, technology, history, literature and archaeology, certainty and conjecture on the most ancient and extraordinary astronomical calculating device. With two other scientific studies: on the Antikythera Planetarium and the Pitcher of Ripacandida.

The restoration of the gearwheel found in Olbia (Sardinia, Italy) in 2006 by the Superintendence for Archaeological Heritage, dated between the mid 2nd century and the end of the 3rd century BC, has revealed a very important surprise: the teeth have a special curving which make them extraordinarily similar to the mathematically perfect profile used in modern gears. Moreover the unusual composition of the alloy (brass) was completely unexpected. As it turns out, the gear is very scientifically advanced despite being constructed before all other known mechanisms to date. Considering the perfect correlation between the scientific evidence and historical, literary and archaeological studies, it does not seem rash to conclude that the fragment from Olbia was an integral part of the Archimedes Planetarium (Orrery). In this book, you will find all the supporting evidence and the scientific tests which have led me to attribute the fragment of the cogwheel found in Olbia to the Archimedes Planetarium.

There are also two recent scientific studies presented in this work. In the second part of the book, a study is presented on the kinematic model of the Greek Antikythera Planetarium also used in the gear of Olbia which predates Copernicus’ heliocentrism. The knowledge of epicyclic or planetary motion, necessary for the design of the epicyclic gearing in the Antikythera Planetarium as well as in the tooth profile of the Archimedes gear, lets us presume that some Hellenistic scientists were aware of how to calculate the planetary motion of celestial bodies. They could, therefore, have achieved the same results attained in the modern age, 2000 years later. The third part of the work presents the study of the 5th century BC Pitcher of Ripacandida in Basilicata (Italy) of Pythagorean derivation and the historical event of a great meteorite impact on the Earth is revealed, thus demonstrating that the extraordinarily modern physical laws graphically represented on the pitcher are in complete antithesis with the successive dogmatic physics of Aristotle.

    Giovanni Costigan, 85, A Professor of History

    Giovanni Costigan, a history professor emeritus at the University of Washington who was a leading political and social liberal in the Northwest, died of a heart attack on Saturday in Seville, Spain, where he was a guest lecturer on a European tour. He was 85 years old and lived in Seattle.

    Professor Costigan taught at the University of Wisconsin and Idaho State University before joining the University of Washington in 1934. He retired in 1975.

    In the 1950's he defended colleagues subjected to anti-Communist investigations, and in the early 1960's he was the target of a campaign seeking his dismissal from the university. The university president, Charles Odegaard, retained Professor Costigan.

    The professor wrote biographies of Sigmund Freud and Sir Robert Wilson, a British general under Wellington, as well as a history of Ireland.

    Giovanni Battista Tirinnanzi was born in Florence on 26 March 1869. He entered the novitiate on 4 January 1887, made his solemn profession on 20 February 1891, and was ordained a priest on 11 October of the same year. He left for Agra on 25 December 1894 [1] and was immediately admired and esteemed for his spirit of initiative and versatile resourcefulness. After having been in charge of various missionary stations, he was nominated as superior of the capuchin province in Sardhana and played a large part in setting up and opening the Capuchin Novitiate in Sardhana [2] (Meerut).

    When he was nominated bishop, he was Vicar General of the Archdiocese of Agra. Appointed titular bishop of Gaza and Apostolic Vicar of Arabia on 2 July. On 28 October 1937, [3] he was ordained bishop by Archbishop of Agra Evangelista Latino Enrico Vanni, OFM Cap, and the co-consecrators were Giuseppe Angelo Poli, OFM Cap. Bishop of Allahbad and Mathurin-Pie Le Ruyet, OFM Cap. Bishop of Ajmer and Tirinnanzi arrived in Aden on 7 November 1937.

    In Arabia Edit

    Despite the hostile climatic conditions, they were improved by the fact that the government had opened some wells in Shaykh'Uthman (an oasis 10 miles from the city of Aden), the activity of Msgr. Tirinnanzi was actively ruined. His first concern was the school through which - he wrote - "missionaries can obtain in Aden that respect and attention that bring people closer to the truths of the faith, primarily when other means cannot be used." [4]

    He, therefore, increased the male attendance in the school of St Anthony's Boy's School at Stramer Point, directed by three Marist Brothers, who were esteemed for the seriousness of teaching and discipline. Recognized and financed by the government to be open to anyone who requested it, as it could not satisfy all admission requests, and an expansion wasn't possible, as the Marist Brothers were unable to provide additional personnel. Other Vicariate schools were that of Crater, were reserved for orphans and directed by a priest, and the female ones (from Stramer Point and Crater) directed by the Franciscan Tertiary Sisters of Calais. These acts were also praised by the Jewish community in a letter addressed to the bishop on the occasion of Pius XI's death and the election of Pius XII. [2]

    The missionary enthusiasm of Archbishop Tirinnanzi [5] found an almost insurmountable obstacle in the lack of personnel: in fact, he had only 4 priests available. However, his greatest desire was to resume his activity outside Aden: he was confident that much could still be done, despite a common belief to the contrary, based on the widespread opinion that the Vicariate should only take care of Catholics, most of them who came from India. He continually requested to be able to go into the Arabian Peninsula and to be able to obtain the continuous residence of a missionary in Somalia, together with the possibility of building a church. [2]

    The conviction that it was necessary to get out of Aden did not leave him: he realized, therefore, that there were good hopes of reopening a church in Hodeida and to open a mission in Zahege, a sultanate under English domination [2] who confirmed the existence of some Christian tribes in the interior of Arabia [2] which had lost their independence and which was impossible to reach. In Aden, he laid the foundations for the construction of a new church. Nevertheless, the difficulties were considerable. And Msgr. Tirinnanzi had the opportunity to present [6] his challenges in 1939 to Cardinal Tisserant, [7] in which he outlined the characteristics of the Muslim faith. Msgr. Tirinnanzi, made a historic step by visiting Bahrain in 1939 when he heard of the presence of Catholics on the island nation, In an audience with the ruler H.H. Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa the catholic church was granted a plot of land to build a church and Scared Heart Church, the first church in the Persian Gulf region was built and blessed on the 8th of March 1940.

    World War II Edit

    As the world was on the brink of another worldwide conflict in 1939, The occupying British forces in Yemen were not pleased with an Italian in their colony Msgr. Tirinnanzi hence had to return to Italy in 1940. Travel and mission work during World War II was considered dangerous and hazardous, and Msgr. Tirinnanzi could only return to Aden in 1947. On 21 October 1948, [8] Pius XII accepted his resignation from the pastoral care of the Vicariate due to poor health.

    He retired to the convent of Montughi, Florence, in whose infirmary he died on 27 January 1949, at the age of 79. [9]

    Haunted Houses of Italy

    Italy is not only a land of history, art and beauty, but also of bone chilling mysteries: when it comes to fear, brutal unsolved murders are usually the first thing our minds run to, and il Bel Paese certainly has its fair share of those. There is, however, something primordial in the unsettling terror ghost stories manage to rise in each and every one of us, probably because they touch upon feelings and emotions we can barely control, and bring us back to our childhood.

    Spooks also come from haunted houses (Tom/flickr)

    If the evil perpetrated by man is more real and, ultimately, closer to us, the fear of the unknown and the unexplicable seems to scare us just as much: whether you believe in ghosts or not, the creepiness of these haunted houses – most of them unhabited and abandoned – is bound to make you want to sleep with the lights on tonight…

    Piemonte: Villa Pastore and its forgotten children

    A short reportage about Villa Pastore by Lucio Laugelli (in Italian)

    On the quaint hills behind the town of Valenza (Alessandria) is one of the spookiest places of Piemonte, Villa Pastore. The once breathtaking mansion was built for the noble family of the Pastores in the 1830s, in a neo-medieval style many locals still remember the beauty of its interiors, enriched by amazingly detailed mosaic floors. Yes, because Villa Pastore was still used as a rental property until the 1950s. But what is behind the gloomy, horrifying tales related to this place?

    The answer is simple, death. Specifically, the tragic death of two children, Elisa and Giovanni Pastore, daughter and son of Villa Pastore’s owners. Elisa died of tubercolosis in 1873, at the age of 2, her brother Giovanni 10 years later, at 13, when part of the ceiling collapsed on him while he was playing the piano. Overwhelmed by the pain and sorrow of such losses, the Pastores decided to move into another residence, leaving their beautiful, but unfortunate house empty.

    As said, part of Villa Pastore was rented out to vacationers and tourists until the 1950s, but the building was eventually left uninhabited and neglected. Fast forward to the 1980s when – in spite of legends about ghostly appearances of little Elisa in the villa’s gardens and pianos playing at night already circulating for a while – the house’s new owners decided to renovate it and bring it back to its old grandeur. Apparently, though, death struck mysteriously again, when two workmen lost their lives while overviewing the extent of structural damages on the building. Even if this latter occurance is said to be only a legend, it added allure to the already established reputation of Villa Pastore as a haunted house.

    Today, paranormal buffs and chill lovers like to visit Villa Pastore’s grounds, even though the building itself is no longer approachable because extremely dangerous. In what once used to be the villa’s gardens, a red, commemorative stone for little Elisa can still be seen. Here, people have a habit to leave plush toys and candies for the dead child, who is said to come out of the darkness seeking play companions every now and then.

    One last coup-de-theâtre: Elisa’s grave is not in the Valenza cemetery, where all of her family (including her brother Giovanni) lays to rest, and has yet to be located. Some say she was buried at the villa and that, for this reason, she still hangs around it today.

    Lombardia: Villa de Vecchi, the most haunted house in Italy

    Villa de Vecchi, also known as “la villa rossa,” the red mansion, is considered one of the most haunted houses in the country (Elena Gatti/flickr)

    Villa de Vecchi, also known as “la villa rossa” because of the color of its exterior, is by many considered the “most haunted house” in the country. It was built between 1854 and 1857 for Count Felice de Vecchi, a known historical figure of Lombardia, active during the Risorgimento for the independence of the region from Austrian domination. The count longed for tranquillity and chose this secluded area of the Valsassina for his holiday home. Apparently, de Vecchi invested an enormous amount of money in it: about 44 thousand liras of that time. The original plan called for a three storey house, with an astronomical observatory on the roof which, however, was never built. “La villa rossa” was surrounded by beautiful woods and its large front garden was embellished by fountains, which are no longer extant, even though you can still see them in some vintage photos.

    Now… why is Villa de Vecchi haunted? Well, there is quite a number of legends about it: the first tells a homicide-suicide took place within its walls. Another mentions the death of an illegitimate daughter of the count, whose body was never found one of the most gruesome is about the death of de Vecchi’s wife and daughter and of the horrible mutilations of their bodies. Last, but not least, there are rumours of satanic rituals: certainly, the fact that occultism master extraordinaire, good old Alistair Crowley (more about him below), sejourned here only added flair and credibility to this specific story.

    In fact, Crowley is said to have practiced rituals at Villa de Vecchi, but there is no evidence showing any murder or even natural death took place here at all. Actually, the son of the villa’s last caretakers recently declared to the Corriere della Sera that nothing paranormal or gruesome has ever taken place in the mansion and that, on the contrary, he only has beautiful and serene memories of the place.

    Today, Villa de Vecchi is abandoned and neglected. It is easy to reach: you can get there following SP 62 to Bindo, a “frazione” of Cortenova, near Lecco. It belongs to the Officine Melese e Gnocchi of Cortenova, which do not seem to have any intention to fix it and bring it to its ancient grandeur: Villa de Vecchi was built near a mountain, in an area at high risk of hydro-geological damages and its owners just do not see the point in restauring it when it could be destroyed in a second by a landslide. Villa de Vecchi’s curse comes down to this: the incapability of man to fight against the power of nature.

    Liguria: la casa delle Anime, or the murder inn

    If nothing ever happened in Villa de Vecchi, a lot took place in this unassuming house in Voltri, near Genoa, known as la casa delle anime. The house, built in the 18 th century, was owned by a family who turned it into an inn for travellers.

    Or so they wanted everyone to believe.

    More demons than caring hosts, the lovely bunch sent the wealthier among their clients to a room at the back of the building, to “enjoy a quieter night of rest.” In truth, the room had a moveable ceiling, which was released during the night, crushing the unaware guests to death. Corpses were then thrown into a communal grave dug at the back of the house itself. The police eventually caught up with the criminals, who were arrested.

    Because of these events, the building remained empty until the Second World War, when a desperate family took refuge there: they were the first to witness and report paranormal activity in the house. From objects moving on their own, to screams and wails coming from the murder room, the family saw it all, but never left until a girl, one night, knocked at the door and asked about her missing fiancé: nothing strange, you may think, if it was not for the fact the girl clearly came from another era and spoke of people dead for at least 200 years.

    Today, a family lives in la casa delle anime (the house of souls), but only in its front rooms, which were never part of the murder inn. It is in Via dei Giovi in Voltri, but tourists are not welcome inside.

    Another popular haunted spot of Liguria is the Casa del Violino (the violin house) at Scogna Sottana (La Spezia). Legends say the small, secluded house was once home to a talented violinist, who misteriously disappeared without a trace, leaving behind his instrument, which can still be heard playing at night.

    Emilia-Romagna: Villa Clara and her future-reading victim

    The story behind Villa Clara’s haunting is among the more horrifying we will read about here. This elegant home, located in Bologna at 449 of Via Zanardi, near Trebbo di Reno, was originally built in the 16 th century. Throughout the decades, Villa Clara had several names, a fact which often creates a bit of confusion among those seeking for it, so be aware: Villa Clara could also by known by some as Casino del Trebbo, Villa Malvasia (not to be mistaken with Palazzo Malvasia) or Villa Alessandri.

    Today, Villa Clara is an abandoned dwelling, surrounded by a desolate, unattended garden and inhabited by the ghost, or so the urban legend wants, of young Clara, who died here. Clara called this house home at the beginning of the 20 th century and was a special child: she could predict the future. Her own father found this so incredibly frightening and unsettling, he became convinced his daughter was evil and… buried her alive within the walls of the villa. The girl died an awful death and her body still lays abandoned somewhere within the building. Her soul, uncapable to find peace, still roams its rooms.

    Another version of the legend says Clara was a teenager who fell in love with a boy underneath her social position: her father, disapproving of the union, buried her alive.

    Whichever version you prefer (I personally am a fan of the first), Clara can be heard screaming and crying at night inside the villa, as well as around it. Spooky.

    Emilia-Romagna: the witch of Villa Magnoni

    Very little is known about Villa Magnoni, an abandoned dwelling in Cona, near Ferrara. The old, grand house must once have been magnificent, but it has been empty for decades. Nobody knows who exactly had it built. Nobody knows why it was abandoned and left to itself in the first place. Its secluded, obscure location may have added to the mystery: if you travel on the SP22 in Emilia, nearing Cona, you will spot the woods among which Villa Magnoni rests. It was once a beautiful, rich place: there were a main house, stables, gardens and cottages for the keeper and his family. Nothing but a shadow – and a very dark one – of it remains today. All past attempts to sell the house, it seems, failed miserably: today, it appears to be owned by the University of Ferrara (even though other sources mention different owners), which wanted to turn it into research labs. Yet, nothing has been done and nothing is planned to be done with it any time soon. But why?

    Well, la maledizione di Villa Magnoni (the curse of Villa Magnoni), as it is commonly known, is a pretty recent affair compared to the other stories we talked about so far. It seems that, at the beginning of the 1980s, a group of four teenagers went to the villa to, ahem, kill some time. While scouting around the garden and inside a section of the house they heard children voices coming from the opposite pavillion and ran towards it. There certainly were no children, but they did see a dreadful old woman at a window, screaming in rage, telling them to get lost and never to return. Terrified, the boys left but, while running away from the house and its ghostly apparition, they were hit by a car and three of them died. The forth, afraid and in shock, managed to return home to tell the story.

    Soon after this episode, the town council of Cona decided to have all of Villa Magnoni’s doors and windows walled up, to avoid traspassing. A week later, the window where the four kids had seen the old witch was, however, once again unwalled, open and accessible. The voice of a woman whispering threateningly has been often heard by all those courageous enough to venture near the house.

    L’ Abbazia di Thélema: Alistair Crowley’s Sicilian dwellings

    Crowley’s “abbey” was a simple country house, of which very little is still visible today. Its interior is, however, interesting, as many murales from Crowley’s time are still visible (John L.Crow/flickr)

    Alistair Crowley is a well known name of modern occultism, even though his powers upon the dark world of the unknown may have not been all that extraordinary. Mr Crowley was, in my opinion, good at giving a certain image of himself more than anything else, but whichever way you want to read his figure, he remains without a doubt a seminal figure for occultists and an interesting character for historians. Crowley loved Italy and settled in Cefalù for a while. Here, in a relative small and quite modest country cottage, he set his Abbazia di Thélema, the Abbey of Thélema. Crowley, who self defined himself “the great beast,” in an attempt to make people believe that his penchant for oriental clothing and strange rituals made him some sort of Satan VIP, lived in this small house in the Santa Barbara area of Cefalù for three years, along with two women and the children of one or either both of them.

    When he came to Italy, in the 1910s, Crowley was already a well known figure of esoterism in Britain he had embraced many cults and religions, but abandoned them all, to found eventually his own, the cult of Thélema. In it, man was at the centre of the universe and he, Crowley, was a messiah. Strange rituals, sex and drugs were some of Crowley’s favorite activities: nothing strange to modern standards, but at that time, it made Britain first and Italy then scream out in fear and disgust. Crowley was officially expelled from the country by Benito Mussolini in the mid 20s because of his bizarre lifestyle.

    Since then, the Abbazia di Thélema has remained pretty much empty: it is not considered haunted, but, considering who owned it, we may easily imagine something dodgy took place within it. Moreover, because of the building’s association with Crowley, it is said to have attracted Satanists throughout the years, and certainly its walls are covered with cryptic, Devil related messages. An interesting feature of the house is the presence of many wall paintings from Crowley’s time: they are as creepy as hell…

    This is a very short selection of haunted houses in Italy: each region, each province has a series of spooky places to visit and of scary legends to listen to. If you are a ghost stories aficionado, ask locals: you may get to know some spine chilling stories to tell your friends around the fire while eating marshmallows, on the next Halloween…

    If you would like more chills, check out Italy’s haunted castles

    Jeli, il pastore

    I swear, under penalty of perjury, that the information in the notification is accurate and that I am the copyright owner or vrrga authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed. There are no reviews for the current version of this product Refreshing His jealousy reaches a boiling point when, while attending a festival at a farm, Don Alfonso asks Mara to dance. At first, everything goes well and Mara appears to be the sweetest wife who has ever live Deaths from thrombosis Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

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    The beginnings of the Accademia degli Arcadi date to February 1656, when a literary circle formed under the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden, who had abdicated the Swedish crown in 1654, converted to Catholicism, and taken up her residence in Rome, where she spent much of the rest of her life. There she became a significant patron of music and opera, with composers including Alessandro Scarlatti, Alessandro Stradella and Arcangelo Corelli dedicating works to her. After her death in 1689, the academy was established in her memory and elected her as its symbolic head (basilissa, the Greek term for 'Queen'). The Academy lasted for the next two hundred years, [ clarification needed ] remaining a leading cultural institution into the 20th century.

    The Accademia degli Arcadi was so called because its principal intention was to reform the diction of Italian poetry, which the founders believed had become corrupt through over-indulgence in the ornamentation of the baroque style, under the inspiration of pastoral literature, the conventions of which imagined the life of shepherds, originally supposed to have lived in Arcadia in the golden age, divinely inspired in poetry by the Muses, Apollo, Hermes and Pan. The Academy chose as its emblem the pipe of Pan with its seven unequal reeds.

    The fourteen founders selected as the first Custode di Arcadia or president of the academy, Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni who was the author of a history of Italian poetry and of various literary works. The Arcadians resolved to return to the fields of truth, always singing of subjects of pastoral simplicity and drawing their inspiration from Greco-Roman bucolic poetry. The ideal parameters for the artistic work were simplicity and a sense of measure and beauty. Common to all the poets was the desire to oppose the poetry of the Marinists, and return to classic poetry, embracing also the recent rationalist influence of Descartes. Norms and rituals of the academy took their cue from classic and pastoral mythology, as in the custom of assuming 'pastoral' names (Crescimbeni, for example, chose that of Alfesibeo Cario). The fourteen founder members included the librettist Silvio Stampiglia and the poet Vincenzo Leonio.

    The first solemn gathering of the Arcadians was held on the Janiculum hill, in a wood belonging to the Reformed Minorites, on 5 October 1690.

    In 1692, the meetings were transferred to the gardens of Duke Orsini on the Esquiline hill in 1696, to the Farnese Gardens on the Palatine. Finally, the generosity of John V of Portugal, one of its members under the name of Arete Melleo, enabled the society to secure (1723) on the Janiculum a site known as the Bosco Parrasio or (Parrasian Grove). Here they held their meetings in summer days, in winter moving to the Teatro degli Arcadi in the Palazzo Salviati. In 1696 the Accademia admitted seven musicians including Giovanni Bononcini.

    While the academy was still on the Palatine, its Statuto or Constitution was drawn up. This constitution (the work of co-founder Gian Vincenzo Gravina) was modelled on the ancient Roman laws of the 'Twelve Tables', and was engraved on marble. Differing tendencies soon asserted themselves, following the ideas of the two founders: that of Gravina stood in the tradition of Homer and Dante, while that of Crescimbeni was more influenced by Petrarch. Because of these differences Gravina left to found the Accademia dei Quirini in 1711. Despite this loss, Arcadia retained its vigour in the following years, and created colonies in many cities of Italy. Many noblemen, ecclesiastics, and artists held membership of it to be an honour, and very soon it numbered 1,300. Much of what they produced, however, was either mediocre or pretentious (an example is Saverio Bettinelli's disparagement of Dante), although the Academy did receive some endorsement for its attack on the redundant Rococo style, then dominant in art and literature.

    The celebrated opera librettist Pietro Metastasio (1698–1782) although he had his own differences with Arcadia, was a student of Gravina's, and a leading light of the academy's second generation. His works, of which the best remembered might be Il Re Pastore because of its setting by Mozart, may represent the closest thing to a justification of its program that Arcadia achieved.

    In 1795, the academy admitted the Italian Diodata Saluzzo Roero, as one of its first female members, [1] but some evidence does exist for earlier female members. In the 17th century, the poet Maria Antonia Scalera Stellini was elected a member, and the 1721 edition of the Academy's publication included work by Caterina Imperiale Lercari Pallavicini.

    A violent anti-Arcadian reaction soon developed, and, starting from the early 19th century, Arcadianism began to be regarded as a late and unconvincing expression of the ancien régime. After the end of the French Revolution, the Academy strove to renew itself in accord with the spirit of the times, without sacrificing its traditional system of sylvan associations and pastoral names. The Academy no longer represented a literary school, but a general interest in the classics, and figures like Dante came to be greatly honoured by its members. Furthermore, the Academy's field of endeavour was enlarged to include many branches of study, including history and archaeology. The new Arcadian revival was marked by the foundation (1819) of the Giornale Arcadico. In 1925 the Academy was renamed to become the Arcadia – Accademia Letteraria Italiana, a historical institute.

    The Accademia degli Arcadi counted among its members some of the principal literary men and women of the time, including Menzini, Redi, Metastasio, Rolli, Guidi, Clotilde Tambroni and others. The famous composer George Frideric Handel is known to have often attended the meetings and symposia of the Arcadians when studying in Italy, under the patronage of Ruspoli, a leading member of the Academy. There is an interesting account of the Academy's history and program in Goethe's 'Italian Journey'.

    The archives of the academy are currently housed in the Biblioteca Angelica, next to the church of Sant'Agostino in Rome. The paintings are housed in the Palazzo Braschi.

    Atti e memorie dell'Accademia letteraria italiana was published by the academy. [2]

    An editorial comment on the sources Edit

    The sources are fragmentary. None gives a complete account of Fornasini's life. Although they are broadly consistent, they sometimes differ in detail. [Note 1] Where they disagree, their varying accounts are set out below as numbered alternatives.

    Early years Edit

    Fornasini was born in Pianaccio, a frazione of the Italian comune Lizzano in Belvedere, in the then Province of Bologna, Kingdom of Italy. [2] [Note 2] His parents were Angelo (a.k.a. Anselmo) Fornasini (1887-1938), a charcoal burner, and his wife Maria née Guccini (1887-1951). He had an elder brother, Luigi (born 1912). [3] In 1924 [4] or 1925, [5] [6] [7] the family relocated to Porretta Terme, Bologna. Angelo had been gassed in World War I, and could no longer carry on his trade instead, he became a postman, delivering letters. Maria got a job as an attendant at a thermal bath in the town. [4] [7] Giovanni studied at Collegio Albergati in Porretta Terme [3] [7] but did not graduate, [4] and is recorded as not having been a good student. [5] [6] After leaving school, he worked for some time as a lift boy in the Grand Hotel, Bologna. [4]

    In 1931, he entered the seminary of Borgo Capanne. [6] [7] [Note 3] That seminary closed in 1932, and he transferred to the Archepiscopal Seminary of Bologna [it] at Villa Revedin [it] , and later to the Pontifical Seminary of the Region of Bologna. [7] On 2 February 1934 he made his priestly vow. [3] He continued his theology studies and on 29 March 1940 he was ordained subdeacon [2] and on 7 June 1941 deacon, [4] On 28 June 1942 he was ordained a priest by Cardinal Giovanni Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, in San Petronio Basilica, Bologna. [8] [11] [12] When made a subdeacon, he was appointed assistant to Don Giovanni Roda, parish priest of Sperticano, a frazione of Marzabotto, Bologna, [3] a parish of about 400 people. [2] His first assignment as a priest was as assistant priest (Italian: vicario coadiutore) in Sperticano. [2] He celebrated his first Masses at Pianaccio, San Luca, and Porretta [7] He celebrated his first solemn Mass on 12 July 1942 in the church of San Tommaso a Sperticano. [3] In his homily at Porretta [7] or at Sperticano [4] he said, "The Lord has chosen me to be an urchin among the urchins".

    Parish priest Edit

    Don Giovanni Roda was elderly and following his death in August 1942 [3] Fornasini was installed as parish priest in Sperticano on 27 September. [4] [5] [6] His pastoral work began during a turbulent time for Italy during World War II. [5] [7] He opened a school similar to the one he had attended as a boy in Porretta. He also soon gained a reputation as a man of action. [4] [7] Don Angelo Serra, another parish priest in Bologna, said that the parish of Sperticano was transformed by Fornasini's zeal. [2] Don Lino Cattoi, who had been his fellow student, said of his time in Sperticano, "I cannot explain the life he led there: he seemed always to be running. He was always around trying to free people from their difficulties, and to solve their problems. He had no fear. He was a man of great faith, and was never shaken". [Note 4]

    On 25 July 1943, Italian dictator Mussolini was overthrown. Fornasini ordered his church bells to be rung in celebration. [9] [11] [17]

    Bologna was a city of strategic military importance during World War II. It was heavily bombed by the Allies three times during 1943: on 24 July, 25 September and 27 November. On 3 September, the Kingdom of Italy signed an armistice with the Allies but the north of Italy, including Bologna, was still under German control. Accounts of Fornasini's pastoral activities during that time are incomplete. It has been said that his chief characteristic was that he was everywhere. [4] After at least one of those bombings, he gave shelter to survivors in his rectory. [7] [8] Riding his bicycle, he gave assistance in nearby parishes, [7] including San Cristoforo di Vedegheto, whose priest had left for health reasons. [2] After the bombing of Reno neighborhood of Bologna on 27 November, he was to be seen everywhere, smiling and comforting people in distress. [4] [7] Serra said: "On the sad day of 27 November 1943, when 46 of my parishioners were killed in Lama di Reno by Allied bombs, I remember Don Giovanni working as hard in the rubble with his pickaxe as if he had been trying to rescue his own mother". [Note 5]

    Several sources say that he had some sort of connection with Italian partisans who were fighting the Nazis. [Note 7]

    Accounts of the last few months of his life differ in detail. (1) On 24 June 1944, he gave Christian burial to the four or five murdered victims of the Nazi atrocity of 22 June at Stazione di Pian di Venola [it] , Marzabotto, even though the Nazis had ordered that no such ceremony take place and he delivered a moving eulogy. [2] At some later date, partisans blew up a train in a railway tunnel near Misa, and the Nazis took Italian civilians as hostages. On 30 July, Fornasini intervened to secure their release. In August, he was again at Pian di Venola, this time offering his own person in exchange for captives of the Nazis. In September, he and Don Gabriele Bonani helped three British prisoners to escape. He was arrested at Pioppe di Salvaro [it] . On 5 September, he buried the dead at Ca' di Biguzzi. On 8 September, the Nazis garrisoned troops in his rectory. The same day, he wrote his last will and testament. [4] (2) He wrote his last will and testament on 10 September. [7] (3) In July 1944, the Germans took 30 Italian civilians prisoner at Pioppe di Salvaro. He intervened, offering his own person in exchange. The Germans murdered only 12 of them. [2] [14] On 30 July, a train loaded with fuel blew up. Two German soldiers died, and the Germans took 20 Italians as hostages. He gathered evidence which persuaded the Germans that the explosion had been an accident and the hostages were released. He then convinced the Germans that several other acts of sabotage had been committed by Tuscan partisans, and that local people had not been involved. This saved many lives. [14] He did not manage to intervene before the massacre at Corsaglia (Marzabotto), the place where he later lost his own life. [14] (4) According to Don Angelo, Fornasini persuaded the German commander to rescind his order to lay waste to Marzabotto by the gift of money and a pig. [2]

    On 12 October, he intervened to protect one or more women who were being abused by one or more Germans. (1) An SS officer had designs on one of the girls sheltered in Fornasini's rectory. Fornasini was forced to attend a squalid German party to celebrate her birthday where, despite insults and mockery, he protected her. [2] [7] (2) Two young women were being abused by several SS soldiers. He made them desist. [4] [Note 8] [Note 9] (3) A Nazi official tried to drag a girl away, but Fornasini faced him down. [13] [19] [20]

    Death and burial Edit

    The best contemporary account may be in the diary of Don Amadeo Girotti (1881/82-1974), parish priest of San Michele Arcangelo di Montasico in Bologna. He knew Fornasini well: he had made confession to him at least twice, and shortly after the murder called him "Don Fornasini, dearest to me". [10]

    Between 29 September and 5 October 1944, Waffen SS troops killed an estimated 770 Italian civilians at the village of Marzabotto known as the Marzabotto massacre. The number of deaths is estimated as 770. Don Ubaldo Marchioni [it] was among the first victims, murdered in Marzabotto on 29 September. [21]

    Fornasini died on 13 October 1944. [2] [3] [22] The circumstances of his death are shrouded in mystery. [5] [6] [7] [Note 10] (1) On 18 May 1945, Don Amadeo said that a Nazi officer had given Fornasini permission to bury the dead at San Martino del Sole, Marzabotto, on 13 October 1944, but that he had been cynically murdered there that his body was identified on 14 October and that he had been shot in the chest. [4] [10] (Don Amadeo had learned of the death on 18 October 1944.) [10] (2) On 13 October, Fornasini followed the Germans to Caprara. [7] (3) While burying the dead at Casaglia di Caprara, which the Nazis had forbidden, he accused a Nazi officer of complicity in the Marzabotto massacre, and was at once shot down. [9] (4) He accused an officer in the 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS of complicity in the Marzabotto massacre. He was shot at point-blank range and decapitated. [11] (5) He accused a German officer of being responsible for the massacre. The officer replied, that that was a lie, and invited Fornasini to inspect Marzabotto, where he shot him in the head, among all the other corpses there. [14]

    His remains were recovered in the spring after the Nazi withdrawal from Italy. (1) On 21 April 1945, Luigi recovered the body of his brother Giovanni, and some days later gave it makeshift burial at Sperticano. [4] (2) Luigi discovered the body of his brother on 22 April. [7] [10] (3) The body had been decapitated. [15] [25] (4) That temporary burial took place on 24 April. [3] (5) All sources agree that on 13 October 1945, Fornasini was given Christian burial in his own church of San Tommaso a Sperticano. [3] [4] [10]

    On 19 May 1950, the President of Italy, Luigi Einaudi, conferred upon Fornasini posthumously Italy's Gold Medal of Military Valour. [3] [4] The award was presented to his mother, Maria, on 2 June 1951. [6] [Note 11] The citation reads: [26] [Note 12]

    In his parish of Sperticano, where all true men fought in the mountains for the freedom of their Fatherland, he was a shining example of Christian charity. Pastor to the old, to the mother, to the bride, to the innocent child, he several times shielded them with his own body against the heinous atrocities of the German SS, saving many lives from death and encouraging all, both the fighters and their families, to heroic resistance. Arrested, miraculously escaping death, he at once and boldly resumed his role as pastor and soldier, first among the ruins and massacres of his destroyed Sperticano, then at San Martino di Caprara where, however, he was struck down by the ferocity of the enemy. The voice of Faith and of Fatherland, he had dared fiercely to condemn the inhuman German massacres of so many of the weak and of the innocent, thereby calling down upon himself the barbarity of the invader and being slain he, the Shepherd who had always with the utmost courage protected and guided his flock by his piety and by his example. – San Martino di Caprara, 13 October 1944

    An elementary school in Porretta Terme, Scuola Primaria "Don Giovanni Fornasini", is named in his honour. [9] [11] [27] A street in Bologna, Via Don Giovanni Fornasini, commemorates his name [9] as do other places in the Province of Bologna. [4] [9] [11]

    Fornasini has been called "the angel of Marzabotto" [2] [3] [4] and one of "the three martyrs of Monte Sole" along with his murdered fellow priests Ferdinando Casagrande and Ubaldo Marchioni. [9] [28] [29]

    On 13 October 1978, inhabitants of Marzabotto began to press for official recognition by the Church of these three priests. [16] On 19 August 1998, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints granted permission for inquiries to be opened into the lives and works of those three priests. [5] [30] [31] On 18 October 1998, in Marzabotto, Cardinal Giacomo Biffi opened formal proceedings for their beatification. [7] [9] [11] Since that day, all three have been entitled to be honoured as Servants of God. On 20 November 2011, Cardinal Carlo Caffarra declared in San Petronio Basilica, Bologna, to a congregation that included civic dignitaries and relatives of the murdered priests that the Archdiocese of Bologna had completed the three investigations, and that their findings would be communicated to the Holy See for further processing. [8] [15] [32]

    In the 2009 film The Man Who Will Come (Italian: L'uomo che verrà) which concerns the Marzabotto massacre, actor Raffaele Zabban portrayed the small role of Fornasini. [33]

    In 2014, Italian musician Alessandro Berti created what he called a performance piece that uses spoken narration and vocal and instrumental accompaniment to relate the story of the last year of Fornasini's life. It is called Un cristiano: Don Giovanni Fornasini, l'angelo di Marzabotto, or, Un cristiano: Don Giovanni Fornasini a Monte Sole. It has been performed more than once. [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41]

    The New Black Joy: Black History, Continued Juneteenth Event

    Celebrate Juneteenth with Questlove, Esperanza Spalding, Dr. Shamell Bell and Brooklyn’s The Lay Out, in the second episode of our new series Black History, Continued.

    Celebrate Juneteenth with Questlove, Esperanza Spalding, Dr. Shamell Bell and Brooklyn’s The Lay Out, in the second episode of our new Black History, Continued event series. Sign up for free to be notified.

    Celebrate Juneteenth with The Times’s Veronica Chambers as we explore Black joy in all its forms — from the energizing power of togetherness to restorative moments of solitude. From the love we show each other to the joy of loving who we are.

    Join Ahmir “Questlove” Thompson as he discusses Summer Of Soul, his powerful new documentary and the energizing power of togetherness with The Times’s Pierre-Antoine Louis. Make joyful noise with an exclusive performance and conversation from the GRAMMY-winning bassist and listener Esperanza Spalding as she talks to The Times’s Charlie Brinkhurst-Cuff. Dance with artist, community organizer and educator Dr. Shamell Bell, and see how movement can unlock the joy within. Recharge with The Lay Out, a group of Brooklyn-based activists and organizers who are helping us reclaim space, time, energy and, most importantly, each other.

    How can dance and rest, mindfulness and music and, yes, even napping invigorate our souls and help us face everyday adversity? How does Black joy and hope exist in proximity to Black pain?

    Join us for this free Juneteenth event, the second episode of our yearlong series Black History, Continued and find out in a powerful presentation that’s sure to stay with you, long after the event ends.

    You can explore more about the series, including articles, interactive experiences and more here.


    Ranks in universities of Afghanistan is listed below according to the Ministry of Higher Education(MoHE) of Afghanistan, These ranks are issued stepwise by the MoHE after some procedure, period of service and Conditions.

    • Lecturer or Assistant Professor (in Pashto پوهنیار)
    • Senior Assistant Professor (in Pashto پوهنمل)
    • Associate Professor (in Pashto پوهندوی)
    • Senior Associate professor (in Pashto پوهنوال)
    • Professor (in Pashto پوهاند)

    Terms of address in general: ostād or استاد

    • Profesor Titular Ordinario, or Profesor Titular Regular. A tenured, full professor position.
    • Profesor Asociado Ordinario, or Profesor Asociado Regular. A tenured, associate professor position.
    • Profesor Adjunto Ordinario, or Profesor Adjunto Regular. A tenured, adjunct professor position.
    • Distinguished Professor, Emeritus Professor, and other professorships with highest honour and contributions to knowledge and society.
    • Level E – Professor, or Professorial or Senior Principal Research Fellow equivalent to Distinguished/Endowed Professor (USA) or Professor (UK).
    • Level D – Associate Professor, or Principal Research Fellow if research intensive equivalent to Reader/Associate Professor at a UK university.
    • Level C – Senior Lecturer, or Senior Research Fellow if research intensive equivalent to Senior/Principal Lecturer at a UK university.
    • Level B – Lecturer, Research Fellow Level B is the first tenured academic rank, normally requires at minimum, completion of a PhD.

    There are often multiple bands or steps for each Level (e.g. Level B - 6 steps, Level C - 6 steps, Level D - 4 steps). For example, an academic who earns the title of Level D has progressed through 12 bands/steps of previous academic service or the equivalent in accumulated academic achievements. There is only one step for Level E. An academic cannot automatically progress from Level B, Step 6, to Level C, Step 1, without a formal application for promotion, which is typically a peer reviewed process.

    Teachers are categorised in four main classes in Bangladesh at university level. The ascending rank of teacher is Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Lecturer is generally enrolled from master's degree holder. Master's degree is required for normal university level Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Assistant Professor, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.

    • Prafiesar / Прафесар (Full professor)
    • Dacent / Дацэнт (Associate professor)
    • Starejšy vykladčyk / Старэйшы выкладчык (Senior lecturer)
    • Asistent / Vykladčyk / Асістэнт / Выкладчык (Assistant professor / Lecturer)

    Researchers by seniority levels

    • Haloŭny navukovy supracoŭnik / Галоўны навуковы супрацоўнік (Chief Researcher)
    • Viadučy navukovy supracoŭnik / Вядучы навуковы супрацоўнік (Leading Researcher)
    • Starejšy navukovy supracoŭnik / Старэйшы навуковы супрацоўнік (Senior Researcher)
    • Navukovy supracoŭnik / Навуковы супрацоўнік (Researcher)
    • Malodšy navukovy supracoŭnik / Малодшы навуковы супрацоўнік (Junior Researcher)
    • Rektar / Рэктар, rector
    • Prarektar / Прарэктар, vice-rector
    • Dekan fakultetа / Дэкан факультэта, dean of the faculty
    • Namiesnik dekana / Намеснік дэкана, vice-dean
    • Zahadčyk kafiedry / Загадчык кафедры, head of department
    • Gewoon hoogleraar (distinguished professor, full-time) (professor ordinarius)
    • Deeltijds gewoon hoogleraar - buitengewoon hoogleraar (part-time distinguished professor) (previously: professor extraordinarius)
    • Hoogleraar (professor with personal chair)
    • Hoofddocent II (associate professor, principal lecturer)
    • Hoofddocent I (associate professor, senior lecturer)
    • Docent (assistant professor)
    • Doctor-assistent (researcher/lecturer, must have a PhD)
    • Assistent (research assistant, can be enrolled in a PhD or be in the postdoc phase)
    • Aspirant (research fellow, enrolled in a PhD degree, appointed by the Fund for Scientific Research FWO)
    • Rector
    • Vice-Rector
    • Decaan (dean, i.e. head of a faculty)
    • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
    • Professeur extraordinaire (visiting professor in Switzerland, part-time professor in Belgium)
    • Professeur (professor)
    • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
    • Chargé de cours temporaire (associate professor, tenure-track)
    • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
    • Directeur de recherche (research director / senior research associate, appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS)
    • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher, with Ph.D. and previously with teaching aggregation)
    • Maître de recherche (senior researcher / senior research associate, with Ph.D., appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS, tenured)
    • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
    • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher / research associate, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS, tenured)
    • Premier assistant (senior research assistant / junior lecturer, with Ph.D.)
    • Maître d'enseignement (volunteer lecturer, unpaid, non-tenured)
    • Maître de conférences (volunteer lecturer, unpaid, non-tenured)
    • Chargé de recherche (appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS)
    • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)
    • Aspirant (research fellow, enrolled in a Ph.D. degree, appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS)
    • Recteur (president of university)
    • Vice-Recteur
    • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
    • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
    • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
    • Président de département (department head, elected)
    • Asistent – teaching assistant (Must hold Undergraduate Degree with excellent grades. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
    • Viši Asistent – senior teaching assistant (Must hold at least Masters Degree with excellent grades. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
    • Docent – assistant professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate Degree. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
    • Vanredni profesor – associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of five years as a Docent)
    • Profesor – full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of seven years as a Vanredni profesor)
    • Rektor – rector / chancellor / head of university
    • Prorektor – prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
    • Dekan – dean / head of faculty or school at the university
    • Prodekan – vice-dean / head of faculty or school at the university assistant
    • Šef katedre – head of department

    There is no official academic ranking in Brazilian private universities. However, most of the public Federal Universities apply the following (from the highest position to the lowest one):

    • Professor Emérito (professor emeritus)
    • Professor Titular (full professor) – PhD required
    • Professor Associado (associate professor) – PhD required
    • Professor Adjunto (assistant professor) – PhD required
    • Professor Assistente (lecturer) – only a master's degree is required
    • Professor Auxiliar (assistant lecturer) – no post-graduation degree is required
    • Professor Substituto ou Temporário (temporary lecturer)
    • Assistant Professor – Асистент
    • Chief/Senior Assistant Professor – Главен Асистент
    • Docent/Associate Professor – Доцент
    • Professor/Full Professor – Професор
    • Assistant Professor – Асистент
    • Chief/Senior Assistant Professor – Главен Асистент
    • Docent/Associate Professor – Доцент
    • Professor/Full Professor – Професор
    • Scientist III: after Master thesis or Diploma, equal to Assistant
    • Scientist II: after Doctoral thesis/PhD/Dissertation, after Dr. Grade (3–5 or 7 years work after Master), equal Chef Assistant, *Associate or Post Doc
    • Scientist I: After second Post Doc (1 or 2 years work after PhD/Dr), equal Senior Assistant or Senior Associate.
    • Senior Scientist I: after PhD (USA, UK. ) or Doctoral dissertation/thesis (France, Germany, Russia. ) and some years of *Post-Doc, equal of Assoc. Prof.
    • Senior Scientist II: after Habilitation, equal to Professor
    • Full Professor
    • Member of correspondence for the Academy of Science (after professor/habilitation), very rare
    • Academic: after member of correspondence (for the entire of Bulgaria).
    • Rector
    • Vice-rectors
    • Assistant rector
    • Secretary general
    • Academic ombudsman

    Faculty (teaching staff)

    • Professor emeritus or university professor emeritus, a retired professor still active in research Fr professeur émérite
    • Endowed chair professor (e.g. Canada Research Chair professor - Tier 1), a distinguished full professor with endowment
    • Professor or full professor (research professor, professor of practice, visiting professor, adjunct professor, professor emeritus Fr professeur titulaire)
    • Associate professor (research associate professor, visiting associate professor, adjunct associate professor Fr professeur agrégé)
    • Senior Lecturer (teaching professor)
    • Assistant professor (research assistant professor, adjunct assistant professor Fr professeur adjoint)
    • Lecturer or instructor (sessional lecturer or sessional instructor Fr chargé de cours)

    Assistant professor is the entry-level rank for non-tenured members of faculty.

    Non-faculty teaching and research personnel

    • Senior fellow, senior research fellow or senior scientist / Fr chercheur sénior
    • Fellow, research fellow or scientist / Fr chercheur or principal investigator / Fr directeur de recherche or postdoctoral associate / Fr associé de recherche
    • Research assistant or teaching assistant / Fr auxiliaire de recherche
      (often also full professors)
    • Associate dean (often also full professors)
    • Directors of administrative departments
    • Associate/assistant directors of administrative departments
    • Chairmen of academic departments (usually full professors)
    • Graduate Coordinators
    • Undergraduate Coordinators
    • Senior rank: Professor(教授)/ Researcher(研究员)
    • Vice-Senior rank: Associate professor(副教授)/ Associate Researcher(副研究员)/ Senior Engineer (高级工程师)
    • Medium rank: Assistant Professor(助理教授)/ Lecturer(讲师)/ Assistant Researcher(助理研究员)/ Engineer(工程师)
    • Junior rank: Assistant Lecturer/Associate Lecturer(助教)/ Assistant Engineer (助理工程师)/ Intern researcher(实习研究员)
    • Emeritus or Distinguished professor (Profesor Emérito)
    • Senior Lecturer professor (Profesor Catedrático)
    • Associate professor (Profesor Asociado)
    • Adjunct professor (Profesor Adjunto)
    • Instructor professor (Profesor Instructor)
    • Visiting professor (Profesor Visitante)
    • Redoviti profesor u trajnom zvanju equivalent to distinguished professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
    • Redoviti profesor equivalent to full professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
    • Izvanredni profesor equivalent to associate professor (izv. prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
    • Docent equivalent to assistant professor (doc. dr. sc. Name Surname)
    • Viši asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, PhD (dr. sc. Name Surname)
    • Asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, usually a PhD student
    • Viši predavač equivalent to senior lecturer
    • Predavač equivalent to lecturer

    Honorary academic rank

    • Rektor equivalent to rector, head of university (in USA equivalent to president of university)
    • Prorektor equivalent to prorector, assistant to head of university (in USA equivalent to vice-president of university)
    • Dekan equivalent to dean, head of faculty or school in university
    • Prodekan equivalent to vice-dean, assistant to dean
    • Pročelnik odsjeka equivalent to department chairman
    • Predstojnik zavoda equivalent to head of department
    • Predstojnik katedre equivalent to head of chairman
    • Professor (Profesor Titular)(full/part-time, PhD required)
    • Associate Professor (Profesor Auxiliar)(full/part-time, PhD mostly required)
    • Assistant Professor (Profesor Asistente)(full/part-time)
    • Lecturer (Instructor)(full/part-time)

    Tenure-track faculty positions

    Non-tenure track positions

    Teachers are categorized in five main classes in Egypt at university level. The ascending rank of teacher is Demonstrator, Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Demonstrator is generally enrolled as the top student of the class. Master's degree is required for university level Assistant Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Lecturer, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.

    • OSTADH MOTAFAREGH (أستاذ متفرغ), equivalent to professor emeritus.
    • OSTADH (أستاذ) (the "DH" pronounced like the "TH" in the word "THE"), equivalent to professor (usually after minimum of five years serving as OSTATH MOSAED as well as publishing certain number of research papers)
    • OSTADH (the "DH" pronounced like the "TH" in the word "THE") MOSAED (أستاذ مساعد), equivalent to associate professor.
    • MODARRES (مدرس), Lecturer (must have a PhD degree)
    • MODARRES MOSA'ED (مدرس مساعد), Assistant Lecturer (must have a master's degree)
    • MOA'ED (معيد), or Teaching Assistant- also called demonstrator- (must have a bachelor's degree usually graduated top of the class).
    • Emeriitprofessor (Professor emeritus)
    • Professor
    • Kaasprofessor (Associate professor)
    • Lektor (Lecturer)
    • Õpetaja (Teacher)

    In Finland, there is less of a distinction between graduates and undergraduates: university students may be employed as research assistants (tutkimusapulainen) before they graduate with a master's degree. A doctoral student must already hold a master's degree, and is typically employed by the university, or enjoys a similar grant, and will be called tohtorikoulutettava (doctoral candidate), tutkija (researcher) or assistentti (teaching assistant). Besides post-doctoral researchers (tutkijatohtori) and senior teaching assistants (yliassistentti), there are several mid-level non-professorial positions, such as teaching researcher (opettava tutkija). Senior teachers and researchers may be employed as e.g. erikoistutkija ("special researcher") or yliopistotutkija (university researcher). Docent (dosentti) is a non-professiorial rank and title (for life) awarded to academics qualified as a principal investigator and for supervision of doctoral students however, they do not belong to the professor corps and may be employed elsewhere. Professors (professori) are understood as research group leaders and managers, and traditionally there is no direct equivalent of an assistant/associate/full professor career path, although Aalto University is introducing these. Qualifications for a professor's position are earned as a docent or in other mid-career positions. In management, professors serve as department heads (laitosjohtaja or osastonjohtaja) and deans (head of faculty, dekaani). The leader of a university is called a rector (rehtori), assisted by multiple vice-rectors (vararehtori). Vice-rectors may retain their professor positions or work full-time as a vice-rector. Some universities have an even more senior officer called Chancellor (kansleri), who is concerned more with outreach and public relations than with daily management.

    Faculty Research only Teaching only Part-time
    Permanent positions Professeur des universités or Directeur d'études Directeur de recherche Professeur des universités associé
    Maître de conférences Chargé de recherche Professeur agrégé or
    Professeur certifié
    Maître de conférences associé
    Temporary positions Attaché temporaire d'enseignement et de recherches (ATER) Post-doctorant Chargé d'enseignement
    Doctorant contractuel chargé d'enseignement Doctorant contractuel

    In French business schools, ranks are the same as in the United States: Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and finally (Full) Professor.

    A simplified overview of academic ranks in Germany:

    Faculty Teaching only Part-time
    Permanent positions Universitätsprofessor (Pay grade: W3 or W2), Professor (W3) Lehrprofessor Honorarprofessor (honorary title)
    Professor (W2)
    Professor (W1), Akademischer Oberrat, Akademischer Rat, Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter (tenured) Lehrkraft für besondere Aufgaben (LfbA) (tenured)
    Temporary positions Akademischer Rat auf Zeit, Akademischer Oberrat auf Zeit (AR/OAR a.Z.), Juniorprofessor (W1 non-tenured) Lehrkraft für besondere Aufgaben (LfbA) (non-tenured) Lehrbeauftragter
    Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter
    Wissenschaftliche Hilfskraft

    • Professor Emeritus (Greek: Ομότιμος Καθηγητής (male) / Ομότιμος Καθηγήτρια or Ομότιμη Καθηγήτρια (female)). Αn honorary title for people at the rank of Professor who have reached the legal age for retirement If they wish, they have the right, for a limited time after retirement, to continue their research projects.
    • Professor (Καθηγητής (male) / Καθηγήτρια (female)).
    • Associate Professor (Αναπληρωτής Καθηγητής (male) / Αναπληρώτρια Καθηγήτρια (female)).
    • Assistant Professor (Επίκουρος Καθηγητής (male) / Επίκουρος Καθηγήτρια (female)).
    • Lecturer (in universities and technical universities: Λέκτορας (both male and female) / in technological educational institutes: Καθηγητής Εφαρμογών (male) / Καθηγήτρια Εφαρμογών (female)). Ιn universities and technical universities this academic rank existed only from 1982 to 2011, but people holding the rank remain as teaching staff until retirement. [4]
    • Laboratory Teaching Staff member (Greek: μέλος Εργαστηριακού Διδακτικού Προσωπικού (Ε.ΔΙ.Π.) ). Holders of a Ph.D. that are members of this rank can independently teach courses, same as the Teaching Research Staff (Greek: Διδακτικό Ερευνητικό Προσωπικο (Δ.Ε.Π.) ) (i.e., professors ranks) members do. All members can be instructors in laboratories.
    • Adjunct Assistant Professor (Εντεταλμένος Επίκουρος Καθηγητής (male) / Εντεταλμένη Επίκουρος Καθηγήτρια—formerly, Adjunct Lecturer (Εντεταλμένος Λέκτορας (male) / Εντεταλμένη Λέκτορας (female)). A temporary employee with a short-term contract, usually for one semester, usually holder of a Ph.D. as described in the Greek Presidential Decree 407/1980. Adjunct Assistant Professors are sometimes called simply as "407" or "P.D. 407", after the number of the Decree.
    • Teaching assistant. This rank was abolished in 1982, but people holding it remain teaching assistants until retirement.

    Administrative ranks (Universities and Technical Universities)

    • Rector (Πρύτανης).
    • Vice-rector (Αντιπρύτανης).
    • Secretary General (Γενικός Γραμματέας (male) / Γενική Γραμματέας (female)).
    • Dean (Κοσμήτορας)
    • Deputy Dean (Αναπληρωτής Κοσμήτορας (male) / Αναπληρώτρια Κοσμήτορας (female)).
    • Chairman of the Department (Πρόεδρος Τμήματος).
    • Deputy Chairman of the Department (Αντιπρόεδρος Τμήματος).
    • Director of the Section (Διευθυντής Τομέα (male) / Διευθύντρια Τομέα (female)).

    The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors. The only exception is Secretary General, who is not a faculty member.

    Administrative ranks (former Technological Educational Institutes)

    The Technological Educational Institutes (TEI) (1983 - 2019) were reformed between 2013 and 2019 and their departments incorporated into existing universities.

    • President (Πρόεδρος).
    • Vice-president (Αντιπρόεδρος).
    • Secretary General (Γενικός Γραμματέας (male) / Γενική Γραμματέας (female)).
    • Director of the School (Διευθυντής Σχολής (male) / Διεθύντρια Σχολής (female)).
    • Supervisor of the Department (Προϊστάμενος Τμήματος (male) / Προϊσταμένη Τμήματος (female)).
    • Director of the Section (Διευθυντής Τομέα (male) / Διευθύντρια Τομέα (female)).

    The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors.

    • Professor Emeritus (on retirement)
    • Professor
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer II
    • Lecturer I
    • Assistant Lecturer
    • Tutor
    • Laboratory Demonstrator

    In the past, Hong Kong followed the British system (4 levels). In recent years it is moving towards the North American counterpart, with the titles renamed to their corresponding equivalence (professor (professor), associate professor (professor/reader), and assistant professor (senior-)lecturer)). Hong Kong's universities usually differ between professorial grades (end- or mid-career research and teaching positions) and lecturers (entry or mid-career positions - in the UK called either teaching fellows or lecturers, and "Mittelbau" in German-speaking countries). [5] Depending on institutions, the title of "professor" is assumed by chair professors and professors, or assistant professors and above.

    • Chair professor
    • Emeritus professor
    • Professor
    • Associate professor
    • Assistant professor
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer
    • Assistant Lecturer
    • Research assistant professor
    • Post-doctoral fellow
    • Adjunct (associate/assistant) professor
    • Honorary (associate/assistant) professor
    • Professional consultant or teaching consultant/fellow
    • Research associate
    • Research assistant and teaching assistant (or tutor, instructor, demonstrator) or graduate
    • Undergraduate
    • Chancellor (titular, normally the Chief Executive (formerly the Governor) of Hong Kong) or president in the Hong Kong Shue Yan University
    • Pro-chancellor (titular, only for the University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    • Vice-chancellor or president (or vice president principal in the Hong Kong Shue Yan University): being the chief executive of the institution (as the first among pro-vice-chancellors in the University of Hong Kong)
    • Pro-vice-chancellors or vice-presidents or deputy presidents
    • Associate pro-vice-chancellors (as in the Chinese University of Hong Kong) or Associate vice-president (as in the Hong Kong Baptist University, the Lingnan University, the Hong Kong Shue Yan University, and the Hong Kong Institute of Education)
    • Registrar (for some universities)
    • Deans of faculties / schools
    • Heads (or directors) of departments / schools
    • Professzor (full professor)
    • Docens (associate professor)
    • Adjunktus (assistant professor)
    • Tanársegéd (assistant lecturer)

    In Icelandic universities, especially The University of Iceland, prófessor is the most senior ranking teaching position. Below prófessor is dósent, then lektor. This three step hierarchy is akin to the US-scale, of full-, associate- and assistant-professors. Until the early 1990s no upward mobility was available in the Icelandic system. Most university teachers were hired as "prófessor." A "dósent" or a "lektor" wishing to ascend to a higher rank had to apply for a new position when it became available. Currently (since the 1990s) much more university teachers are hired as junior rank "lektor" and are promoted to "dósent" and "prófessor" if their work proves worthy of it.

    • Prófessor
    • Dósent (associate-professors)
    • Lektor (assistant-professors)

    Regular Academic ranks (Hierarchy from top): Academic institutions in India have the mandate of teaching, training and research. This also includes research universities.

    1. Professor
    2. Associate Professor
    3. Assistant Professor
    4. In addition to these, there are government sponsored fellowships such as Ramanujan & Ramalingaswami. The fellowship is awarded to able candidates for a 5-year contract period during which they are hosted by an academic or research organisation. Their primary function is to carry out high quality original research. They may become a regular faculty as an assistant professor or associate professor during this period subject to their performance.
    5. Assistant Professor (on contract) / Ad hoc faculty – They are primarily involved in teaching for a limited contract period typically 6 months – 1 year.

    Research ranks (Hierarchy from top): Research institutions such as national labs have a different kind of hierarchy and are primarily concerned with basic and applied research. They guide Ph.D. students in their research thesis but do not grant degrees. In most cases the Ph.D. candidates are registered with another university which grants the degree. Awarding of degree is subjected to meeting the same criteria as Ph.D. guided by university professors.

    1. Scientist H
    2. Scientist G
    3. Scientist F
    4. Scientist E (in some cases EII)
    5. Scientist D (in some cases EI)
    6. Scientist C
    7. Scientist B
    1. Research associate (postdoctoral fellows/inspire faculty)
    2. Senior research fellow (Ph.D. students after completing two years of course work and research)
    3. Junior research fellow (Newly joined Ph.D. candidates)

    Administrative ranks in universities

    1. Chancellor
    2. Vice chancellor
    3. Pro vice chancellor
    4. Deans / directors
    5. Chairmen / HODs / wardens

    Administrative ranks in research institutions

    According to the Joint Regulations of the Ministry of Education And Culture And Head of National Civil Service Agency No 4/VIII/PB/2014 No 24 Year 2014 and the Regulation of Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform No. 46 Year 2013 and No. 17 Year 2013 Article 6 and the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education decree No. 164/ M/ KPT/ 2019, the academic ranks (Jabatan Fungsional) for lecturer (university-based) and researcher (non-university) are

    Academic ranks for lecturers

    1. Asisten Ahli (Assistant Professor - Lower)
    2. Lektor (Assistant Professor - Upper)
    3. Lektor Kepala (Associate Professor)
    4. Guru Besar, Profesor (Professor)

    Academic ranks for researchers

    1. Peneliti Pertama (Junior Researcher)
    2. Peneliti Ahli Muda (Associate Researcher)
    3. Peneliti Ahli Madya (Senior Researcher)
    4. Peneliti Ahli Utama (Research Professor)

    Administrative ranks (university)

    • Rektor (Rector)
    • Wakil Rektor (Vice Rector)
    • Dekan (Dean)
    • Wakil Dekan (Vice Dean)
    • Kepala Program Studi (Head of Department)

    Holders of bachelor's degree when granted to teach in a college:

    Holders of master's degrees when granted to teach in a college:

    • Assistant professor (in Persian: استادیار , transliteration: ostādyār)
    • Associate professor (in Persian: دانشیار , transliteration: dānešyār)
    • (Full) Professor (in Persian: استادتمام ,استاد , transliteration: ostād (tamām))
    • Distinguished Professor (in Persian: استادِ ممتاز , transliteration: ostād-e momtāz'')

    Terms of address in general: ostād

    Holders of master's degrees can be (in ascending order):

    • Assistant lecturer (in Arabic: مدرس مساعد ‎)
    • Lecturer ( مدرس )
    • Assistant professor ( أستاذ مساعد )
    • Professor ( أستاذ )

    Holders of PhD degrees can be (in ascending order):

    Note: Holders of PhD degrees are automatically promoted to lecturer if they were assistant lecturers before they received their PhD.

    • استاذ ‎ equivalent to professor.
    • استاذ مساعد ‎ equivalent to associate professor.
    • مدرس ‎ equivalent to assistant professor in American Universities (with PhD) or with researches.
    • مدرس مساعد ‎ Assistant lecturer (without PhD).
    • Professor Emeritus
    • Professor Min Haminyan (Full Professor)
    • Professor Chaver (Associate Professor)
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer

    Tenured positions (confermato):

    • Professore Ordinario, or Professore di I fascia. A tenured, full professor position.
    • Professore Associato, or Professore di II fascia. A tenured, associate professor position.
    • Professore Aggregato. A 'ricercatore confermato' who is in charge of teaching university classes.
    • Ricercatore confermato. A tenured position as researcher or assistant professor.

    Non-tenured positions (non confermato):

    • Professore Straordinario, also Professore di I fascia. A three-year full professor appointment leading to tenure.
    • Professore Associato non confermato, also Professore di II fascia. A three-year associate professor appointment leading to tenure at associate level.
    • Ricercatore non confermato. A three-year position at assistant professor/researcher/lecturer level.
    • Ricercatore a tempo determinato di tipo B. A three-year position at assistant professor/researcher/lecturer level, leading to the Professore Associato position.
    • Ricercatore a tempo determinato di tipo A. A three-year position (one possible two-year renewal) at assistant professor/researcher/lecturer level.
    • Assegnista di Ricerca. A research fellow with a fixed-term appointment.

    An honorary title as Professore Emerito also exists and is typically appointed to illustrious academics after retirement.

    • Professor Emeritus
    • Professor
    • Senior Lecturer (Tenured)
    • Lecturer (Tenured/Tenure track)
    • Assistant Lecturer
    • Instructor
    • Tutor
    • Graduate/Research Assistant

    Tenured or non-tenured faculty [note 1]

    The ranking is as follows: [6] [ circular reference ]

    • Professor emeritus, Meiyo Kyōju ( 名誉教授 )
    • Professor, Kyōju ( 教授 )
    • Associate professor, Junkyōju ( 准教授 ) (previously, Jokyōju ( 助教授 ) )
    • Lecturer / Junior associate professor / Instructor / Assistant professor, Kōshi ( 講師 )
    • Assistant professor / Research Associate, Jokyō ( 助教 ) (previously, Joshu ( 助手 ) )

    The Japanese system includes non-tenure, term-limited, tokunin ( 特任 ) positions at all ranks, including professor. These are referred to as ninki tsuki ( 任期付き ) positions and officially include tokunin in the title. Limited tenure track positions (similar to the United States) have recently been introduced ( "tenure". 国立研究開発法人 科学技術振興機構 . Retrieved 15 June 2015 . ). In this system Jokyō ( 助教 ) corresponds to assistant professor. A major difference between the United States system and Japan is that granting of tenure and promotion to associate professor are not linked one may be tenured yet remain an assistant professor. Advancing upward typically requires a higher-level post to be vacated, even in the new tenure-track system [ citation needed ] .

    • Rektors (male), Rektore (female) (rector)
    • Dekāns (male), Dekāne (female) (dean), head of a faculty (human sciences, natural sciences etc.)
    • Nodaļas vadītājs (male) Nodaļas vadītāja (female) (department manager), head of a department (computer science, mathematics etc.)
    • Profesors (male) Profesore (female) Professor
    • Asociētais profesors (male) Asociētā profesore (female) associate professor
    • Docents (male), Docente (female) (assistant professor), usually almost the same teaching/research/administration division as professor, Doctoral Degree required
    • Lektors (male), Lektore (female) Lecturer. Requires MA degree
    • Asistents (male), Asistente (female) research or teaching assistant

    Academic positions at the Lebanese American University:

    • Instructor
    • Senior Instructor
    • Lecturer
    • Assistant Professor
    • Associate Professor
    • Professor
    • Distinguished Professor
    • Professor (أستاذ)
    • Associate professor (أستاذ مشارك)
    • Assistant professor (أستاذ مساعد)
    • Lecturer (محاضر)
    • Assistant Lecturer (محاضر مساعد)
    • Professor, Profesorius (male) / Profesorė (female)
    • Associate professor, Docentas (male) / Docentė (female)
    • Lecturer, Lektorius (male) / Lektorė (female)
    • Assistant lecturer, Asistentas (male) / Asistentė (female)

    At the University of Macau there are nine levels of faculty rank, namely

    • Chairman professor,
    • Distinguished professor,
    • Professor,
    • Associate professor,
    • Assistant professor
    • Senior lecturer
    • Lecturer
    • Senior instructor
    • Instructor

    At the Macau Polytechnic Institute there are three levels

    • professor (professor coordenador)
    • associate professor (professor adjuncto)
    • lecturer (assistente)
    • Demonstrator, Демонстратор-(Graduate employee in a university)
    • Younger assistant, Помлад Асистент-(B.Sc.)
    • Assistant, Асистент-(M.Sc.)
    • Docent, Доцент-(Assistant professor)
    • Vonreden Professor, Вонреден Професор-(associate professor)
    • Professor, Професор-(full-time professor)
    • Professor emeritus, Пензиониран Професор-(retired professor)
    • Academic, Академик-(academician)
    • Pomlad referent, Помлад референт- (Younger Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
    • Referent, Референт- (Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
    • Postar Referent, Постар Референт- (Senior Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
    • Pomlad Sorabotnik, Помлад Соработник- (Younger Associate) -Associate Degree
    • Sorabotnik, Соработник- (Аssociate) -Associate Degree
    • Postar Sorabotnik, Постар Соработник- (Senior Associate) -Associate Degree
    • Rakovoditel na studentski prasanja, Раководител на студентски прашања- (Head of Students Affairs) -Bachelor's degree
    • Rakovoditel na katedra/institut, Раководител на катедра/институт- (Head of Department/Institute) -Ph.D.
    • Prodekan, Продекан- (Vice Dean) -Ph.D.
    • Dekan, Декан- (Dean) -Ph.D.
    • Prorektor, Проректор- (Vice Rector) -Ph.D.
    • Rektor, Ректор- (Rector) -Ph.D.
    • Professor
    • Associate Professor
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer
    • Assistant Lecturer

    The ranking system in most Mexican public universities is as follows

    • Profesor Asociado A (early assistant professor)
    • Profesor Asociado B (assistant professor)
    • Profesor Asociado C (early associate professor)
    • Profesor Titular A (associate professor)
    • Profesor Titular B (full professor)
    • Profesor Titular C (senior full professor)
    • Profesor Emerito (equivalent to distinguished professor, not to be confused with emeritus professor)

    Usually Mexican academics are also fellows of the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI) that has four levels (candidate, I, II and III) that more or less correlate (but are not equivalent) to the Asociado and Titular A, B, and C professorships. The rank as professor is determined by the individual's institution while the SNI level is determined by an independent committee that evaluates the researchers nationwide.

    Many universities and research institutions make a distinction between "Profesores" -Professors- and "Investigadores" -Researchers- (Asociado A, B, C, Titular A, B, C), the main difference is that "Profesores" have a higher load of teaching, while "Investigadores" have a higher load of research, but normally all of them take part in both activities and are considered equivalent.

    Research rankings are awarded by the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores which depends on the national research council (Conacyt):

    • SNI emeritus researcher (not necessarily higher rank but lifetime, requires 15 continuous years as SNI III)
    • SNI III researcher (about 7% of the researchers in SNI)
    • SNI II researcher (about 16% of the researchers in SNI)
    • SNI I researcher (about 59% of researchers in SNI)
    • SNI candidate researcher (C) (about 18% of researchers in SNI)

    All titles, both professors and researchers, can be given in a:

    Administrative academic positions:

    1. Professeur d'Enseignement Supérieur

    2. Professeur Habilité à Diriger les Recherches (supervise les recherches)

    3. Professeur Assistant (co-encadre les recherches)

    Before Academic Position

    3. Associate professor/Reader

    8. Technical support staff

    Administrative Positions

    • Chancellor
    • Pro-chancellor
    • Vice-chancellor
    • Rector
    • Registrar
    • Deans of School
    • Heads of department
    • Program Coordinator
    • Emeritus Professor (retired)
    • Professor
    • Associate Professor / Reader
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer I
    • Lecturer II
    • Assistant Lecturer
    • Graduate Assistant

    Administrative Positions

    • Chancellor
    • Pro-chancellor
    • Vice-chancellor
    • Deputy vice-chancellor
    • Pro-vice-chancellor
    • Deans of faculties (some are referred to as provost)
    • Sub-deans of faculties
    • Heads of departments/schools
    • Department/school directors of studies

    The hiring of academic positions in public universities throughout Pakistan is managed by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, the requirement for all positions vary with respect to the field of studies e.g. Engineering, IT, Medical, Law, and Arts and Design.

    There are four faculty ranks lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.

    In engineering public universities, a lecturer requires an M.Sc. or B.Sc. degree and high academic standing in the field (e.g. gold medalist, among top 15 students of graduating class). An assistant professor position requires a Ph.D. in relevant field with no experience. An associate professorship can be conducted in the fourth year of employment, although, it is becoming more common for promotion and tenure to be awarded in the sixth year of employment. The review requires a certain number 5/8/10 research publications (with at least 1/2/4 [ jargon ] publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals.

    A professor requires ten years post-PhD teaching/research experience in an HEC recognized university or a post-graduate institution or professional experience in the relevant field in a national or international organization. It requires a minimum of 8/12/15 research publications (with at least 2/3/5 publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals

    • Professor Emeritus
    • Meritorious Professor/ Distinguished National Professor
    • Professor
    • Associate professor
    • Assistant professor
    • Lecturer
    • Lab Engineer
    • Research Associate

    After some recent reforms in the University Law (Minedu, 2014), [8] the Peruvian universities (publics and privates) consider these ranks:

    Extraordinary Professors: Principally, this is a category of recognition for his contribution as professor or researcher when he retires or as a professional when he has built a great contribution to society throughout his career. To have 10% as maximum of these professors in any university (public or private) is mandatory.

    • Emeritus professor (Profesor Emérito) - For this recognition, the candidate should be faculty member (former ordinary professor in retiring process).
    • Honorary professor (Profesor Honorario) - For this recognition, the candidate is not related to a faculty member. For instance, in this category is the Doctor Honoris Causa.

    Research Professors: Principally, full-time research position with few teaching responsibilities. Research professorships are almost always funded by grants or fellowships apart from the regular university budget. He is designated because of its academic excellence. He has a special bonus of fifty percent (50%) of its total payments. The competent authority of each university evaluates every two years, the production of the ordinary professors, for their permanence as a researcher.

    Ordinary Professors: Often full-time (with exclusivity) professors with research competences. Principal faculty. To have 25% as minimum of these professors in any university (public or private) is mandatory.

    • Full professor (Profesor Principal) - PhD and MSc required, and former Associate professor or 15 years of experience (minimum) as researcher in the field to apply.
    • Associate professor (Profesor Asociado) - PhD (postgraduate level) and MSc required, and former Assistant professor or 10 years of experience (minimum) as researcher in the field to apply.
    • Assistant professor (Profesor Auxiliar) - PhD (postgraduate level) and MSc required, and 5 years of experience (minimum) as researcher in the field to apply.

    Lecturer (Hired Professors): Often part-time (with non-exclusivity) professors. Complementary faculty. Generally, the primary employer is not the university with which they have the status. Principally, this kind of professor come from practitioner market and not develop research activities. MSc required.

    In addition, the universities developed prior ranks, as junior temporary rank, to get experience and training (with strong motivation to be ordinary professor):

    • Instructor (Instructor, Jefe de Práctica) - MSc required in Postgraduate level and BSc required in Undergraduate level.
    • Teaching/Research Assistant (Asistente Académico/Investigador) - MSc required in Postgraduate level and BSc required in Undergraduate level.

    The lectures are usually hired by private universities as they can offer this type of part-time contract. The instructors are usually hired by public universities as their type of contract has to be full-time. Even if the duties of these two ranks are similar and the terminology for both is the same in Spanish: "Jefe de prácticas", we should consider the differences in their type of contract.

    • Professor Emeritus
    • Professor
    • Associate Professor (doctorate is typically required)
    • Assistant Professor (master's degree required typically this is also the entry-level rank for PhD holders)
    • Instructor (master's degree required)
    • Assistant Instructor
    • Lecturer (other Universities/Colleges)
    • Guest Lecturer (other Universities/Colleges)

    Administrative ranks (UP SystemNational)

    • Chancellor/University President
    • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Planning and Development
    • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Research and Extension
    • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Academic Affairs
    • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Finance and Management
    • University Registrar
    • Dean
    • Assistant Dean/Associate Dean
    • Department Chairman/Program Chairman
    • Faculty Members and Staff
    • Professor-researcher
    • Researcher
    • Professor Emeritus
    • Ad honorem professor

    Due to Philippine labor laws regarding permanency, a faculty member who has not received tenure within three years of initial hire cannot continue as a full-time hire at the same university.

    Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

    • (pl 'asystent') – research-and-teaching assistant / research-and-teaching fellow (hold master's degree)
    • (pl 'adiunkt') – assistant professor (requires PhD)
    • (pl 'docent') – senior lecturer (requires PhD or habilitation), (a new position, since 2007 optional and only in some universities, does not involve any research duties and is meant mainly for teaching). Until 1987 a position between assistant professor and associate professor.
    • (pl 'profesor uczelni') – associate professor (requires at least PhD and significant teaching or professional or scientific or artistic achievements), according to German nomenclature sometimes called "professor extraordinarius"
    • (pl 'profesor') – full professor (requires the professor title conferred by the President of the Republic of Poland, which is an academic title, not an academic position), sometimes called "professor ordinarius"

    and also for a special purpose:

    • (pl 'profesor wizytujący')- visiting professor
    • (pl 'profesor emerytowany')- professor emeritus

    Teaching staff: (lower rank)

    • (pl 'instruktor') – instructor (sport)
    • (pl 'lektor') – instructor, foreign language teacher
    • (pl 'wykładowca') – lecturer
    • (pl 'starszy wykładowca') – senior lecturer (please note the same term is used for both "docent" and "starszy wykładowca"

    Elected or nominated posts

    • Rector (Rektor) – the principal head of the university (one per university) usually assisted by several deputy rectors (pl prorektor)
    • Dean (Dziekan) the principal head of the faculty (one per faculty), usually assisted by several deputy deans (pl prodziekan)
    • Head (Kierownik) – the head of the institute/department/chairman (one per organizational unit)
    • Professor Catedrático (full professor) – PhD and Agregação required
    • Professor Associado com Agregação (associate professor with Agregação) – PhD required
    • Professor Associado (associate professor) – PhD required
    • Professor Auxiliar com Agregação (assistant professor) – PhD required
    • Professor Auxiliar (assistant professor) – PhD required.
    • Assistente (teaching assistant) - without a PhD
    • Assistente estagiário (junior teaching assistant) - without a PhD or a master's degree
    • Rector (Rector): one per university
    • Prorector (Vice-rector): one or more per university
    • Decan (Dean): one per college
    • Prodecan (Vice-dean): one or more per college
    • Director de departament (Head of department): one per department
    • Șef de disciplină (Head of a subject): one for each subject

    Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

    • Profesor universitar (Professor): holding a doctorate degree international-impact research activity
    • Conferențiar universitar (Associate professor): holding a doctorate degree and national-impact research activity
    • Lector universitar or Șef de lucrări (Lecturer/Head of works): holding a doctorate degree and local-impact research activity
    • Asistent universitar (Assistant professor): holding a doctorate degree (or in case of a limited time contract they can be in the process of getting a doctorate degree)
    • Profesor vizitator (Visiting professor)
    • Profesor emerit or Profesor consultant (Emeritus professor)

    In Russia, otherwise than in the most other countries, synonimization of the terms “academic/scientific rank” and “position in academia” is not admissible, except in informal conversations. Officially, the “scientific rank” in Russia is a title which is conferred by the Higher attestation commission to the scientist after several years of a successful work in the professor (or deemed equivalent) or docent (or deemed equivalent) position. Similar traditions existed in the USSR.

    • Full Professor
    • Associate Professor
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer (PhD)
    • Assistant Lecturer (Msc)
    • Tutorial assistant (Cum Laude undergraduate assisting in teaching and research)
    • Professor أستاذ
    • Associate Professor أستاذ مشارك
    • Assistant Professor أستاذ مساعد
    • Lecturer محاضر
    • Demonstrator معيد

    Singapore universities adopt a hybrid of US and British academic ranks. Faculty members on the tenure-track are appointed for sustained excellence in both teaching and research. Assistant Professors are appointed on term contracts, while Associate Professors and Professors may be appointed either with tenure or on term contract. Faculty members on the Educator Track engage in high quality educational activities. They are oriented towards teaching excellence, student learning, and pedagogical research and innovation. Appointments in this Track include Teaching Assistants, Instructors, Lecturers, Senior Lecturers and Associate Professors (Educator Track). They are on term contracts which are usually of 1 – 3 years in the first instance. Research track faculty members focus on conducting fundamental research of high international quality. Appointments on this Track include Research Assistants, Research Fellows, Senior Research Fellows, Associate Professor (Research) and Professor (Research). They are on term contracts of 1 – 3 years in the first instance. Practice Track faculty members are scholar-practitioners with professional skills and expertise in industry to complement the teaching and research enterprise of the university. They also contribute significantly to the outreach activities of the School. Appointments are to Associate Professor (Practice) and Professor (Practice). They are on term contracts of 1 – 3 years in the first instance. [9]

    • Tenure Track: Assistant Professor Associate Professor Professor
    • Educator Track: Teaching Assistant Instructor Lecturer Senior Lecturer Associate Professor (Educator Track)
    • Research Track: Research Assistant Research Fellow Senior Research Fellow Associate Professor (Research) Professor (Research)
    • Practice Track: Associate Professor (Practice) Professor (Practice)
    • Profesor (professor), both degree (written prof. before name) and position. Professors are appointed by the president after a successful accomplishment of the process of awarding a professorship. One of the requirements is an already accomplished docent degree.
    • Docent (associate professor), both degree (written doc. before name) and position. The degree is awarded by the rector after a certain number of years of teaching and after a successful accomplishment of habilitácia (a process concluded by a defense of a reviewed research manuscript and a public lecture).
    • Odborný asistent (lecturer / researcher), this title covers positions from lecturers to researchers. Requirements for lecturers / researchers vary, usually a Ph.D. / Th.D. is required
    • Asistent (assistant lecturer), at least Master degree is required
    • Hosťujúci profesor (hosting professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of professor
    • Hosťujúci docent (hosting associate professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of associate professor
    • Mimoriadny profesor (adjunct professor sometimes also translated as associate professor, but it is not same position as docent), associate professor temporarily appointed to the position of professor at a faculty while being an expectant to professor degree (written mimoriadny profesor after name)
    • Rektor (rector), head of the university
    • Prorektor (vice-rector), typically three to five people are vice-rectors the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-rector is responsible for (e. g. study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, development, information technology)
    • Kvestor (registrar, bursar), senior professional financial administrator of the university
    • Dekan (dean), head of a faculty
    • Prodekan (vice-dean) the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-den is responsible for (e. g. admissions, study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, information technology)
    • Riaditeľ (director), head of a sub-unit at the university or a faculty (institute, research center), e. g. Institute of Life-Long Learning of the Slovak University of Technology, Institute of Physical Education and Sport at the Pavol Jozef Šafárik University
    • Vedúci katedry (departmental chairman), head of a katedra (department) – sub-unit at a faculty
    • Zástupca vedúceho katedry (deputy departmental chairman), deputizes department chairman if necessary
    • Emeritný profesor (professor emeritus), may be awarded by the rector on the proposal of the scientific council of the university for significant contributions in the field of science, art or education to professor older than 65 years who is no longer employment at the university, but is still active in research and teaching
    • Doctor honoris causa (honorary doctor for the sake of the honor), honorary doctorate of the university or a faculty awarded for special merit (written Dr.h.c. before name)
    • Asistent – assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
    • Asistent-raziskovalec – research assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
    • Lektor (usually a native speaker of a taught language)
    • Docent – assistant professor (Must hold Doctorate / PhD. Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well.)
    • Izredni profesor – associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)
    • Redni profesor – full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a docent/associate professor?)
    • Rektor – rector / chancellor / head of university
    • Prorektor – prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
    • Dekan – dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
    • Prodekan – vice-dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
    • Predstojnik oddelka – head of department several per faculty, academy or school at the university
    • Predstojnik katedre – head of cathedra/chair several per faculty or per department
    • Zaslužni profesor – distinguished professor, a title bestowed to professors for their extraordinary achievements
    • Full professor
    • Associate professor
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Lecturer
    • Junior Lecturer

    Protected job titles (a.k.a. tenure positions):

    • Lecturer (강사)
    • Research professor (연구 교수)
    • Clinical professor (임상 교수)
    • Adjunct professor (겸임 교수)
    • Teaching assistant professor ( 강의전문 조교수)
    • Collegiate professor
    • Visiting professor (객원 교수/초빙 교수)
    • Chaired professor (석좌 교수)
    • Emeritus professor (명예 교수)
    • Full Professor / Catedrático de Universidad
    • Associate Professor / Profesor Titular
    • Assistant Professor / Profesor Ayudante
    • Instructor (Often Part Time) / Profesor Asociado

    The appointment of professors follows the British system and is governed by the University Grants Commission regulations. A points-based system considers contributions to the research field, national development and institutional development. Several types of professorships exist:

    • Professor emeritus (on retirement at the age of 65)
    • Senior professor
    • Professor
    • Associate professor

    Professor positions are clearly separated from other junior faculty positions such as, in seniority order: senior lecturer (grade I) (usually PhD and 6+ years service), senior lecturer (grade II) (usually a PhD and 2+ years service), lecturer (usually with PhD), lecturer (probationary), assistant lecturer.

    • Professor emeritus (on retirement)
    • Senior professor
    • Professor
    • Associate professor
    • Senior lecturer
    • Lecturer
    • Temporary Assistant lecturer
    • Instructor/ demonstrator
    • Student instructor (undergrad)
    • Chancellor (titular)
    • Vice-chancellor/president
    • Registrar
    • Deans of faculties
    • Heads of departments/schools
    • Directors of Postgraduate Institutes
    • Professor أستاذ
    • Associate Professor أستاذ مشارك
    • Assistant Professor أستاذ مساعد
    • Lecturer محاضر
    • Teaching Assistant مساعد تدريس
    • Docent/Associate Professor (Docent)
    • Adjunct Professor (Adjungerad professor)
    • Lecturer (Adjunkt)
    • Director musices (Director Musices)
    • Assisting the Professor (Forskarassistent)
    • Assistant Professor (Lektor)
    • Postdoc (Postdok)
    • Head of Department (Prefekt)
    • Deputy Head of Department (Proprefekt)
    • Vice Dean of Department (Prodekanus)
    • Dean (Dekan)
    • Professor (Professor)
    • Professor Emeritus (Professor Emeritus)
    • Deputy President (Prorektor)
    • President (Rektor)
    • Ordentlicher Professor/Ordentliche Professorin, Ordinarius/Ordinaria: full professor
    • Ausserordentlicher Professor/Ausserordentliche Professorin, Extraordinarius/Extraordinaria: associate professor
    • Assistenzprofessor/Assistenzprofessorin: assistant professor (requires PhD)
    • Assoziierter Professor/Assoziierte Professorin: adjunct professor
    • Titularprofessor/Titularprofessorin: affiliated professor
    • Honorarprofessor/Honorarprofessorin: honorary professor
    • Privatdozent/Privatdozentin (PD): senior lecturer (has the habilitation but not professorship)
    • Gastdozent/Gastdozentin: visiting lecturer
    • Lehrbeauftragter/Lehrbeauftragte: lecturer
    • Oberassistent/Oberassistentin: senior researcher/lecturer (typically after 3-4 years as a postdoc)
    • Postdoc: Postdoc (i.e., after PhD)
    • Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter/Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin: Scientific Staff (Note: typically synonymous with "Assistent/Assistentin")
    • Assistent/Assistentin: research assistant (typically a PhD student)
    • Hilfassistent/Hilfassistentin: Undergraduate research assistant / Undergraduate teaching assistant
    • Professeur ordinaire (full professor, chairman)
    • Professeur extraordinaire
    • Professeur invité
    • Professeur associé (associate professor literally, yet functions as full professor or reader, non-chairman, tenured)
    • Professeur assistant (assistant professor literally, yet functions as associate professor, tenure-track)
    • Chargé de cours (senior lecturer, yet functions as associate professor, tenure-track)
    • Privat docent (has the habilitation but not professorship, required for tenure-track)
    • Maître-Assistant (assistant professor or lecturer, non-tenured)
    • Assistant (lecturer, usually a graduate student)
    • Moniteur (undergraduate student)

    The academic rankings in the Syrian Arab Republic are very similar to the Egyptian ones see Academic ranks in Egypt for details.


    Early life and political career Edit

    He was born at Pontedera, Tuscany, and was an early member of the Christian Movement founded by the Catholic priest don Romolo Murri in 1902. He obtained his first degree in literature and philosophy at the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Between 1911 and 1915 he then worked as a high-school teacher of classics in several Italian towns (Parma, Massa di Carrara, Bergamo and Monza).

    He volunteered for military service in the First World War and when it was over he became in 1919 one of the founding members of the Catholic Italian Popular Party. He was elected to represent Pisa in both the parliamentary elections of 1919 and 1921. A trade-union leader in the Italian Confederation of Christian Workers, in 1922–1923 he served in the first government of Benito Mussolini as Under-secretary for Industry and Commerce. In April 1923, however, a national meeting of the Popular Party held in Turin decided to withdraw all PPI representatives from the government. He then went back to his role in the leadership of the Catholic trade unions, and tried to face the daily violence brought against them by the fascist squads.

    In 1924, after Luigi Sturzo had resigned as Secretary of the PPI, Gronchi became leader of the party, together with two other "triumvirs", (Spataro and Rodinò). Re-elected to Parliament in the same year, he joined the anti-fascist opposition of the so-called Aventine Secession (from the hill in Rome where the opposition withdrew from Parliament). In 1926 he was expelled from Parliament by the new regime.

    In the years between 1925 and 1943 he thus interrupted his political career. In order to avoid having to become a member of the Fascist Party, he also resigned his position as a schoolteacher, and earned his living as a successful businessman, first as a salesman and then as an industrialist.

    After the Second World War Edit

    In 1943–1944 he was a co-founder of the new Christian-Democratic party (DC), and became a leader of its left-wing faction, together with men like Giorgio La Pira, Giuseppe Dossetti and Enrico Mattei (the future boss of ENI, the Italian government-owned petrochemical giant). He was also a member of the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale, the multi-party committee of the Italian Resistance, as a representative of his party.

    Although often in conflict with his party's majority and its Secretary Alcide De Gasperi, he served as Industry minister in 1944–1946 and as a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1946. In 1947, as the Cold War began, he vehemently opposed his party's decision to expel the Italian Communist and Socialist parties from the national government. From 1948 to 1955 he was elected President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies (the lower branch of Parliament).

    In 1955 Luigi Einaudi's term as first President of the Italian Republic came to an end, and Parliament had to choose his successor. The new Secretary of the DC, Amintore Fanfani, was promoting for the job the liberal Cesare Merzagora, who was then President of the Senate. However the extreme right-wing of the party – led by Giuseppe Pella, Guido Gonella, Salvatore Scoca and Giulio Andreotti – joined hands with the trade-unionist left – led by Giovanni Pastore, Giorgio Bo and Achille Marazza – in an "uprising" against the party leadership, in order to get Giovanni Gronchi ("Parliament's man") elected instead. The move had the support of the Communist and Socialist parties, and also of the monarchic and neo-fascist right. After a bitter battle and the final crumbling of the centrist front, on 29 April 1955 Gronchi was elected President of the Republic with 658 votes out of 883. He was the first Catholic politician to become Head of the Italian State. [2]

    His period in office lasted until 1962. It was marked by the ambition to bring about a gradual “opening to the left”, whereby the Socialists and the Communist Party would be brought back into the national government, and Italy would abandon NATO, becoming a non-aligned country. There was however stiff parliamentary opposition to this project, particularly by the small Italian Liberal Party, which was deemed a necessary ingredient of any viable majority.

    In an attempt to escape the deadlock, in 1959 Gronchi appointed as prime minister a trusted member of his own Catholic left-wing faction, Fernando Tambroni, sending him to Parliament with a “President’s government” but no pre-arranged majority. However Tambroni found himself surviving in Parliament only thanks to neo-fascist votes. This unforeseen “opening to the right” had serious consequences. In 1960 there were bad riots in several towns of Italy, particularly at Genoa, Licata and Reggio Emilia, where the police opened fire on demonstrators, killing five people. The Tambroni government thus ended in ignominy forced to resign, it was followed by an all-DC government, with a traditionally centrist parliamentary majority.

    The unhappy Tambroni experiment tarnished Gronchi's reputation for good, and until the end of his period of office he remained a lame-duck President. In 1962 he attempted to get a second mandate, with the powerful help of Enrico Mattei, but the attempt failed and Antonio Segni was elected instead. As he ceased to be Head of State, he became a life senator by right, according to the Italian Constitution. He died in Rome on 17 October 1978 at the age of 91. [3]

    Assessment Edit

    For an overall historical assessment of his presidency it must certainly kept in mind the Tambroni failure, with its suggestion of an authoritarian approach. Yet an “opening to the left” of sorts did in fact happen soon after his mandate was over. Indeed, the first center-left coalition was formed by Aldo Moro as soon as 1964, when the Socialists (but not the Communists) entered the government. In the 1970s, the Christian Democrats and Communists made efforts toward what was called the Historic Compromise. On this basis he might be credited with some important foresight and a lasting influence.

    Still, it is hard to maintain that his political project had really very much to do with the center-left governments that followed each other between 1964 and 1992. During most of this period the Communists were isolated even more tightly than before, due to the loss of their former Socialist allies and the bitter conflict that followed with them, particularly after Bettino Craxi became the Socialist leader. Outside influences were later revealed to be at work as well. A 2000 Parliament Commission report concluded that the strategy and operations by the clandestine, US-supported, "stay-behind" Gladio was designed to "stop the PCI, and to a certain degree also the PSI [Italian Socialist Party], from achieving executive power in the country". [4] [5] [6] In any case, Italy kept its socio-economic structure as a market economy and its foreign policy alignment.

    In 1941, Gronchi married Carla Bissatini (2 September 1912 – 14 August 1993) [7] and had one son and one daughter.

    In the Florestano Vancini's film The Assassination of Matteotti (1973), Gronchi is played by Giorgio Favretto.

    Watch the video: Io sono il pastore buono - commento a Gv 10, 11-18 (December 2021).